Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899).

Harriman Alaska series. vol. I-V, VIII-XIV (Volume 13) online

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magnified. panson.

concave in the center, the suture

deep but not channelled, upper surface of the whorls with an obscure
carination, the last part of the last whorl expanded and suddenly de-
flected downward, base with a steeply funicular umbilicus, exhibiting in
scalar fashion all the whorls, and bordered by an obtuse carina ; peri-
phery of the whorls median, rounded ; lip simple, hardly thickened, con-
tinued across the body by a thin callus ; aperture at an angle of 45 to
the vertical axis ; surface sculptured by fine lines of growth and obso-
lete microscopic, inconstant, spiral striation. Max. diam. 8.0; min.
diam. 6.5 ; height 3.0 mm.

This common species extends well to the north, but has not yet been
reported from any part of the Pacific drainage, where it appears to be
replaced by a very similar species, P. declivis Tate, which however has
not yet been collected north of the Umpqua River, Oregon, specimens
from that locality and from Nicaragua being in the National Museum.



FAMILY PHYSID^E



99



Segmentina (Planorbula) christyi n. sp. Plate n, figs. 10, n.

Shell resembling P. armigera in a general way but having six
whorls, the upper surface nearly flat, the latter part of the last whorl
in nearly the same plane as the preceding whorls, with no marked
deflection ; the whorls rounded, with no carina above or below ; the
surface sculptured with fine close silky incremental lines and fine sharp
spiral striae, giving a minutely reticulate effect when magnified ; aper-
ture-plane about 25 from the vertical ; teeth very similar in form and
position to those of P. armigera. Max. diam. 10.0; min. diam. 7.5 ;
height 3.0 mm.

High Bluff, Manitoba ! (R. Miller Christy) ; Fort Smith, Mackenzie
River! (E. A. Preble).

After comparing these shells with a large series of P. armigera and
finding nothing intermediate, I conclude that this form is worthy of a
name. I have examined seven specimens of P. christyi, and several
hundred from forty different localities, north and south, of P. armi-
gera. The present form is the largest, flattest, and most sharply
sculptured of the group.

Family PHYSIDJE.
Genus Physa Draparnaud.

<Physa DRAPARNAUD, Tableau, pp. 31, 52, 1801 ; Hist, des Moll, de France,
pp. 25, 28, 54, 1805; first species Bulla fontinalis Linne. ROISSY,
Moll., v, p. 343, 1805. STUDER, Syst. Verz., p. 25, 1820. LAMARCK,
An. s. Vert., vi, pt. 2, p. 155, 1822. Not of Fitzinger, 1833, norWes-
terlund, 1902.

Enydra HUBNER, Zwei Briefe, 1810 (nomenclature non-Linnean ?).

Physa SOWERBY, Genera, fasc. vn (Ltmneea), 1822. FLEMING, Brit. An.
p. 276, 1828. LEACH, Proofsheets, p. 150, fide Turton, Man., p. 127,
1831. LEACH, Synops. Moll. Gt. Brit., p. 109, 1852.

Rivicola FITZINGER, Verz. Conch., p. no, 1833. Type B. fontinalis Linn6.

<^Physa BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., n, p. 75, 1865. DALL, Ann.
Lye. N. H. N. Y., ix, p. 355, 1870. Type P. fontinalis.

Physella HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., i, pp. 14, 38, 1842 ; type P. globosa
Hald. DALL, op. cit., p. 355, 1870.

Physodon HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., i, pp. 14, 39, 1842; type P. microstoma
Hald. DALL, op. cit., p. 356, 1870.

? Diastropha GRAY, in Turton, Man., ed. n, p. 16, 1840; sole ex. Physa
contorta Michaud. HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., in, 3d page of cover,
1841, text, pp. 14, 35, 1842. MOQUIN TANDON, Hist. Moll. Fr., n, p.
450, 1855.

? Diastropha 'Guilding,' GRAY (Synops. Brit. Mus., 1840, fide Agassiz),
P. Z. S., 1847, p. 1 80 ; Physa guildingii Swainson.

<^Phyza Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Mer., iv, p. 96, 1826; .st sp. P. fontinalis
Drap.

^>Macrophysa MEEK (MS. 1865), DALL, Ann. Lye. N. H. N. Y., ix, p. 356,
1870 ; type Physa columnaris Deshayes, Eocene.



IOO LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS

>Costatella DALL, Ann. Lye. N. H. N. Y., ix, p. 355, 1870. Type Physa

costata Newcomb.
~^>Costella MEEK, Inv. Fos. Upper Missouri, pp. 603-604, 1876 ; lapsus pro

Costatella.

^>Macrophysa TRYON, Struct. Syst. Conch., in, p. 103, 1884.
Bulinus WESTERLUND, Fauna Pal. Reg., p. 54, 1885 (not of Adanson, 1757) ;

Acta Acad. Sci. Slav. Merid., Zagrabise, CLI, p. 119, 1902.
<^Bullinus OKEN, Lehrb. d. Naturg., sp. x, 302-3, 1815. B. fontinalis L.,

first species.

This genus has suffered from its resemblance to the sinistral Lym-
naeas and the physiform Planorboids, which have been and still are
frequently confounded with the true Physas. Not until much more is
known of the dentition and soft parts will it be practicable to eliminate
from Physa all the unrelated species. The group containing Isidora,
Physopsis, etc., is chiefly South European and African, but it is
probable that some of the subtropical American species also belong to
it. The subgenus Physella Haldeman, was proposed because the
author believed it to be branchiate instead of pulmonate, but we now
know that undoubted species of Lymncea, having no access to the
atmosphere, live in the deep waters of some of the Swiss lakes, per-
haps gathering up globules of oxygen freed by aquatic plants ; and
unless some more definite observations show anatomical distinctions
(such as were merely surmised by Haldeman) the group is hardly
worth retention. Physodon Haldeman, so far as the shell is concerned,
differs from Physa s. s. only by an almost imperceptible thickening
below the obscure plait on the pillar, and, in default of other charac-
ters, might well be dispensed with.

The soft parts of Diastropha contorta (Mich.) have not been de-
scribed, and there is some reason to think it may be an Isidora. Gray,
who first introduced it in connection with the above mentioned species,
subsequently listed it as a name (MS. ?) given by Guilding, and men-
tioned as type Physa guildingi Swainson, which is an Aplexa.

The groups into which the genus may confidently be divided are as
follows :

Section Physa s. s. Shell sinistral, ovoid, polished, with a spire shorter
than the length of the aperture, an obscure plait on the pillar, with
the pillar merging gradually into the peristome, the outer lip sharp,
often with a slight thickening internally, the inner lip closely
appressed to the body and pillar, a very small or no umbilicus, the
surface of the shell smooth or microscopically striated. Type Bulla
fontinalis Linne". Holarctic and Temperate regions of both hemi-
spheres, also Hawaii.



FAMILY PHYSID^E IOI

? Section Macrophysa Meek. Shell elongate, columnar, large, the
last whorl and aperture small compared with that of the typical
Physa, the surface axially striated. Type Physa columnaris
Deshayes, Eocene of Paris Basin.

Section Costatella Dall. Shell physiform, polished, sculptured with
axial ribs. Type Physa costata Newcomb.

The section Macrophysa has been affiliated to Isidora by Sandberger
and others, but as the species is only known in the fossil state some
doubt must remain as to its relations. It has somewhat the form of
Isidora wahlbergi Krauss from South Africa, but the resemblance
may be merely a parallelism and not an indication of relationship, as
we find several species of Isidora absolutely indistinguishable from
true Physa except by anatomical examination.

The groups known as Ameria Adams, Glyptophysa Crosse, Plesio-
physa Crosse and Fischer, Physopsis Krauss, Pulmobranchia Pelsen-
ear, etc., are more or less intimately connected with Isidora Ehrenberg
(JBulinus Adanson) and do not form part of the family Physidce.
None of them occurs in the region to which this paper relates. I am
indebted to the discussion of American Physas by O. A. Crandall in
the Nautilus, volume xv, for assistance in determining the species of
Physa from the north.

Physa heterostropha Say.

Physa heterostropha SAY, Nicholson's Encycl., Am. ed. (no pagination), pi.

i, fig. 6, 1817. HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., p. 23, pi. n, figs. 1-9, 1843.

BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., n, p. 84, figs. 144-5, 1865.
Physa plicata DE KAY, fragilis Mighels, lata Tryon, primeana Tryon, and

philippii Kiister, are said to be synonymous by Crandall.

Range. From the Potomac and Ohio Rivers
northward, and westward to the Mississippi.

Anticosti Island ! Manitoba, Red River of the
North, Lac des Mille Lacs to Lake of the Woods ; ,

Alberta, at Olds, McLeod and Red Deer. Grand "




Rapids of the Saskatchewan ! L. Winnipeg ! English
River ! Albany River ! near James Bay ; Hudson Bay drainage in
Keewatin at Moose Factory ! and Nelson River ! Lake Isle Lacrosse !
Peace River ! and Great Slave Lake !

Readily recognizable by its form and the absence of microscopic
spiral sculpture. The northern specimens, when dead, are of a beau-
tiful opalescent white with a claret colored apex.

Physa gyrina Say.

Physa gyrina SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., II, p. 171, 1821. HALDE-
MAN, Mon. Limn., p. 32, pi. 3, figs. 1-6, 1843 ; Council Bluffs, Iowa.



IO2



LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS




FIG. 79. Physa
gyrinav&r. hild-
rethiana Lea.



Physa hildrethiana LEA, oleacea Tryon, and albqfilata Ancey, are united by

Crandall with this species.
Physa fontinalis J. DE C. So WERE Y (in Richardson), not of Linne.

Range. The United States east of the Mississippi,
Canada, and northward.

Manitoba ! Lower Saskatchewan near Lake Win-
nipeg ! York Factory, Keewatin ; Great Slave Lake !
Methy Lake to Great Bear Lake (Richardson) .
Variety oleacea Tryon, also variety hildrethiana
Lea : Great Slave Lake ; Port Clarence, Alaska (Bean) .
This is the prevalent species over the north country,
extending to the Arctic Circle at Great Bear Lake,
and westward to Bering Strait. It is to be noted
however that Physa in this region is nowhere a common form like
Lymncea or Planorbis, or even Aplexa. The varieties noted differ
from one another and from the typical form chiefly in the character
of slenderness.

Physa ancillaria Say.

Physa ancillaria SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., v, p. 124, 1825.

HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., p. 27, pi. in, figs, i-io, 1843. GOULD, Inv.

Mass., p. 213, fig. 142, 1841. CRANDALL, Nautilus, xv, No. 4, p. 42,

1901.
Physa vinosa GOULD, and P. crassa WALKER, are regarded as subspecies of

P. ancillaria by Crandall, and Binney unites with it P. obesa De Kay.

Range. The United States northward from the Potomac and Ohio
Rivers, and east of the Mississippi, to the Saskatchewan. Variety
vinosa Gould, Lake Superior.

Manitoba. Lake of the Woods ; Lake Winnipeg ; and the lower
Saskatchewan River.

The above localities are cited from the literature ; I have seen no
specimens from north of the United States, west of Ontario.

Physa lordi Baird.

Physa lordi BAIRD, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, for 1863, p. 68. BINNEY,

Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., n, p. 76, figs. 125-127.
Physa parkeri CURRIER, in Decamp, List of Shellbearing

Moll, of Mich., Kent Sci. Inst. Misc. Pub., v, p. 15,

pi. I, fig. 3, 1 88 1.

Range. Washington and British Columbia, east
of the Cascade Mountains, eastward to the northern
peninsula of Michigan, and southward at high alti-
tudes to New Mexico.

Round Lake ! Lake Houghton ! and Lake Douglas ! FlG 8o pj, ysa
northern Michigan ! Mingusville, Montana ! Ft. Col- i or di Baird.




FAMILY PHYSID^E IO3

ville, Wash. ! Lake Osoyoos, Lat. 49 and Kootenai Lake, British
Columbia; San Rafael, Valencia Co., New Mexico; altitude 6,000
feet!

I find this remarkable species in the National collection labelled P.
parkeri Currier. There is a form very similar in miniature to this,
which occurs in the Gila River, Arizona, and elsewhere in that region,
but, while this may be a dwarf form of P. lordi, I do not feel suffi-
ciently certain to include it in the range of the latter. The Michigan
specimens however are typical, and finely developed, not in any way
to be distinguished from those collected in Washington.

Physa propinqua Try on.

Physa propinqua TRYON, Am. Journ. Conch., i,"p. 223, pi. 23, fig. 5, 1865 ;
Mon. Fw. Univ., Moll. U. S., pt. 3, p. 132, pi. vi, fig. 13, 1872.

Range. Jordan Creek, SW. Idaho, west to Puget Sound and
south to Los Angeles, Calif.

Puget Sound drainage ! Sumas Prairie, Fraser River valley, British
Columbia, and elsewhere in the lowlands of British Columbia, east of
the Cascades.

This form closely resembles P. heterostropha Say, and is the shell
which has been listed by that name from the Pacific Coast, where ac-
cording to Tryon and Crandall the true P. heterostropha does not
occur. Whether it is a distinct species, or a special mutation of P.
ampullacea Gould, or a western race of some other species, I do not
feel able to determine, and so I accept Tryon's assurance that it is a
valid species.

Physa ampullacea Gould.

Physa bullata GOULD, Proc. Boston Soc. N. Hist., v, p. 128, 1855 ; not of

Potiez et Michaud, 1838.
Physa ampullacea GOULD, in Binney, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., n, p. 79,

figs. 134, 135 (not 133), 1865.

Range. Oregon and Washington, northward to Norton Sound on
the Pacific Coast.

Oregon ! Lake Oyosa, Washington ! Vancouver Island, near Vic-
toria ; ponds near St. Michael, Norton Sound, Alaska, rare !

A single specimen of what seems to be this species was found among
other shells collected near St. Michael, Alaska, by E. W. Nelson.

Physa (Aplexa?) hordacea Lea.

Physa hordacea LEA, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., for 1864, p. 116; Journ.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., (2), vi, pp. 176, 177, pi. xxiv, fig. 102, 1866;
Obs. Gen. Univ., xi, pp. 132-3, pi. xxiv, fig. 102, 1866.



104 LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS

Bulinus hordaceus TRYON, Mon. Fw. Univ. Moll. U. S., p. 170, pi. vn, fig.
19, 1872.

Range. Oregon, Washington, Vancouver Island.

Fort Vancouver, Wash. ! near Puget Sound, Wash. !

This is the small species, having much the appearance of an Aplexa,
which has been cited on the authority of Dr. J. G. Cooper as Aplexa
hypnorum from near Puget Sound. This error was afterward cor-
rected by Cooper himself. No observations have been recorded in
regard to the animal, and when these have been made it is entirely pos-
sible that the creature may turn out to be an Aplexa. It is entirely
distinct from A. hypnorum at any rate

Genus Aplexa Fleming.

Sulla (sp.) LINNE, Syst. Nat., ed. x, p. 727, 1758. GMELIN, Syst. Nat., vi,

p. 3428, 1792.

Planorbis (sp.) O. T. MULLER, Hist. Verm., n, p. 169, 1774.
Turbo (sp.) WALKER, Test. Min. var., p. 15, 1787.
<^Bulinus O. T. MULLER, in Der Naturforscher (Halle), xv, p. 6, 1781 (after

Adanson, Senegal, p. 5, 1757, non binomial).
<^Physa DRAPARNAUD, Tableau, pp. 31, 52, 1801 ; Hist, des Moll, de France,

p. 55> 1805.

<^Bulimus POIRET, Coq. Fluv. et Terr., p. 41, 1801 ; not of Scopoli.
<^Bullinus OKEN, Lehrb. d. Naturg., pp. x, 302, 1815.
Aplexa FLEMING, in Sowerby, Gen., fasc. vn, 1822 ; Hist. Brit. An., p. 276,

1828. Type Sulla hypnorum Linne, 1758.
<^Phyza Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Mr., iv, p. 96, 1826.
Nauta (LEACH, MS.) TURTON, Man., p. 129, 1831 (in syn.). LEACH, Syn.

Moll. Gt. Brit., p. no, 1852.
<^ Bulinus BECK, Index Moll., p. 116, 1838 ; not Bulinus Beck, op. cit., p.

117, nor Philippi, Handb. Conch., p. 255, 1853.
Physa FITZINGER, Syst. Verz., p. no, 1833 ; not of Draparnaud.
AplexusQuPCf, Turton's Man., ed. II, p. 255, 1840. SOWERBY, Man., ed.

n, p. 70, 1842. BROWN, 111. Conch. Gt. Brit., p. 135, 1844. CHENU,

Man., I, p. 481, 1859.
Aplexa BECK, Index Moll., p. 116, 1838. PHILIPPI, Handb. Conch., p. 255,

1853. MORCH, Vidensk. Meddel., p. 308, 1864. TRYON, Struct. Syst.

Conch., in, p. 103, 1884.

Nauta BECK (in syn.), Ind. Moll., p. 166, 1838.
Amplexa BROWN, 111. Conch. Gt. Brit., ed. 11, p. 31, 1844 (err. type); not

Amplexus Brown, op. cit., p. 45.
Aplecta HERRMANNSEN, Ind. Gen. Mai., i, p. 65, 1846. FISCHER, Manuel

Conch., p. 511, 1883.

Myxas GRAY, Proc. Zool. Soc. for 1847, p. 180, not of Leach, 1822.
Bulinus BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., n, p. 97, 1865. DALL, Ann.

Lye. N. Hist. N. Y., ix, p. 356, 1870.
Nauta WESTERLUND, Fauna Pal. Reg., v, p. 57, 1885.

Shells of species allied to Physa, but usually more slender and
elevated, the mantle not extending beyond the margin of the aperture
and its edge entire, without filamentary appendages ; jaw strongly



FAMILY PHYSID^E IC>5

arcuated, thin, cartilaginous, without accessory plates ; other charac-
ters as in Physa.
Type Bulla hypnorum Linne", 1758, Holarctic.

The nomenclature of this genus has been subject to some vicissi-
tudes. In 1757 Adanson, who did not adopt the binomial nomencla-
ture, described a minute shell from the fresh waters of Senegal under
the name of " le Bulin, Bulinus" From its form and size it was
certainly not an Aplexa, but rather a species of the group called by
Ehrenberg, in 1831, Isidora. This genus has the jaw and radula of a
Planorbis and may be regarded as a physiform relation of the latter
genus. To a considerable extent it replaces Physa in tropical
Africa.

Scopoli in 1777 attempted to utilize Adanson's researches, and
proposed a genus Bulimus in which he included Limncea, Succinea
and JBythinia (sp.), attributing the genus to Adanson and paraphras-
ing Adanson's diagnosis of the characters of the animal. The name
was later used for the large land shells for which it is familiar, but to
which the diagnosis cannot be applied.

It seems almost certain that Bulimus (Scopoli) is a misprint for
Bulinus (Adanson), but, as usual, several authors have not hesitated
to propose a bogus derivation for a name for which the author gave
no derivation, and have ignored the statement of Adanson, who gives
a legitimate and totally different source for the name.

However this may be, Bulimus long had currency in concho-
logical nomenclature for animals with which we are not here con-
cerned, and in 1781 Otho Friedrich Miiller revived Adanson's name
in its original form for the group named Physa by Draparnaud
twenty years later. Miiller included in his list of species Adanson's
type (to which he gave the binomial name Bulinus senegalensis},
Bulinus turritus (= Aplexa hypnorum L. sp.) and Bulinus perla
(= Physa fontinalis Drap.).

Since he states that his genus is that of Adanson, it follows that
Adanson's sole species must be taken as the type, which eliminates one
of the three groups concerned. For the group represented by Physa
fontinalis Draparnaud's name has been generally and properly
retained, while the first available name for the third group is Aplexa
Fleming. This is accepted and defined by Sowerby as indicated in the
synonymy above given, but may have been used earlier in print by
Fleming; though I have found no record of it if this be the case.
Sowerby speaks of it as if it were not a manuscript name, but does not
explicitly so state.



IO6 LAND AMD FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS

Later on Herrmannsen supplies a gratuitous derivation for Fleming's
name and, because it does not properly conform to his imaginary
source, alters the spelling to Aplecta.

This was totally unauthorized. Since no derivation was given by
Sowerby, we are at liberty to regard the word as an arbitrary combi-
nation of letters formed on the analogy of triplex and similar Latin
words, but we are not at liberty to manufacture an imaginary deriva-
tion and then force the name to conform to it.

Several authors divided Miiller's group differently, and several syn-
onyms were proposed for parts of it, as will be evident on a study of
the synonymy.

The genus occurs in the Tertiary of Europe and North America,
and possibly as far back as the Middle Cretaceous of North America.
Several well characterized forms have been described from the Lara-
mie. The type is known from the Palearctic and Nearctic regions,
and the genus extends south to Mexico, where in the tropical condi-
tions of Mazatlan perhaps the finest of the recent species occurs abun-
dantly. In Alaska and on the adjacent continent of Asia but one
species is known, the type.

Aplexa hypnorum (Linne).

Sulla hypnorum LINNE, Fauna Suecica, ed. I, No. 1303, 1746; ed. n, No.

2159, p. 522, 1761 ; Syst. Nat , ed. x, p. 727, 1758 ; ed. xn, p. 1185,

1767.

Bulimus hypnorum BRUGUIERE, Encycl. Meth., p. 301, 1792.
Planorbis turritus MULLER, Verm. Terr., II, p. 169, 1774.
Physa hypnorum DRAPARNAUD, Hist., p. 55, pi. in, figs. 12-13, 1805.

HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., p. 36, pi. v, figs. 4-9, 1842. FORBES and

HANLEY, Brit. Moll., iv, p. 143, pi. cxxn, figs. 6-7.
Bulla hypnorum MONTAGU, Test. Brit., n, p. 228, 1803.
Bulla turrita GMELIN, Syst. Nat, vi, p. 3428, No. 20, 1792.
Aplexa hypnorum SOWERBY, Genera, fasc. vn, 1822. FLEMING, Hist. Brit.

An., p. 276, 1828 ; Encycl. Brit., ed. vn, 1837 ; Art. Mollusca, reprinted

as 'Molluscous Animals,' 8, Edinburgh, p. 158, 1837.
Turbo stagnalis WALKER, Test. Min. Rar., p. 15, pi. n, fig. 54, 1787.
Nauta hypnorum (LEACH, in) TURTON, Man., p. 129, 1831. LEACH, Syn.

Moll. Gt. Brit, p. no, 1852.
Physa hypnorum, Hist, des Moll., p. 55, pi. in, figs. 12, 13, 1805. PFEIFFER,

Naturg. Deutscher Land. Moll., i, p. 97, 1821.
Bullinus turritus OKEN, Lehrb. d. Naturg., p. 303, 1815.
Physa hypnorum LAMARCK, Anim. s. Vert., vi, Pt. n, p. 157, 1822.
Physa elongata SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., n, p. 171, 1821. GOULD,

Inv. Mass., p. 214, fig. 143, 1841. DE KAY, Zool. N. Y. Moll., p. 81,

pi. vi, fig. 346, 1843.
Physa turrita J. DE C. SOWERBY, in Richardson, Fauna Bor. Am., in, p. 315,

1836.
Physa glabra DE KAY, Zool. N. Y., Moll., p. 80, pi. v, fig. 83, 1843.




FAMILY PHYSID^E 107

Physa elongatina LEWIS, Proc. Boston Soc. N. Hist., v, pp. 122, 298, 1855.
Aplexus hypnorum CHENU, Man. de Conch., I, p. 481, fig. 3556, 1859.
Bulinus hypnorum BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., n, p. 99, fig. 170,

1865.
Bulinus hypnorum var. picta KRAUSE, Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Fr. zu Berlin,

1883, p. 32. MARTENS, Conch. Mitth., n, p. 184, 1885.
Physa hypnorum var. Polaris WESTERLUND, Sib. 1. u. Sottv. Moll., p. 56,

1877. MARTENS, Conch. Mitth., n, p. 184, 1885.
Physa (Nauta) hypnorum LINNE. WESTERLUND, Fauna Palaarct., Reg. v, p.

57, 1885.
Physa (Nauta) hypnorum var. polaris WESTERLUND, op. eft., p. 58.

Range. Northern Europe, Asia and America, Northern United
States and Canada.

English River, Manitoba. Red Deer, McLeod, Olds, etc., in Alberta.
Great Slave Lake, at Fort Resolution ! York Factory, Hudson Bay !

Yukon River, at old Fort Yukon ! and Nulato !
Alaska ; Porcupine River in Alaska ! also Port Clar-
ence ! and the Nushagak River.

Snake River, Idaho ! Middle Park, Colorado ! Up-
per Missouri in Montana ! Utah (Hemphill) !

This well known species is supposed to be circum-
boreal, but there are some peculiarities in its known FlG g x
distribution. While it extends to northern and west- lexa hypnorum.
ern Alaska and down into the mountainous region in
Colorado and Utah, it has not been reported so far, authentically, from
west of the Cascades, either in the United States or British Columbia.
There was one record " near Puget Sound " by Dr. J. G. Cooper, which
is cited by W. Cooper and Carpenter, but this refers to a shell obtained
at Vancouver, Wash, (not Vancouver Island) , by Sir George Simp-
son, which was afterward described by Dr. Lea as Physa hordeacea.
It is not positively known that this species is not a Physa, though
Tryon has referred it to Bulinus ( = Aplexa) , on the strength of its
general aspect.

A number of varieties have been proposed, but there is not much
systematic basis for such of these mutations as I have seen.

Genus Ancylus Miiller.

Subgenus Ancylus s. s.

Patella (sp.) LINNE, Syst. Nat., ed. x, p. 783, 1758.

Ancylus GEOFFROY, Traite som. des Coq. Fluv. Paris, pp. 122, 124, 1767 ; not

binomial, sole example Patella lacustris Linn6. Ibidem, translation by

Martini, pp. 108, no, 1767.
Ancylus O. F. MULLER, Hist. Verm., n, p. 199, 1774, A. lacustris and

fluviatilis Miiller ; Zool. Dan. Prodr., p. 237, 1776. DRAPARNAUD,

Tabl., pp. 30, 46, 1801 ; Hist, des Moll. Terr, et Fluv. de France, pp.



IO8 LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS

25, 28, 47, 1805. ROISSY, Moll., v, p. 223, 1805. BOWDICH, Elem.
Conch., I, pp. 24, 63, 1822 ; A. fluviatilis selected as type. NILSSON,
Hist. Moll. Svecias, p. 83, 1822. LAMARCK, Hist. An. s. Vert., vi, 2,
p. 25, 1822. BECK, Ind. Moll., p. 123, 1837 ; A. fluviatilis L., tst sp.
HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., p. 14, 1842.

Ancyclus SAY, Nicholson's Encycl., 3d ed., 11, p. 14, 1819.

Ancylastrum (sp.) BOURGUIGNAT, P. Z. S., 1853, p. 79, July, 1854. CLESSIN,
Conch. Cab., ed. n, p. 10, 1880; A. fluviatilis selected as type.
FISCHER, Man. Conchyl., p. 504, 1883. TRYON, Struct, and Syst.
Conch., in, p. 107, 1884 ; not Ancylastrum Bourg., 1853, typical.

Ansulus sive Ansylus GRAY, in Turton, Man., p. 247, 1840. HERRMANN-
SEN, Ind. Gen. Mai., I, p. 52, note 13, 1846.

Ancyllus GRAELLS, Cat. Moll. Espana, p. 22, 1846 ; err. typ. ?


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