Harriet Beecher Stowe.

Life of Harriet Beecher Stowe Compiled From Her Letters and Journals by Her Son Charles Edward Stowe online

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[Illustration: Richmond, Del. J. & J. Wilson, So.

H.B. Stowe]




LIFE OF

HARRIET BEECHER STOWE

COMPILED FROM

Her Letters and Journals

BY HER SON

CHARLES EDWARD STOWE


[Illustration]

BOSTON AND NEW YORK
HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY
The Riverside Press, Cambridge
1890




Copyright, 1889,
BY CHARLES E. STOWE,

_All rights reserved._


_The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass., U. S.A._
Electrotyped and Printed by H. O. Houghton & Co.


[Illustration: Handwritten letter]

It seems but fitting, that I should preface this story of my life with
a few notes of instruction.

The desire to leave behind me some recollections of my life, has
been cherished by me, for many years past; but failing strength or
increasing infirmities have prevented its accomplishment.

At my suggestion and with what assistance I have been able to render,
my son, Ross Charles Edward Stowe, has compiled from my letters and
journals, this biography. It is this true story of my life, told for
the most part, in my own words and has therefore all the force of an
autobiography.

It is perhaps much more accurate as to detail & impression than is
possible with any autobiography, written later in life.

If these pages, shall help those who read them to a firmer trust in God
& a deeper sense of His fatherly goodness throughout the days of our
earthly pilgrimage I can say with Valiant for Truth in the Pilgrim's
Progress!

I am going to my Father's & tho with great difficulty, I am got
thither, get now, I do not repent me of all the troubles I have been
at, to arrive where I am.

My sword I give to him that shall succeed me in my pilgrimage & my
courage & skill to him that can get it.

Hartford Sept 30
1889

Harriet Beecher Stowe




INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT


I DESIRE to express my thanks here to Harper & Brothers, of New York,
for permission to use letters already published in the "Autobiography
and Correspondence of Lyman Beecher." I have availed myself freely
of this permission in chapters i. and iii. In chapter xx. I have
given letters already published in the "Life of George Eliot," by Mr.
Cross; but in every instance I have copied from the original MSS. and
not from the published work. In conclusion, I desire to express my
indebtedness to Mr. Kirk Munroe, who has been my co-laborer in the work
of compilation.

CHARLES E. STOWE.
HARTFORD, _September 30, 1889_.




CONTENTS


CHAPTER I.

CHILDHOOD 1811-1824.

DEATH OF HER MOTHER. - FIRST JOURNEY FROM HOME. - LIFE AT NUT
PLAINS. - SCHOOL DAYS AND HOURS WITH FAVORITE AUTHORS. - THE
NEW MOTHER. - LITCHFIELD ACADEMY AND ITS INFLUENCE. - FIRST
LITERARY EFFORTS. - A REMARKABLE COMPOSITION. - GOES TO HARTFORD 1


CHAPTER II.

SCHOOL DAYS IN HARTFORD, 1824-1832.

MISS CATHERINE BEECHER. - PROFESSOR FISHER. - THE WRECK OF THE
ALBION AND DEATH OF PROFESSOR FISHER. - "THE MINISTER'S
WOOING." - MISS CATHERINE BEECHER'S SPIRITUAL HISTORY. - MRS.
STOWE'S RECOLLECTIONS OF HER SCHOOL DAYS IN HARTFORD. - HER
CONVERSION. - UNITES WITH THE FIRST CHURCH IN HARTFORD. - HER
DOUBTS AND SUBSEQUENT RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENT. - HER FINAL PEACE 22


CHAPTER III.

CINCINNATI, 1832-1836.

DR. BEECHER CALLED TO CINCINNATI. - THE WESTWARD JOURNEY. - FIRST
LETTER FROM HOME. - DESCRIPTION OF WALNUT HILLS. - STARTING A NEW
SCHOOL. - INWARD GLIMPSES. - THE SEMI-COLON CLUB. - EARLY
IMPRESSIONS OF SLAVERY. - A JOURNEY TO THE EAST. - THOUGHTS
AROUSED BY FIRST VISIT TO NIAGARA. - MARRIAGE TO PROFESSOR STOWE 53


CHAPTER IV.

EARLY MARRIED LIFE, 1836-1840.

PROFESSOR STOWE'S INTEREST IN POPULAR EDUCATION. - HIS DEPARTURE
FOR EUROPE. - SLAVERY RIOTS IN CINCINNATI. - BIRTH OF TWIN
DAUGHTERS. - PROFESSOR STOWE'S RETURN AND VISIT TO
COLUMBUS. - DOMESTIC TRIALS. - AIDING A FUGITIVE
SLAVE. - AUTHORSHIP UNDER DIFFICULTIES. - A BEECHER ROUND ROBIN 78


CHAPTER V.

POVERTY AND SICKNESS, 1840-1850.

FAMINE IN CINCINNATI. - SUMMER AT THE EAST. - PLANS FOR LITERARY
WORK. - EXPERIENCE ON A RAILROAD. - DEATH OF HER BROTHER
GEORGE. - SICKNESS AND DESPAIR. - A JOURNEY IN SEARCH OF
HEALTH. - GOES TO BRATTLEBORO' WATER-CURE. - TROUBLES AT LANE
SEMINARY. - CHOLERA IN CINCINNATI. - DEATH OF YOUNGEST
CHILD. - DETERMINED TO LEAVE THE WEST 100


CHAPTER VI.

REMOVAL TO BRUNSWICK, 1850-1852.

MRS. STOWE'S REMARKS ON WRITING AND UNDERSTANDING
BIOGRAPHY. - THEIR APPROPRIATENESS TO HER OWN BIOGRAPHY. - REASONS
FOR PROFESSOR STOWE'S LEAVING CINCINNATI. - MRS. STOWE'S JOURNEY
TO BROOKLYN. - HER BROTHER'S SUCCESS AS A MINISTER. - LETTERS
FROM HARTFORD AND BOSTON. - ARRIVES IN BRUNSWICK. - HISTORY OF THE
SLAVERY AGITATION. - PRACTICAL WORKING OF THE FUGITIVE SLAVE
LAW. - MRS. EDWARD BEECHER'S LETTER TO MRS. STOWE AND ITS
EFFECT. - DOMESTIC TRIALS. - BEGINS TO WRITE "UNCLE TOM'S CABIN"
AS A SERIAL FOR THE "NATIONAL ERA." - LETTER TO FREDERICK
DOUGLASS. - "UNCLE TOM'S CABIN" A WORK OF RELIGIOUS EMOTION 126


CHAPTER VII.

UNCLE TOM'S CABIN, 1852.

"UNCLE TOM'S CABIN" AS A SERIAL IN THE "NATIONAL ERA." - AN
OFFER FOR ITS PUBLICATION IN BOOK FORM. - WILL IT BE A
SUCCESS? - AN UNPRECEDENTED CIRCULATION. - CONGRATULATORY
MESSAGES. - KIND WORDS FROM ABROAD. - MRS. STOWE TO THE EARL OF
CARLISLE. - LETTERS FROM AND TO LORD SHAFTESBURY. - CORRESPONDENCE
WITH ARTHUR HELPS 156


CHAPTER VIII.

FIRST TRIP TO EUROPE, 1853.

THE EDMONDSONS. - BUYING SLAVES TO SET THEM FREE. - JENNY
LIND. - PROFESSOR STOWE IS CALLED TO ANDOVER. - FITTING UP THE NEW
HOME. - THE "KEY TO UNCLE TOM'S CABIN." - "UNCLE TOM" ABROAD. - HOW
IT WAS PUBLISHED IN ENGLAND. - PREFACE TO THE EUROPEAN
EDITION. - THE BOOK IN FRANCE. - IN GERMANY. - A GREETING FROM
CHARLES KINGSLEY. - PREPARING TO VISIT SCOTLAND. - LETTER TO MRS.
FOLLEN 178


CHAPTER IX.

SUNNY MEMORIES, 1853.

CROSSING THE ATLANTIC. - ARRIVAL IN ENGLAND. - RECEPTION IN
LIVERPOOL. - WELCOME TO SCOTLAND. - A GLASGOW TEA-PARTY. - EDINBURGH
HOSPITALITY. - ABERDEEN. - DUNDEE AND BIRMINGHAM. - JOSEPH
STURGE. - ELIHU BURRITT. - LONDON. - THE LORD MAYOR'S
DINNER. - CHARLES DICKENS AND HIS WIFE 205


CHAPTER X.

FROM OVER THE SEA, 1853.

THE EARL OF CARLISLE. - ARTHUR HELPS. - THE DUKE AND DUCHESS OF
ARGYLL. - MARTIN FARQUHAR TUPPER. - A MEMORABLE MEETING AT
STAFFORD HOUSE. - MACAULAY AND DEAN MILMAN. - WINDSOR
CASTLE. - PROFESSOR STOWE RETURNS TO AMERICA. - MRS. STOWE ON THE
CONTINENT. - IMPRESSIONS OF PARIS. - EN ROUTE TO SWITZERLAND AND
GERMANY. - BACK TO ENGLAND. - HOMEWARD BOUND 228


CHAPTER XI.

HOME AGAIN, 1853-1856.

ANTI-SLAVERY WORK. - STIRRING TIMES IN THE UNITED
STATES. - ADDRESS TO THE LADIES OF GLASGOW. - APPEAL TO THE WOMEN
OF AMERICA. - CORRESPONDENCE WITH WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON. - THE
WRITING OF "DRED." - FAREWELL LETTER FROM GEORGIANA MAY. - SECOND
VOYAGE TO ENGLAND 250

CHAPTER XII.

DRED, 1856.

SECOND VISIT TO ENGLAND. - A GLIMPSE AT THE QUEEN. - THE DUKE OF
ARGYLL AND INVERARY. - EARLY CORRESPONDENCE WITH LADY
BYRON. - DUNROBIN CASTLE AND ITS INMATES. - A VISIT TO STOKE
PARK. - LORD DUFFERIN. - CHARLES KINGSLEY AT HOME. - PARIS
REVISITED. - MADAME MOHL'S RECEPTIONS 270

CHAPTER XIII.

OLD SCENES REVISITED, 1856.

EN ROUTE TO ROME. - TRIALS OF TRAVEL. - A MIDNIGHT ARRIVAL AND
AN INHOSPITABLE RECEPTION. - GLORIES OF THE ETERNAL CITY. - NAPLES
AND VESUVIUS. - VENICE. - HOLY WEEK IN ROME. - RETURN TO
ENGLAND. - LETTER FROM HARRIET MARTINEAU ON "DRED." - A WORD FROM
MR. PRESCOTT ON "DRED." - FAREWELL TO LADY BYRON 294


CHAPTER XIV.

THE MINISTER'S WOOING, 1857-1859.

DEATH OF MRS. STOWE'S OLDEST SON. - LETTER TO THE DUCHESS OF
SUTHERLAND. - LETTER TO HER DAUGHTERS IN PARIS. - LETTER TO HER
SISTER CATHERINE. - VISIT TO BRUNSWICK AND ORR'S ISLAND. - WRITES
"THE MINISTER'S WOOING" AND "THE PEARL OF ORR'S ISLAND." - MR.
WHITTIER'S COMMENTS. - MR. LOWELL ON "THE MINISTER'S
WOOING." - LETTER TO MRS. STOWE FROM MR. LOWELL. - JOHN RUSKIN
ON "THE MINISTER'S WOOING." - A YEAR OF SADNESS. - LETTER TO LADY
BYRON. - LETTER TO HER DAUGHTER. - DEPARTURE FOR EUROPE 315


CHAPTER XV.

THE THIRD TRIP TO EUROPE, 1859.

THIRD VISIT TO EUROPE. - LADY BYRON ON "THE MINISTER'S
WOOING." - SOME FOREIGN PEOPLE AND THINGS AS THEY APPEARED TO
PROFESSOR STOWE. - A WINTER IN ITALY. - THINGS UNSEEN AND
UNREVEALED. - SPECULATIONS CONCERNING SPIRITUALISM. - JOHN
RUSKIN. - MRS. BROWNING. - THE RETURN TO AMERICA. - LETTERS TO DR.
HOLMES 343


CHAPTER XVI.

THE CIVIL WAR, 1860-1865.

THE OUTBREAK OF CIVIL WAR. - MRS. STOWE'S SON
ENLISTS. - THANKSGIVING DAY IN WASHINGTON. - THE PROCLAMATION OF
EMANCIPATION. - REJOICINGS IN BOSTON. - FRED STOWE AT
GETTYSBURG. - LEAVING ANDOVER AND SETTLING IN HARTFORD. - A REPLY
TO THE WOMEN OF ENGLAND. - LETTERS FROM JOHN BRIGHT, ARCHBISHOP
WHATELY, AND NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE 363


CHAPTER XVII.

FLORIDA, 1865-1869.

LETTER TO DUCHESS OF ARGYLL. - MRS. STOWE DESIRES TO HAVE A HOME
AT THE SOUTH. - FLORIDA THE BEST FIELD FOR DOING GOOD. - SHE BUYS
A PLACE AT MANDARIN. - A CHARMING WINTER RESIDENCE. - "PALMETTO
LEAVES." - EASTER SUNDAY AT MANDARIN. - CORRESPONDENCE WITH DR.
HOLMES. - "POGANUC PEOPLE." - RECEPTIONS IN NEW ORLEANS AND
TALLAHASSEE. - LAST WINTER AT MANDARIN 395


CHAPTER XVIII.

OLDTOWN FOLKS, 1869.

PROFESSOR STOWE THE ORIGINAL OF "HARRY" IN "OLDTOWN
FOLKS." - PROFESSOR STOWE'S LETTER TO GEORGE ELIOT. - HER REMARKS
ON THE SAME. - PROFESSOR STOWE'S NARRATIVE OF HIS YOUTHFUL
ADVENTURES IN THE WORLD OF SPIRITS. - PROFESSOR STOWE'S INFLUENCE
ON MRS. STOWE'S LITERARY LIFE. - GEORGE ELIOT ON "OLDTOWN FOLKS" 419


CHAPTER XIX.

THE BYRON CONTROVERSY, 1869-1870.

MRS. STOWE'S STATEMENT OF HER OWN CASE. - THE CIRCUMSTANCES UNDER
WHICH SHE FIRST MET LADY BYRON. - LETTERS TO LADY BYRON. - LETTER
TO DR. HOLMES WHEN ABOUT TO PUBLISH "THE TRUE STORY OF LADY
BYRON'S LIFE" IN THE "ATLANTIC." - DR. HOLMES'S REPLY. - THE
CONCLUSION OF THE MATTER 445


CHAPTER XX.

GEORGE ELIOT.

CORRESPONDENCE WITH GEORGE ELIOT. - GEORGE ELIOT'S FIRST
IMPRESSIONS OF MRS. STOWE. - MRS. STOWE'S LETTER TO MRS.
FOLLEN. - GEORGE ELIOT'S LETTER TO MRS. STOWE. - MRS. STOWE'S
REPLY. - LIFE IN FLORIDA. - ROBERT DALE OWEN AND MODERN
SPIRITUALISM. - GEORGE ELIOT'S LETTER ON THE PHENOMENA OF
SPIRITUALISM. - MRS. STOWE'S DESCRIPTION OF SCENERY IN
FLORIDA. - MRS. STOWE CONCERNING "MIDDLEMARCH." - GEORGE ELIOT
TO MRS. STOWE DURING REV. H. W. BEECHER'S TRIAL. - MRS. STOWE
CONCERNING HER LIFE EXPERIENCE WITH HER BROTHER, H. W. BEECHER,
AND HIS TRIAL. - MRS. LEWES' LAST LETTER TO MRS. STOWE. - DIVERSE
MENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THESE TWO WOMEN. - MRS. STOWE'S FINAL
ESTIMATE OF MODERN SPIRITUALISM 459


CHAPTER XXI.

CLOSING SCENES, 1870-1889.

LITERARY LABORS. - COMPLETE LIST OF PUBLISHED BOOKS. - FIRST
READING TOUR. - PEEPS BEHIND THE CURTAIN. - SOME NEW ENGLAND
CITIES. - A LETTER FROM MAINE. - PLEASANT AND UNPLEASANT
READINGS. - SECOND TOUR. - A WESTERN JOURNEY. - VISIT TO OLD
SCENES. - CELEBRATION OF SEVENTIETH BIRTHDAY. - CONGRATULATORY
POEMS FROM MR. WHITTIER AND DR. HOLMES. - LAST WORDS 489




[Illustration]




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


PAGE
PORTRAIT OF MRS. STOWE. From a crayon by Richmond, made in
England in 1853 _Frontispiece_

SILVER INKSTAND PRESENTED TO MRS. STOWE BY HER ENGLISH
ADMIRERS IN 1853 xi

PORTRAIT OF MRS. STOWE'S GRANDMOTHER, ROXANNA FOOTE. From
a miniature painted on ivory by her daughter, Mrs.
Lyman Beecher 6

BIRTHPLACE AT LITCHFIELD, CONN.[A] 10

PORTRAIT OF CATHERINE E. BEECHER. From a photograph taken in
1875 30

THE HOME AT WALNUT HILLS, CINCINNATI[A] 56

PORTRAIT OF HENRY WARD BEECHER. From a photograph by Rockwood,
in 1884 130

MANUSCRIPT PAGE OF "UNCLE TOM'S CABIN" (fac-simile) 160

THE ANDOVER HOME. From a painting by F. Rondel, in 1860, owned
by Mrs. H. F. Allen 186

PORTRAIT OF LYMAN BEECHER, AT THE AGE OF EIGHTY-SEVEN. From a
painting owned by the Boston Congregational Club 264

PORTRAIT OF THE DUCHESS OF SUTHERLAND. From an engraving
presented to Mrs. Stowe 318

THE OLD HOME AT HARTFORD 374

THE HOME AT MANDARIN, FLORIDA 402

PORTRAIT OF CALVIN ELLIS STOWE. From a photograph taken in 1882 422

PORTRAIT OF MRS. STOWE. From a photograph by Ritz and Hastings,
in 1884 470

THE LATER HARTFORD HOME 508

FOOTNOTE:

[A] From recent photographs and from views in the Autobiography of
Lyman Beecher, published by Messrs. Harper & Brothers.




LIFE AND LETTERS OF HARRIET BEECHER STOWE.




CHAPTER I.

CHILDHOOD, 1811-1824.

DEATH OF HER MOTHER. - FIRST JOURNEY FROM HOME. - LIFE
AT NUT PLAINS. - SCHOOL DAYS AND HOURS WITH FAVORITE
AUTHORS. - THE NEW MOTHER. - LITCHFIELD ACADEMY AND ITS
INFLUENCE. - FIRST LITERARY EFFORTS. - A REMARKABLE
COMPOSITION. - GOES TO HARTFORD.


HARRIET BEECHER (STOWE) was born June 14, 1811, in the characteristic
New England town of Litchfield, Conn. Her father was the Rev. Dr. Lyman
Beecher, a distinguished Calvinistic divine, her mother Roxanna Foote,
his first wife. The little new-comer was ushered into a household of
happy, healthy children, and found five brothers and sisters awaiting
her. The eldest was Catherine, born September 6, 1800. Following her
were two sturdy boys, William and Edward; then came Mary, then George,
and at last Harriet. Another little Harriet born three years before had
died when only one month old, and the fourth daughter was named, in
memory of this sister, Harriet Elizabeth Beecher. Just two years after
Harriet was born, in the same month, another brother, Henry Ward, was
welcomed to the family circle, and after him came Charles, the last of
Roxanna Beecher's children.

The first memorable incident of Harriet's life was the death of her
mother, which occurred when she was four years old, and which ever
afterwards remained with her as the tenderest, saddest, and most sacred
memory of her childhood. Mrs. Stowe's recollections of her mother are
found in a letter to her brother Charles, afterwards published in the
"Autobiography and Correspondence of Lyman Beecher." She says: -

"I was between three and four years of age when our mother died, and
my personal recollections of her are therefore but few. But the deep
interest and veneration that she inspired in all who knew her were such
that during all my childhood I was constantly hearing her spoken of,
and from one friend or another some incident or anecdote of her life
was constantly being impressed upon me.

"Mother was one of those strong, restful, yet widely sympathetic
natures in whom all around seemed to find comfort and repose. The
communion between her and my father was a peculiar one. It was an
intimacy throughout the whole range of their being. There was no human
mind in whose decisions he had greater confidence. Both intellectually
and morally he regarded her as the better and stronger portion of
himself, and I remember hearing him say that after her death his first
sensation was a sort of terror, like that of a child suddenly shut out
alone in the dark.

"In my own childhood only two incidents of my mother twinkle like rays
through the darkness. One was of our all running and dancing out before
her from the nursery to the sitting-room one Sabbath morning, and her
pleasant voice saying after us, 'Remember the Sabbath day to keep it
holy, children.'

"Another remembrance is this: mother was an enthusiastic horticulturist
in all the small ways that limited means allowed. Her brother John
in New York had just sent her a small parcel of fine tulip-bulbs. I
remember rummaging these out of an obscure corner of the nursery one
day when she was gone out, and being strongly seized with the idea that
they were good to eat, using all the little English I then possessed
to persuade my brothers that these were onions such as grown people
ate and would be very nice for us. So we fell to and devoured the
whole, and I recollect being somewhat disappointed in the odd sweetish
taste, and thinking that onions were not so nice as I had supposed.
Then mother's serene face appeared at the nursery door and we all ran
towards her, telling with one voice of our discovery and achievement.
We had found a bag of onions and had eaten them all up.

"Also I remember that there was not even a momentary expression of
impatience, but that she sat down and said, 'My dear children, what you
have done makes mamma very sorry. Those were not onions but roots of
beautiful flowers, and if you had let them alone we should have next
summer in the garden great beautiful red and yellow flowers such as you
never saw.' I remember how drooping and dispirited we all grew at this
picture, and how sadly we regarded the empty paper bag.

"Then I have a recollection of her reading aloud to the children Miss
Edgeworth's 'Frank,' which had just come out, I believe, and was
exciting a good deal of attention among the educational circles of
Litchfield. After that came a time when every one said she was sick,
and I used to be permitted to go once a day into her room, where she
sat bolstered up in bed. I have a vision of a very fair face with a
bright red spot on each cheek and her quiet smile. I remember dreaming
one night that mamma had got well, and of waking with loud transports
of joy that were hushed down by some one who came into the room. My
dream was indeed a true one. She was forever well.

"Then came the funeral. Henry was too little to go. I can see his
golden curls and little black frock as he frolicked in the sun like a
kitten, full of ignorant joy.

"I recollect the mourning dresses, the tears of the older children, the
walking to the burial-ground, and somebody's speaking at the grave.
Then all was closed, and we little ones, to whom it was so confused,
asked where she was gone and would she never come back.

"They told us at one time that she had been laid in the ground, and at
another that she had gone to heaven. Thereupon Henry, putting the two
things together, resolved to dig through the ground and go to heaven
to find her; for being discovered under sister Catherine's window one
morning digging with great zeal and earnestness, she called to him to
know what he was doing. Lifting his curly head, he answered with great
simplicity, 'Why, I'm going to heaven to find mamma.'

"Although our mother's bodily presence thus disappeared from our
circle, I think her memory and example had more influence in moulding
her family, in deterring from evil and exciting to good, than
the living presence of many mothers. It was a memory that met us
everywhere, for every person in the town, from the highest to the
lowest, seemed to have been so impressed by her character and life that
they constantly reflected some portion of it back upon us.

"The passage in 'Uncle Tom' where Augustine St. Clare describes
his mother's influence is a simple reproduction of my own mother's
influence as it has always been felt in her family."

Of his deceased wife Dr. Beecher said: "Few women have attained to
more remarkable piety. Her faith was strong and her prayer prevailing.
It was her wish that all her sons should devote themselves to the
ministry, and to it she consecrated them with fervent prayer. Her
prayers have been heard. All her sons have been converted and are now,
according to her wish, ministers of Christ."

Such was Roxanna Beecher, whose influence upon her four-year-old
daughter was strong enough to mould the whole after-life of the author
of "Uncle Tom's Cabin." After the mother's death the Litchfield home
was such a sad, lonely place for the child that her aunt, Harriet
Foote, took her away for a long visit at her grandmother's at Nut
Plains, near Guilford, Conn., the first journey from home the little
one had ever made. Of this visit Mrs. Stowe herself says: -

"Among my earliest recollections are those of a visit to Nut Plains
immediately after my mother's death. Aunt Harriet Foote, who was with
mother during all her last sickness, took me home to stay with her.
At the close of what seemed to me a long day's ride we arrived after
dark at a lonely little white farmhouse, and were ushered into a large
parlor where a cheerful wood fire was crackling. I was placed in the
arms of an old lady, who held me close and wept silently, a thing at
which I marveled, for my great loss was already faded from my childish
mind.

[Illustration: _Roxanna Foote_]

"I remember being put to bed by my aunt in a large room, on one side
of which stood the bed appropriated to her and me, and on the other
that of my grandmother. My aunt Harriet was no common character. A more
energetic human being never undertook the education of a child. Her
ideas of education were those of a vigorous English woman of the old
school. She believed in the Church, and had she been born under that
_régime_ would have believed in the king stoutly, although being of the
generation following the Revolution she was a not less stanch supporter
of the Declaration of Independence.

"According to her views little girls were to be taught to move very
gently, to speak softly and prettily, to say 'yes ma'am,' and 'no
ma'am,' never to tear their clothes, to sew, to knit at regular hours,
to go to church on Sunday and make all the responses, and to come home
and be catechised.

"During these catechisings she used to place my little cousin Mary
and myself bolt upright at her knee, while black Dinah and Harry, the
bound boy, were ranged at a respectful distance behind us; for Aunt
Harriet always impressed it upon her servants 'to order themselves
lowly and reverently to all their betters,' a portion of the Church
catechism that always pleased me, particularly when applied to them, as
it insured their calling me 'Miss Harriet,' and treating me with a
degree of consideration such as I never enjoyed in the more democratic
circle at home. I became proficient in the Church catechism, and gave
my aunt great satisfaction by the old-fashioned gravity and steadiness
with which I learned to repeat it.

"As my father was a Congregational minister, I believe Aunt Harriet,
though the highest of High Church women, felt some scruples as
to whether it was desirable that my religious education should
be entirely out of the sphere of my birth. Therefore when this
catechetical exercise was finished she would say, 'Now, niece, you
have to learn another catechism, because your father is a Presbyterian
minister,' - and then she would endeavor to make me commit to memory the
Assembly catechism.

"At this lengthening of exercise I secretly murmured. I was rather
pleased at the first question in the Church catechism, which is
certainly quite on the level of any child's understanding, - 'What is
your name?' It was such an easy good start, I could say it so loud and
clear, and I was accustomed to compare it with the first question in
the Primer, 'What is the chief end of man?' as vastly more difficult
for me to answer. In fact, between my aunt's secret unbelief and my own



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