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> Haldemania CLESSIN, 1880, not of Tryon, 1862.

Subgenus Acroloxus Beck.

Acroloxus BECK, Ind. Moll., p. 124, 1837, ist sp. A. radiatus Guilding, 1828,
not of Orbigny, 1825 ; also includes A. lacustris (L.) Miiller ; Herrmann-
sen, Ind. Gen. Mai., i, p. 16, 1846, selects A. lacustris as type. W.
G. BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., n, p. 147, 1865.

Acroxus BOURGUIGNAT, J. de Conchyl., iv, p. 169, 1853 ; a modification of
Acroloxus Beck.

Velletia GRAY, in Turton, Man., pp. 66, 230, 250, 1840 ; sole ex. A. lacustris
Miiller. HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., p. 14, 1842. GRAY, P. Z. S.,
1847, p. 181 ; A. lacustris. BOURGUIGNAT, J. de Conchyl., iv, p. 63,
1853 ; P. Z. S., 1853, p. 79, July, 1854. FISCHER, Man., p. 504, 1883.

Subgenus Ancylastrum Bourguignat.

Ancylastrum BOURGUIGNAT, Journ. de Conchyl, iv, pp. 63, 170, 1853 (Feb.),
A. cumingianus Bourguignat (Tasmania) selected as type ; P. Z. S.,
1853, p. 91 (not p. 80), 1854. HEDLEY, Proc. Mai. Soc., i, p. 118, 1894.
Not Ancylastrum Clessin, 1880, and Westerlund, 1902.

Cumingia CLESSIN, Conch. Cab., ed. n, pt. 299, Mon. Ancylus, p. 10, 1880;
type A. cumingianus Bourg. TRYON, Struct. Syst. Conch., in, p. 107,
1884. Not Cumingia Sowerby, P. Z. S., 1833, p. 34.

Legrandia HANLEY, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania for 1871, p. 27, 1872. Type
A. cumingianus Bourg.

? Subgenus Gundlachia Pfeiffer.

GunaMchia PFEIFFER, Zeitschr. fur Mai. for 1849, P- 97 J 85o; type G.

ancyliformis Pfeiffer, Cuba; cf. Nordenskiold, Zool. Anz., xxvi, pp. 590-

593, July, 1903 ; and Dall, Nautilus, xvn, Jan., 1904, pp. 97-8, 1904 ;

also J. G. Cooper, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., vi, p. 26, 1875.
Poeyia BOURGUIGNAT, Spicil. Mai., xciv, Jan., 1862, Rev. de Zool., p. 13,

1862. Sole ex. P. gundlachioides Bourg., = Gundlachia test. juv. fide

Fischer.

The genus Ancylus cannot be cited as of Geoffroy, first, because
that author did not adopt the Linnean nomenclature, and secondly,
because his only species was identified by him with Patella lacustris
L., which is the type of Acroloxus, and, though Bourguignat and



FAMILY PHYSID^E 109

others have tried to propagate the view that Geoffrey's species was the
A. Jluviatilis , their arguments cannot be said to outweigh the positive
statement of the original author. The first binomial author to use
Ancylus was Miiller, who must be credited with the genus. The name
Ancylastrum, published by Bourguignat (though probably suggested
by Moquin Tandon) was doubtless intended to be the equivalent of
Ancylus s. s., but the publishing author distinctly and repeatedly
announced the type to be Ancylus cumingianus, which differs in
many respects from typical Ancylus, and will therefore retain the name,
which otherwise would have fallen into the synonymy of Ancylus s. s.
Acroloxus Beck, typified by A. lacustris Miiller, seems to be a well
characterized subdivision. Beck's first species was examined by Gray
and determined to be a Velletia, which is an exact synonym of Acro-
loxus. Protancylus was proposed by the Sarasin brothers in 1898,
for a form resembling Ancylus, from Celebes, but in which the gill is
fully developed.

Typical Ancylus seems to be an Old World form, but Acroloxus is
represented in both hemispheres. The subdivisions of the typical sub-
genus so far recognized are as follows :
? Brondelia Bourguignat, Rev. de Zool, p. 13, 1862; Spic. Mai.,

xcv, Jan., 1862, type B. drouetiana Bourg., Algeria.

This form, which is said to be an air-breather, a fact needing con-
firmation, is radiately ribbed and has a sinistral apex. More informa-
tion about it is much needed, and it may prove to be an Acroloxus.
Lanx Clessin, Conch. Cab., ed. II, pt. 299, p. 10, 1880 ; type A. new-

berryi Lea, Oregon and California.

The type has a smooth or concentrically striated apex, subcentrally
situated, obtuse ; the shell is larger and more solid than the majority
of the genus. A. patelloides Lea, placed by Clessin with the above,
has a shell like A. netvberryi, but more delicate, depressed, and with
a well marked radial system of coloration.

The following groups are Nearctic or American ; Ferrissia is also
South African.
Lcevapex Walker, Nautilus, xvu, June, 1903, p. 15 ; type Ancylus

fuscus C. B. Adams. Chiefly lacustrine, with a smooth nepionic

shell.
Ferrissia Walker, op. cit., p. 15; type Ancylus rivularis Say.

Chiefly fluviatile, with a radiately sculptured nepionic shell.

The question as to whether Gundlachia is a distinct genus or merely
an exceptional second-season growth of Ancylus, has been discussed



HO LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS

by me in the paper cited in the synonymy, since publishing which I
find Dr. J. G. Cooper had also expressed the same opinion in 1875.

Ancylus (Ferrissia) rivularis Say.

Ancylus rivularis SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci., i, p. 124, 1817. HALDEMAN,
Mon. Limn., p. 4, pi. i, fig. i, 1844 (Delaware River).

Ancyclus rivularis SAY, Nicholson's Encyclopedia, 3d ed. , Art. Conchology,
vol. II, p. 14, 1819.

Ancylus (Ferrissia) rivularis BRYANT WALKER, The Nautilus, xvn, No. 2, p.
15, June, 1903 ; xvin, No. 2, p. 17, pi. i, figs, i-io, 13-15, June, 1904.

Range. Northern United States east of the Mississippi, New
Mexico, Canada, Manitoba.

Souris River, Manitoba, Dawson.

Ancylus (Ferrissia) parallelus Haldeman.

Ancylus parallelus HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., pt. 2, p. 3 of cover, 1841 (Ver-
mont) ; pt. 7, p. ii, pi. i, fig. 6, 1844. BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh.
N. Am., ii, p. 142, 1865.

Range. New England ; Canada, Manitoba.

Pine Creek; Rainy River; and Lake of the Woods, in Manitoba.

Ancylus (Laevapex) fragilis Try on.

Ancylus fragilis TRYON, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., for 1863, p. 149, pi. i,
fig. 15. BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., n, p. 146, fig. 246 (Cali-
fornia), 1865. TRYON, Mon. Fw. Univ. Moll. U. S., p. 229, pi. 2, figs. 17,
18, 1872.

f Ancylus caurinus COOPER, Rep. N. Hist. Wash., p. 378, 1859 ; Pacific R. R.
Reps., xn, p. 378, 1859, nude name. BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N.
Am., ii, p. 144, fig. 243, 1865 ; Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., iv, p. 100, 1870.
Black River, Puget Sound.

Range. California ; Puget Sound drainage
(caurznus*) , Vancouver Island near Victoria !
(caurinus^).

Try on unites these under his prior name.

The Vancouver specimens are certainly iden-
FIG. 82. Ancylus koo- J

taniensis Baird. tical wlth Cooper's shell.

Ancylus (Laevapex) kootaniensis Baird.

Ancylus kootaniensis BAIRD, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, for 1863, p. 69.
BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., n, p. 144, fig. 242, 1865. TRYON,
Mon. Fw. Univ. Moll. U. S., p. 227, pi. n, figs. 11-12, 1872.

Range. Kootenai and Spokane Rivers, British Columbia.




FAMILY SIPHONARIID^E III

Family SIPHONARIID^.

Genus Siphonaria Sowerby.

Siphonaria SOWERBY, Genera of Shells, pt. xxi, Jan., 1824 ; Proc. Zool. Soc.
London, for 1835, p. 6. DALL, Am. Journ. Conch., vi, p. 31, 1870.

Muretia D'ORBIGNY, Voy. Am. Mend., p. 682, 1846. Not Mouretia Sow-
erby, 1835.

Trimusculus (SCHMIDT, MS.) MOLLER, Isis, 1832, p. 132.

f Liria GRAY, Phil. Mag. and Journ., LXIII, p. 275, April, 1824.

The type of Liria is Le Liri Adanson, Senegal, p. 32, pi. 2, fig.
2, 1757 5 stated by Gray to be a synonym of Sowerby's genus, but it is
probable that Adanson's shell is not a Siphonaria,

Subgenus Siphonaria s. s.
Siphonaria DALL, Am. Journ. Conch., vi, p. 31, 1870.

Shell solid, porcellanous, with subcentral apex and radial sculpture ;
inner lateral teeth of the radula bifid, outer trifid. Habitat, tropical
or warmer seas. Type, S. sip ho Sowerby.

Subgenus Liriola Dall.
Liriola DALL, Am. Journ. Conch., vi, p. 32, 1870.

Shell thin, horny, with apex eccentric ; smooth or faintly radially
striate. Habitat, cooler or temperate seas. Type S. thersites Car-
penter.

Siphonaria (Liriola) thersites Carpenter.

Siphonaria thersites CARPENTER, Ann. Mag. N. Hist. (3), xiv, p. 425, Dec.,

1864. Neah Bay, Wash.
Siphonaria (Liriola) thersites DALL, Am. Journ. Conch., vi, pp. 32, 33, pi.

iv, fig. 8, pi. v, figs. 2, 5, 1870.

Range. Strait of Fuca to the Aleutian Islands, on stones near
low water mark.

Neah Bay, Wash. ! Victoria, British Columbia ; Fort Simpson,
British Columbia ; in Alaska at Port Mulgrave ! Port Etches ! St.
Paul, Kadiak ! Chirikof Island! Semidi Islands! Simeonof Island
and Popof Strait, Shumagin Islands ! Chika Islands, Unalga Pass !
Captains Harbor, Unalaska ! Constantine Harbor, Amchitka ! Kiska
Harbor, Kiska Island, Aleutians.

This is one of the most common and characteristic mollusks of the
northwest coast. It lives between tidemarks, often where it must be
submerged twenty out of twenty-four hours of the day, but is some-
times dredged in 20 fathoms, dead.



112 LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS

Family ONCHIDIID^.
Genus Onchidium Buchanan, 1800.
Type Onchidium typhce Buchanan, Trans. Linn. Soc., v, p. 132,

1800.

Subgenus Onchidella Gray, 1850.

Type Onchidium nigricans Quoy, Fig. Moll. An., iv, p. 117, pi.
181, fig. i, 1850 (selected as type by Herrmannsen, Ind. Gen. Mai.,
Suppl., 1852).

Dorsal surface without arborescent processes, margin of the mantle
with prominent spaced papillae, serving as conduits for mucous glands ;
lower surface of the mantle with muciparous glands ; dorsum with
dorsal eyes ; mouth agnathous. Warmer seas.

Section ARCTONCHIS Dall, nov.

Species small, like Onchidella, but without muciparous glands on
the lower side of the mantle, without dorsal eyes and with a jaw.
Cool temperate and boreal coasts.

Type Onchidella borealis Dall.

I had long since proposed to retain for this group the name Onchi-
della, supposing that name to be practically a synonym of Onchidium.
This, however, is not now regarded as allowable, and Onchidella must
follow the fate of its type.

I propose therefore the sectional name Arctonchis for the group of
small boreal Onchidella which includes at least O. borealis and
O. celtica Forbes and Hanley.

Onchidella (Arctonchis) borealis Dall.

Onchidella borealis DALL, Am. Journ. Conch., vn, p. 135, 1871. W. G.
BINNEY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1876, p. 84, pi. vr, figs. E, EE,
Sept., 1876. BINNEY, Terr. Airbr. Moll. U. S., Third supple., Bull.
Mus. Comp. Zool., xix, No. 4, pi. vi, figs. D, E, 1890 (called carpenteri
by error, in text pp. 214, 224) ; Fourth Supplement, Bull. Mus. Comp.
Zool., xxn, No. 4, p. 202, 1892.

Onchidium boreale DALL, Semper, Arch. Phil. Bd. 3, heft vi, p. 282, pi.
xxi, fig. 13.

Range. California to Bering Sea on the N. W. coast of America.

California (Binney) ; Coos Bay, Oregon (Hemphill) ; Victoria,
Vancouver Island ! Lituya Bay ! Port Mulgrave ! Port Etches ! Una-
laska ! and Port Moller on Bering Sea ! in Alaska.

Observations on this species have been published by the writer, Mr.
W. G. Binney, Semper, and Henry Hemphill ; and, as their articles
are short and widely scattered in the literature, an abstract of the



FAMILY ONCHIDIID^E 113

whole, with additions, is now given so that the data in regard to this
species may be obtained in one place.

The animal lives between tides, where at high water it is covered
by the sea, usually on stones or projecting rocks, either where it is cov-
ered with Fucus or on the underside of stones which thus form a
shelter. It seems to be gregarious in its habits, as many as fifty speci-
mens having been taken from a single crevice in shaly rock. When in
motion it moves quite rapidly for so small an animal, with two short
stout tentacles tipped by keen black eyes protruding beyond the front
edge of the mantle. The upper surface is dark slate color, with spots
or streaks of light gray or whitish. It appears smooth, but as if hav-
ing small round tubercles beneath the smooth skin, which when the
animal is contracted in alcohol are much more conspicuous than in life.
Around the edge of the mantle is a single row of larger and more
prominent tubercles corresponding to an equal number of mucous glands.
These, projecting, give the margin a serrate or fringed appearance.
The animal, when in motion, is about twelve millimeters long, four
and one half wide, and three millimeters high, oblong oval in form, a
little wider behind than in front. When at rest in a contracted state
it is nearly circular in form, a little longer than wide, the center of
the dorsum elevated in a bluntly pointed manner, giving the creature
much the aspect of a young Acmcea. The lower surface of the body
is of a greenish white, and, when the animal is moving, the foot
seems to undergo rapid undulation. The muzzle exhibits anterior
ovate extensions separated by a sulcus in the median line, as in other
species of the genus.

Neither Onchidella borealis nor O. celtica possesses the singular
dorsal eyes characteristic of many tropical species.

O. borealis differs from O. carpenteri Binney, and all the other
species of the family now known (except O. celticum) , in possessing
a thin delicate smooth jaw, the presence of which has been demon-
strated by both Binney and Semper. According to Joyeaux Laffluie
O. celticum also possesses a jaw, though the surface of the dorsum is,
if the figure given by Forbes and Hanley be accurate, much more
prominently tuberculous than in O. borealis. O. carpenteri Bin-
ney, a small species reported by Binney from California and Puget
Sound, is according to that author agnathous, and therefore belongs to
the typical section of the genus.

The dentition of O. borealis has been worked out by Binney and
confirmed by Semper. The radula is long and wide, the teeth arranged
strongly en chevron, with a formula of ty % ty. The rhachidian



114 LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS

tooth is large, longer than wide, truncated above, expanded below its
middle, and incurved at the basal margin. The reflected portion is
large, tricuspid, the cusps prominent. The laterals have a long, nar-
row base of attachment, a small portion of its upper part thrown out-
ward, the rest curving inward, giving an irregular arcuate form to the
base as a whole ; the anterior and posterior margins of this base are
abruptly truncate. The reflected part is rather posterior and carries a
large, wide, expanding, bluntly truncated cusp on the outer side, and
on the inner a very small conical cusp. The successive teeth laterally
from the middle of the radula at first increase, then gradually decrease
in size, but retain essentially the same characters to the outer termina-
tion of the row.

From the typical Onchidium (sckrammz Bland and Binney,
Guadeloupe, W. I.) the teeth differ by the wider rhachidian, with
more nearly equal cusps, by the presence of two distinct cusps on the
laterals, and by the curve of the lateral bases, which in O. schrammi
have their posterior portions curved toward the center of the radula,
while in O. borealis the curve is in the opposite direction. In Onchi-
della Jloridana Dall, an oculiferous agnathous species from Knight's
Key, Florida, the discrepancy of the rhachidian cusps and the curve
of the lateral bases agree with O. schrammi, but there is a small
accessory inner cusp to the laterals.

Mr. Binney informs me that the liver in O. borealis is in fasciculi
of long caeca, one on each side ; there is also an accessory lateral
pouch to the stomach, which also has a fasciculus of casca, making
three biliary ducts.

According to Semper this species agrees in most respects with the
fifth of the groups into which he divides Onchidium. There is a
single row of large glands which open through equally spaced small
tubercles on the mantle edge. The other glands, which in the other
species (except O. celtica*) empty on the under surface of the mantle,
are absent in this form. The penis is short and thick, consisting of
two well marked portions. In the posterior thinner part a short
broad penial papilla is present, at the base of which the spermatic
duct opens. The wall of this part is marked by extremely shallow
grooves in which concretions are present, very like those found in the
deep grooves of other species. The spermatic cord is short and feebly
twisted. The penial retractor muscle is thin and attached proximally
to the middle of the pericardial sac on the inner surface of the foot.
The jaw and radula are as described by Binney.

I should like here to record my dissent from the ingenious hypothesis



FAMILY AURICULID^E 1 15

by which Semper associated the occurrence of dorsal eyes in Onchi-
dium with the presence of the fish Periopthalmus. There are both
oculiferous and (dorsally) blind species of Onchidium in the Gala-
pagos, and an oculiferous species in Florida and Bermuda, and in
neither of these regions is Periopthalmus known. It is of course not
only necessary that an hypothesis should account for the facts, but that
it also should be true, but the latter half of the proposition is only too
liable to be left unverified.

Family AURICULHXE.
Genus Carychium Miiller.

Carychium O. F. MULLER, Hist. Verm., n, p. 125, 1774 ; sole ex. C. mini-
mum Miiller ; Zool. Dan. Prodr., p. xxix, 1776. DRAPARNAUD, Hist.
Moll. Terr., p. 57, 1805 (in synonymy).

Helix (sp.) GMELIN, Syst. Nat., vi, p. 3665, 1792.

Bulimus (sp.) BRUGUIERE, Encyc. Me"th., i, p. 310.

Turbo (sp.) MONTAGU, Test. Brit, p. 339.

Auricula (sp.) DRAPARNAUD, Tableau des Moll., p. 54, 1801 ; Hist., p. 57,
pi. in, figs. 1 8, 19, 1805.

Odostomia (sp.) FLEMING, Edinb. Encycl., vn, p. 76, 1817.

Auricf//a(BRA'RD MS.) JURINE, Helvet. Almanach, p. 34, 1817. HARTMANN,
in Steinmuller, Neue Alpina, i, pp. 49, 205, 215, 1821 ; and Sturm,
Fauna, vi, heft v, p. 36, 1821 ; Syst. Uebersetz., table, 1840.
MOQUIN TANDON, Hist. Moll. Terr. Fr., n, p. 413, 1855. Type C. mini-
mum Miiller.

Auriculina MOQUIN TANDON, Hist. Moll. Terr. Fr., n, p. 646, 1855 ; not of
Grateloup, 1838, nor Gray, 1847.

Saraphia (sp.) Risso, Hist. Eur. Mer., iv, p. 84, 1826 ; S. tridentata Risso.

< Carychium LEACH, Zool. Misc., I, p. 85, 1814. FERUSSAC, Prodr., p. 100,
1819 ; Tabl. Syst., p. xxxm, 1821. BLAINVILLE, Diet. Sci. Nat., vn, p.
187. MOQUIN TANDON, Hist. Moll. Terr. Fr., pp. 412, 413, 1855.






FIG. 83. Carychium exiguum Say. Animal and shell magnified.

The species of this genus are so small that a special search almost
is necessary to determine their presence or absence in a given locality.



Il6 LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS

So it is uncertain whether the range herein reported might not be con-
siderably extended if thorough collecting had been done.

Carychium exiguum Say.

Pupa exigua SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., n, p. 375, 1822. GOULD,
Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., ill, p. 398, pi. in, fig. 20, 1841.

Carychium exiguum PFEIFFER, Wiegman's Archiv, i, p. 224, 1841. BIN-
KEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., n, p. 6, figs. 5-9, 1865.

Range. Temperate North America.

At Brandon, Pine Creek, and Carberry, Manitoba; Salt Spring
Island, and at Comox, Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

Carychium exile Lea.

Carychium exile H. C. LEA, Am. Journ. Sci., ist ser., XLII, p. 109, pi. I,
fig. 5, 1841. TROSCHEL, Arch, fur Naturg., 11, p. 128, 1843. Not C.
exile C. B. Adams, Contr. Conch., m, p. 38, 1849 (Jamaica).

Range. Eastern United States. Manitoba, in drift of the Red
River of the North.

In the description of the animal of Carychium cited by Binney
(under C. exiguum) and copied by Baker (Moll. Chicago Area, n, p.
254) the writer has confused the anterior end of the wide muzzle with
the foot, although, by the figure adjacent to this paragraph, the rela-
tion of the parts is clearly shown. The foot of the animal is not
" divided into two segments," but is entire, as required by the generic
diagnosis.

Family STREPOMATID.&.
Genus Pleurocera Rafinesque.
* Pleurocera canaliculata Say.

Melania canaliculata SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., n, p. 175, 1821.

Ohio.
Melania conica SAY, op. cit., p. 176, 1821. SOWERBY, in Richardson, Fauna

Boreali Am., in, p. 316, 1836.

Range. Ohio, Tennessee and Alabama, Indiana and Illinois.

This species is cited in J. de C. Sowerby's very inaccurate list, as
coming from " Lake Superior to the Saskatchewan." No subsequent
collector has confirmed this statement, which is doubtless entirely
erroneous.

Genus Goniobasis Lea.

Goniobasis plicifera Lea, var. silicula Gould.

Melania plicifera LEA, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., vi, p. 93, pi. xxin, fig. 90,

1836. Oregon.
Melania silicula GOULD, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, II, p. 224, 1847 ; Wilkes'

Exped., Moll., p. 141, figs. 164, 1640, 1852. Nisqually, Oregon.



FAMILY AMNICOLID^E 1 17

Range. Northern California, Oregon and Washington.

Vancouver Island (Forbes) ? British Columbia in streams west of
the Cascades (Lord).

This species so much resembles the viviparous Melania of the Ha-
waiian Islands and the Orient, which has a fringed mantle edge, that
for a long time it was doubted whether the little group of Pacific
Coast species was not related to the oriental forms rather than to the
Goniobasis of the eastern United States. An examination of the liv-
ing animal by the writer a few years ago showed, however, that the
Oregon species has a plain mantle edge and is oviparous, so that the
resemblance referred to, though obvious, is probably merely the
result of convergence, and expresses no intimate relationship.

Tryon regarded Gould's silicula as a species ; others have thought it
a variety of the older plicifera. Further studies are necessary to de-
termine the question.

Family AMNICOLIDJE.

Genus Amnicola Gould and Haldeman.
Amnicola limosa Say.

Paludina limosa SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., I, p. 125, 1817.
NICHOLSON'S Encyc., third American ed., p. 12, 1819.

Paludina porata SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., n, p. 174, 1821.

Amnicola porata GOULD, Inv. Mass., p. 229, fig. 157, 1841.

Amnicola limosa HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., p. 10, pi. i, figs. 5, 6, 1845.
BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., in, p. 84, fig. 166,
1865.

Lyogyrus lehnerti ANCEY (MONSTR.).

Range. Virginia to Wisconsin and Hudson Bay.
Lake Superior to the Height of Land ; Athabaska ^ IG ' S *' Am ~
at Lake La Loche (Richardson), N. Lat. 56 30' ;
Lake of the Woods ; Manitoba ; Moose Factory, Hudson Bay ! Big
Sioux River, Nebraska ! Salt Lake basin, Utah Lake ! Utah.

This is the type of the genus, and it seems to reach
&> the headwaters of the Atlantic and Hudson Bay drain-

s') age but not to reach the drainage on the other side of

FIG. 85. Am- the watershed alluded to.
nicola fallida.

Amnicola pallida Haldeman.

Amnicola pallida HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., pt. in, cover p. 3, 1842, pt. vin,
p. 12, pi. i, fig. 7, 1845. BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., in, p.
83, fig. 165, 1865.

Range. New York northward to Canada and Manitoba.
Lake Winnipeg, Brandon, and Pine Creek, Manitoba.



Il8 LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS

These northern localities are cited from the literature. I have seen
no Manitoban specimens.

Amnicola emarginata Kiister.

Paludina obtusa LEA, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., n, p. 34, 1841, not of Troschel,




Paludina emarginata KUSTER, Conch. Cab., ed. n, Mon. Paludina, p. 50, pi.

x, figs. 3, 4, 1852.
Amnicola cincinnatiensis BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., in, p. 85, fig.

169, 1865, not of Anthony ?

Range. Ohio and north-ward to Moose River, Hudson Bay.

Red River of the North ; Manitoba ; lower Sas-
katchewan, near Lake Winnipeg ! Moose Factory !
N. Lat. 51 on Hudson Bay.

More or less confusion has existed between the va-
rious shells which have carried the specific name cin-
cinnatiensis in this family. The present species is
FIG. 86. Am- the small shell with a flat planorboid apex which has
nicola emargi- usua u y been called Bythinella obtusa Lea. Baker,

in his Mollusks of the Chicago Area, unites cincin-
( magnified).

natiensis Binney with this species. It does not seem

to me to resemble the obtusa of Lea, particularly.

Amnicola cincinnatiensis Anthony.

Paludina cincinnatiensis ANTHONY, Boston Journ. Nat. History, in, p. 279, pi.

in, fig. 3, 1840.
Amnicola ( Cincinnatid) cincinnatiensis BAKER, Moll. Chicago

Area, n, p. 325, pi. xxvi, fig. 14, 1902.

Range. New York to Utah, Texas to Hudson
Bay. Moose Factory, Hudson Bay ! FlG - 8 7- Am ~

m, . j ... < ,1 TT i T- nicola cincinnat-

1 he identity of the Hudson Bay specimens is ap-

. J r tensis.

patently indubitable. The species is asserted by Pils-

bry to occur in Texas and at various points in the basin of Great Salt

Lake, Utah.

Genus Lyogyrus Gill.
Lyogyrus granum Say?

Paludina grana SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., n, p. 378, 1822.
Amnicola granum HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., vin, p. 17, 1845. BINNEY,
Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., in, p. 86, fig. 170, 1865.

Range. Virginia northward to the Great Lakes and Manitoba?
Pennsylvania (Say). Pine Creek, Manitoba (Miller Christy).


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