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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

DAVIS



ALASKA



VOLUME XIII



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION



HARRIMAN ALASKA SERIES
VOLUME XIII

LAND AND FRESH WATER
MOLLUSKS



BY



WILLIAM H. DALL



HYDROIDS



BY

C. C. NUTTING




(PUBLICATION 2000)



CITY OF WASHINGTON

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION
1910



LIBRARY

UNJVERSliY C? CALIFORNIA



ADVERTISEMENT.

The publication of the series of volumes on the
Harriman Alaska Expedition of 1899, heretofore pri-
vately printed, has been transferred to the Smithsonian
Institution by Mrs. Edward H. Harriman, and the
work will hereafter be known as the Harriman Alaska
Series of the Smithsonian Institution.

The remainder of the edition of Volumes I to V,
and VIII to XIII, as also Volumes VI and VII in
preparation, together with any additional volumes that
may hereafter appear, will bear special Smithsonian
title pages.

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION,

WASHINGTON, D. C., JULY, 1910



HARR1MAN ALASKA EXPEDITION
WITH COOPERATION OF WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES



ALASKA



VOLUME XIII




BY WILLIAM H. DALL

HYDROIDS

BY C. C. NUTTING




NEW YORK
DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY

1905



COPYRIGHT, 1905

BY
EDWARD H. HARRIMAN



PREFACE

THE present volume comprises two papers : one on the Land
and Fresh Water Mollusks of Alaska, by Dr. Wm. H. Dall ;
the other on the Hydroids of the Expedition, by Prof. C. C.
Nutting. Dr. Dall's paper has not been previously published ;
Professor Nutting's appeared in the Proceedings of the Wash-
ington Academy of Sciences in May, 1901. The number of
new Mollusks here described is twelve ; of new Hydroids twenty.

C. HART MERRIAM,

Editor.

WASHINGTON, D. C.,
June 15, 1905.



(v)



CONTENTS

PAOB

PREFACE v

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ix

LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS, BY WILLIAM H. DALL.

General discussion and results I

Summary of distribution of fresh water species in Alaska

and adjacent regions I

Table of distribution of fresh water species according to

drainage systems now existing 4

Summary of distribution of land shells of Alaska and ad-
jacent regions , 7

Table of distribution of American land shells 8

Summary of the mollusk fauna of northeastern Asia 9

Table of distribution of northeast Asiatic land and fresh

water shells 14

Conclusions in regard to the Alaskan fauna 15

Systematic catalogue of land and fresh water mollusks of

North America north of the forty-ninth parallel 19

Bibliography 1 47

Index to genera and species 157

HYDROIDS, BY C. C. NUTTING.

Introduction 1 75

Geographic distribution 176

Systematic discussion 181

Bibliography 207

VOLUME INDEX ,,,,,.,,,,,,,,...,.. 2 35



(vii)



ILLUSTRATIONS

PLATES

PACING PAGES

I, II. Land and Fresh Water Mollusks 154, 156

III-XV. Hydroids 210-234



TEXT FIGURES

PAGES
1-118. Land and Fresh Water Mollusks 20-144



(ix)



LAND AND FRESH WATER

MOLLUSKS OF ALASKA
AND ADJOINING REGIONS



NOTE

THE following memoir has been prepared to bring together
and modernize the data existing in the literature, and to combine
it with the new material obtained by the Harriman Expedition
and such as was accessible elsewhere from the same region.
In order to accomplish this, and because of the uniformity of
boreal faunas all round the northern hemisphere, it has been
necessary to examine the entire boreal fauna of North America,
Greenland, and the adjacent parts of eastern Siberia.

The material examined has been that collected by the Harri-
man Expedition ; that obtained by the writer during explora-
tions in Alaska from 1865 to 1885, and now in the National
Museum ; collections from various collaborators of the Museum,
members of the Navy, the Revenue Marine, and the Geological
Survey of the United States ; and certain material borrowed for
examination from various sources. On the whole, though the
collection is not remarkably large, it is probably the largest and
most complete, for the region, ever brought together.

The text figures have been generously lent by the Smith-
sonian Institution.

I am indebted to Mr. Bryant Walker, Dr. J. F. Whiteaves of
the Dominion Geological Survey, Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, of the
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and numerous
other correspondents, for advice and assistance ; and to the au-
thorities of the U. S. Geological Survey, the Dominion Geolog-
ical Survey, the Smithsonian Institution, and the U. S. National
Museum, for facilities for study and access to collections, for
all of which I am deeply grateful.

WM. H. DALL.

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION,
Washington, D. C., Sept. 17, 1904.




LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS OF
ALASKA AND ADJOINING REGIONS

BY WILLIAM HEALEY DALL
GENERAL DISCUSSION AND RESULTS

THE first object of this work is to sum up the known mollus-
can fauna of the land and fresh waters of Alaska. This has
involved an examination, not only of the species obtained within
the political boundaries of Alaska, but also those of the adjacent
region to the west, east, and south. The result is that, for North
America north of latitude 49 North, the work includes a sum-
mary of our present knowledge of the mollusks, deduced in part
from the literature and in larger part from material actually
examined. To this is added a briefer examination of the mollusk
fauna of the adjacent parts of eastern Siberia which has to some
extent modified that of Alaska. As a whole the work may be
regarded as forming a synoptic manual of the boreal land and
fresh water mollusks of the western hemisphere.

I. SUMMARY OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF FRESH WATER SPECIES
IN ALASKA AND ADJACENT REGIONS.

It was thought best to tabulate the species of rivers and lakes
according to the drainage systems in which they are found.
Of course these systems are not geologically ancient, and it is
even probable that some existing species of the Mississippi
system were trapped by the changes of level which, according
to Gen. G. K. Warren, U.S.A., secured, for the Red River of

ft)



2 LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS

the North, part of the channels which earlier discharged into
the Gulf of Mexico by way of the Mississippi. It is probable, for
the region under review, that the entire molluscan population
was exterminated or driven south during the Glacial epoch, and
that we now have to do with immigrants from the south whose
distribution has taken place since that time.

In the following tables all doubtful species are omitted, so
that the fauna tabulated, if not complete, is at least well estab-
lished so far as it goes.

The following areas are represented in the successive columns
of the table :

Asia. This column indicates those species known also to
inhabit the eastern portion of Siberia, Kamchatka, and the
Chukchi Peninsula, together with the Commander Islands,
which are obviously populated from the Asiatic shores.

Yukon. This system includes the entire drainage basin of
the Yukon and the tundra north of it, as well as the area drained
by the Kuskokwim River, or all of Alaska north, northwest,
and westward of the Alaskan Range, as well as the area behind
the Coast Ranges and between them and the northward exten-
sion of the Rocky Mountains, drained by the Yukon and its
tributaries.

Alaska. This system includes all of the Aleutian Islands,
the area on the Alaska Peninsula and continent between
the Coast Ranges and the Alaskan Range and the Pacific
north of latitude 54. This system and the following one are
really continuous, the Alaskan being really only the north-
westward extension of that here designated as the Pacific
system.

Pacific. This includes the coast drainage of British Colum-
bia, the basins of the Fraser and Columbia rivers, the coastal
part of the State of Washington, and the northern part of Idaho
and Montana west of the Selkirk Range and its more southern
equivalents in the Rocky Mountain region.

Mackenzie. This vast system includes the basin drained by
the Mackenzie River and its tributaries, covering northwest
Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, the northwestern two
thirds of Athabaska, and the Mackenzie district.



GENERAL DISCUSSION 3

Ifudson Bay. This system, the largest of all, comprises the
entire area draining into Hudson Bay, including Keewatin, the
southeastern corner of the Mackenzie district, eastern Atha-
baska, the whole of Saskatchewan, the southeastern two thirds
of Alberta, Assiniboia and Manitoba, the drainage area of the
Red River of the North in the Dakotas and northeastern Minne-
sota, all of Ontario, Quebec, and Ungava north and west of the
Height of Land.'

Canada. This system comprises the drainage of the St.
Lawrence and the Great Lakes south and east from the Height
of Land, including the island of Anticosti.

Labrador. This comprises the area draining into Ungava
Bay and the Atlantic north of the Straits of Belle Isle and the
Height of Land, being the Labrador coast and the northeastern
part of the Ungava district of the Dominion of Canada.

A few species are noted from Greenland ; when peculiar to
Greenland, or found in Greenland and also on the continent,
the species have been entered in the Labrador column but dis-
tinguished by an asterisk.

The vast territories included in these drainage systems are,
it is true, only partially and imperfectly explored for mollusks.
Yet certain portions of them are tolerably well known, and the
uniformity imposed on the fauna by its high northern position
and unvaried conditions leads to the belief that while much is
yet to be known in tracing out the details of distribution, little
is to be expected in the way of absolutely new species, even
from this immense territory still to be explored. It would be
rash to conclude that nothing new remains to be found ; but it
certainly behooves us to be moderate in our expectations.

It is probable that new additions will be made from among
the ranks of the smaller species, such as Corneocyclas (or Pi-
sidium), Vertigo, and the more minute Helicida. Perhaps a
considerable number of the more southern forms which are
known to approach the boundary will eventually be found to
pass beyond it ; and other additions to the list will result from
the more careful discrimination of similar or closely allied
species.



LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS



TABLE I. DISTRIBUTION OF FRESH WATER SHELLS NORTH

OF LATITUDE 49, ACCORDING TO THE DRAINAGE

SYSTEMS NOW EXISTING.



Name of Species.


4

<


1

>


Alaska.


Pacific.


Mackenzie.


i

a
o

o

w


4

J


Labrador.


Lymnoea stagnalis


o


o


O


O


O





o




LymnDta petersi




o


o












Lymnrea atkensis






o












Lymnaea megasoma












o


o




Lymnaea emarginata




o








o


o




Lymnaea binneyi








o




o


o




Lymnaea preblei












o






Lymnaea columella












o


o




Lymnaea randol phi .




o




o










Lymnaea kirtlandiana














o




Lymnaea truncatula


o




o




O


o






Lymnaea humilis












o


o




Lymnaea desidiosa








o




o


o




Lymnaea galbana






o


O




o


o




Lymnaea holbolli














o


*


Lymnaea vabli




o


o


O


o


o


o


0*


Lymnaea palustris


o


o


o


O


o


o


o


o


Lymnaea reflexa












o


o




Lymnaea catascopium








o


o


o


o


o


Lymnaea adelince








o










Lymnaea? perpolita




o














Lymnaea caperata












o






Lymnaea anticostiana














o




Planorbis bicarinatus.








O




o


o




Planorbis corpulentus












o


o




Planorbis binneyi








O










Planorbis trivolvis




o


o


o


o


o


o














o


o


o




Planorbis var. rudentis












o






Planorbis exacuous ,




o








o


o




Planorbis var. megas












o






Planorbis opercularis








o










Planorbis var. planulatus




o




O










Planorbis hirsutus




o






o


o


o








o


o




o


o


o








o






o


o


o




Planorbis vermicularis








o








0*


Planorbis nathorsti
















0*


Planorbis arcticus
















0*


Planorbis umbilicatellus












o






Planorbis crista












o


o




Segmentina armigera










o


o


o




Segmentina christyi










o


o
















o


o


o








o






o


o


o




Physa ancillaria












o


o




Physa lordi








o




?


?




Physa propinqua








o











GENERAL DISCUSSION



TABLE I. DISTRIBUTION OF FRESH WATER SHELLS NORTH
OF LATITUDE 49, ACCORDING TO THE DRAINAGE

SYSTEMS NOW EXISTING. Continued,



Name of Species.


1


Yukon.


Alaska.


Pacific.


Mackenzie.


1

1

1

w


Canada.


Labrador.


Physa ampullacea




O




O


















O










Aplexa hypnorum




o




O


O


o


O




Ancylus ri vularis












o


o




Ancylus parallelus












o


o












O










Ancylus kootaniensis








O










Goniobasis plicifera








O










Amnicola limosa












o


o




Amnicola pallida












o


o




Amnicola emarginata












o


o




Amnicola cincinnatiensis >












o


o
















o


o




Pomatiopsis lapidaria












o


o




Fluminicola nut talliana








O










Fluminicola virens








O










Valvata tricarinata













o


o




Valvata sincera












o






Valvata lewisi








O


o


o


o




Valvata var helicoidea




O




O






o




Valvata mergella




O


O












Valvata virens








O










Campeloma decisum












o


o




Lampsilis ventricosus















o




Lampsilis luteolus










o


o







Lampsilis borealis












o


o




Lampsilis radiatus .. .












o


o
























Lampsilis rectus















o




Lampsilis ellipsiformis












o


o
















o



























Strophitus rugosus












o


o




Anodonta beringiana


o


O


O












Anodonta oregonensis






o


O





























Anodonta wahlamatensis








o






















o







Anodonta implicata












o


o



















o




















o




Anodonta pcpiniana












o


o































o






















o


o




Symphynota costata












o


o




Symphynota complanata ,










o


o


o




Margaritana margaritifera


o










o


o























LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS



TABLE I. DISTRIBUTION OF FRESH WATER SHELLS NORTH
OF LATITUDE 49, ACCORDING TO THE DRAINAGE

SYSTEMS NOW EXISTING. Continued.



Name of Species.


1


Yukon.


I

<


Pacific.


Mackenzie.


Hudson Bay.


Canada.


Labrador.


Margaritana var. falcata






o


O










Unio complanatus












o


O




Quadrula plicata












O


















O



















O






Quadrula lachrymosa












o


o
















O


O




Sphserium simile












o


O




Sphaerium striatinum








o


o


O


O
















O


O
















O


O








o




o




o


O














O








Sphoeriuni fabale












o


O












o




o


O












o










Sphserium eniarginatum












o


o




Sphaerium tumidum








o


















o










Sphaerium raymondi








o










Sphaerium partumeium












o


o
















o


o




Sphaerium tenue




O






o


O


o
















O


o
















O


o












o










Corneocyclas virginica




o








o


o




Corneocyclas idahoensis




o














Corneocyclas scutellata










o








Corneocyclas aequilateralis


o


o










o




Corneocyclas compressa




o




o






o




Corneocyclas variabilis




o








o


o




Corneocyclas abdita


o


o


o






o


o




Corneocyclas ventricosa










o


o


o




Corneocyclas rotundata




o








o






Corneocyclas steenbuchi
















0*


Corneocyclas occidentalis








o










Corneocyclas ultramontana








o










Corneocyclas arctica




o














Corneocyclas nivalis




o














Corneocyclas glacialis




o














Corneocyclas pulchella












o






Corneocyclas henslowana












o


o























GENERAL DISCUSSION 7

II. SUMMARY OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE LAND SHELLS
OF ALASKA AND ADJACENT REGIONS.

I have summarized the distribution of the fresh water shells
by drainage areas, as perhaps the least objectionable method of
connecting the facts of distribution. But the land shells require
a somewhat different treatment, since their distribution has noth-
ing to do with currents of water, though sometimes a snail may
be carried in the spring freshets under the bark of a floating
log, and by rare chance survive to be stranded by the falling
waters somewhere down stream. A certain amount of move-
ment of the minute forms may result from the distribution by
high winds of dead leaves and other light material to which the
smaller land shells are accustomed to adhere. Pieces of ice
from smaller brooks carried by freshets may also convey a cer-
tain distance and deposit, when stranded by falling water, pieces
of bark or leaves containing snails or their eggs. Such chances
are too rare to be made much account of, and doubtless the dis-
tribution of our smaller snails is brought about in the main by
the slow movement of individuals.

The Pulmonate fauna of Alaska is composed of four elements :
contributions from the faunas of Asia, of the Pacific Coast of
America, of the Canadian (or Hudsonian) region, and of the
circumboreal or common subarctic fauna of the whole northern
hemisphere.

In tabulating the distribution of the species a column may be
reserved for each of these elements : the circumboreal column
being headed ' Europe.' A column may be reserved for Green-
land, and another for the approximate highest north latitude
which the species is known to attain. This means for the snail
not so much differences of temperature corresponding to latitude,
as differences of period in activity, which diminish as one pro-
ceeds northward. Snails at Point Barrow must remain in a
state of hibernation at least nine months in the year, and I sus-
pect that this more probably brings a limiting strain on the
vitality of the organism than would the mere occurrence at times
of a specially low temperature.



LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS

TABLE II. DISTRIBUTION OF AMERICAN LAND SHELLS
NORTH OF LATITUDE 4Q.



Name of Species.


'
3


1

J


Pacific.


Canadian.


Greenland.


1

w


i

K


Helix hortensis








o




o


14.OC/


Epiphragmophora fidelis




o


o






o


17 OO


Zoogenites harpa


o


o




o




o


66 oo


Vallonia pulchel la


o




o


o




o


CA OO


Vallonia costata


o






o




o


51 oo


Vallonia gracilicosta








o






12 20


Vallonia albula






o


o






50 oo


Vallonia asiatica


o


o








o


CQ oo


Polygyra devia






o








50 oo


Polygyra columbiana




o


o








60 oo


Polygyra townsendiana






o








50 oo


Polygyra germana






o








40 OO


Polygyra monodon








o






5 1 20


Polygyra albolabris








o






C2 OO


Strobilops labyrinthica








o






5 1 20


Bifidaria armifera








o






C2 IO


Bifidaria contracta








o






CO OO


Bifidaria holzingeri








o






52 10


Bifidaria pentodon








o






51 20


Pupilla blandi








o






12 IO


Pupilla muscorum




o




o




o


CO OO


Vertigo hoppii








o


o




7O OO


Vertigo modesta


o


o


o


o






6^? oo


Vertigo columbiana




o


o








17 OO


Vertigo gouldii








o






11 OO


Vertigo ventricosa








o






11 21


Vertigo binneyana






o


o






So oo


Vertigo ovata


o


o


o


o






^7 3^


Vertigo arctica


o


o








o


6s i<


Cochlicopa lubrica


o


o


o


o




o


7 1 2O






o


o








*>Q co


Circinaria van chocolata




o










17 oo


Circinaria sportella




o


o








5Q OO


Circinaria var. hybrida




o


o








11 oo


Vitrina angelicae










o




72 OO


Vitrina limpida








o






*?4 OO


Vitrina alaskana




o


o








57 3O


Vitrea radiatula


o


o


o


o




o


71 20


Vitrea nitidula








o




o


61 oo


Vitrea binneyana






o


o






50 oo


Vitrea indentata








o






1O OO


Euconulus trochiformis


o


o


o


o


o


o


70 oo


Zonitoides nitidus


o


o


o


o




o


61 oo


Zonitoides arboreus


o


o


o


o






61 oo


Zonitoides randolphi








o






1Q ^o


Zonitoides minusculus




o


o


o






59


Zonitoides milium















50 oo


Zonitoides pugetensis






o








49 oo


Pristiloma lansingi






o








49 oo


Pristiloma stearnsii




o


o








19 ^o



















GENERAL DISCUSSION



TABLE II. DISTRIBUTION OF AMERICAN LAND SHELLS

NORTH OF LATITUDE 49. Continued.



Name of Species.


4

<


<


Pacific.


Canadian.


Greenland.




w


J

K


Pristiloma taylori






o








d.QOO /


Pristiloma ? arctica




o










71 25


Agriolimax agrestis


o




o


o


(?)


o


61 oo


Agriolimax hyperboreus


o


o


o


o




o


65 oo


Agriolimax berendti






o








A.Q OO


Prophysaon andersoni






o








4.0 OO


Prophysaon var. pallidum




o


o








C4, 4.5


Prophysaon var. pacificum






o








4.0 OO


Prophysaon humile




o


o








55 -jg


Ariolimax columbianus




o


o








58 00


Pyramidula solitaria






o


o






52 OO


Pyramidula striatella








o






61 oo


Pyramidula cronkhi tei




o


o








61 oo


Pyramidula asteriscus






(?)


o






49


Oreohelix strigosa








o






40 30


Oreohelix var. cooperi








o






40 OO


Helicodiscus lineatus






o


o






50 oo


Punctual pygmaeum






o


o






50 oo


Punctum clappi






o








40 OO


Punctum conspectum


o


o


o








60 oo


Sphyradium edentulum


o


o


o


o




o


65 20


Succinea oregonensis






o








4.0 OO


Succinea retusa




o


o


o






67 oo


Succinea hawkinsi






o


o






57 oo


Succinea avara








o






62 oo


Succinea gronlandica










O




65 oo


Succinea gros venori








o






62 oo


Succinea var. alaskana




o


o








63 *o


Succinea r usticana






o








49 oo


Succinea nuttalliana






o








49 oo


Succinea obliqua








o






61 oo


Succinea chrysis


o


o






O




65 30


Siphonaria thersites




o


o








60 30


Onchidium boreale




o


o








60 30


Carychium exiguum






o


o






50 oo


Carychium exile








o






50 oo



III. SUMMARY OF THE MOLLUSK FAUNA OF NORTHEAST-
ERN ASIA.

The land shell fauna of the northeast extremity of Asia has
little individuality, but represents a mingling of the depauper-
ated extremes of the faunas of northeast China, and of Europe,
with that series of species which is sometimes called the circum-
polar or circumboreal fauna.



IO LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS

Much of the apparent poverty of the fauna may be due to
insufficient collecting, but even when the most generous allow-
ance for this factor is made, it still remains certain that the
molluscan population is far less in variety than might reasonably
be expected.

The Palearctic fauna of Europe appears to extend clear
across northern Asia, losing a large proportion of its species on
the way, until (if the circumboreal species be excluded) only
about thirty species reach the headwaters of the Lena and the
barrier of the Stanovoi Range. A very remarkable local fauna
exists in the great ' relicten-see ' of Siberia, Lake Baikal, but
it does not appear to have tinctured the east Siberian fresh
water fauna outside of that lake, to any appreciable extent.
It is possible that the comparatively recent emergence of a large
part of eastern Siberia from the sea, and the presence of the


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