Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899).

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Moll. Terr. France, pp. 23, 30, 119, 1805. Type Helix pellucida Miiller,

Verm. Terr., p. 215.

Vitrinus MONTFORT, Conch. Syst., n, p. 238, 1810.
Cobresia JAC. HUBNER, Mon. Test. Bairische Landschn. Cobresien, 1810 ;

(pages and plates not numbered).

Hyalina STUDER, Syst. Verz. Schweiz. Conch., p. n, 1820: not of Schu-
macher, 1817.
Limadna HARTMANN, Neue Alpina, I, p. 206, 1821 ; Sturm's Deutschl. Fauna,

abth. vi, heft v, pp. 41, 54, 1821 ; not of Cuvier, 1817.
Helicolimax FERUSSAC pere, M6m. Soc. Med. d'Emul., rv, p. 390, 1802; et

fils, Tabl. Syst. des Lim., pp. 19, 21, 1821.
Semilimax FERUSSAC pere, Der Naturforscher (Halle), pt. 28, 1802, fide Fer-

russac fils, loc. cit., 1821.


Semilimax STABILE, Revue et Mag. Zool. (Guerin), Aug., 1859, p. 41 ; Moll.

Terr. Viv. Piem., p. 23, 1864. KOBELT, Cat. der Europ. Faun. leb. Bin-

nenconch., p. 3, 1871 (as a section of Vitrina, group of V. diaphana

Drap.). PFEIFFER, Nom. Hel. Viv., p. 26, 1878.

Pagana GISTEL, Naturg. Thierr., p. 168, 1848 (new name for Vitrina Drap.).
Phenacolimax STABILE, Rev. et Mag. Zool. (Guerin), Aug., 1859, p. 42 ; Moll,

Terr. Viv. Piem., p. 24, 1864. PFEIFFER, Nom. Hel. Viv., p. 27, 1878.
Helicolimax KOBELT, Cat. der Europ. Faun. leb. Binnenconch., p. 4, 1871,

(Sect, of Vitrina, s.s.).
TrochoTjitrina SCHACKO, in Boettger, Jahrb. Deutsch. Mai. Ges., vn, p. 379,

Oct., 1880; type Vitrina lederi Boettger.
Gallandia BOURGUIGNAT, Descr. Nouv. Genre Gallandia, Aug., 1880, pp. 4-8,

1st sp. Vitrina conoidea Martens.
Oligolimax FISCHER, in Paulucci, Faun. Calabria, p. 37, 1880. PAULUCCI,

Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., vn, p. 75, 1881. FISCHER, Man. de Conchyl.,

p. 464, 1883 ( V. pauluccice Fischer).
Parmacellina SANDBERGER, Land u. Sussw. Conch, d. Vorwelt, p. 232, pi.

xin, 1871. Sole ex. P. vitrincE/ormis Sandb., Eocene.
Vitrina PILSBRY, Class. Cat. Landsh. Am., p. 25, 1898.
Chlamydea WESTERLUND, Fauna d. Pal. Reg., I, p. 19, 1886 (V. bicolor

Westerlund, 1881).

The shell in this group and its allies is reduced to very simple terms
and the differences between species appear trifling. But there appears
to be quite a wide range of character in the soft parts, from whence
it follows that several sections can be recognized in the genus as re-
stricted, while some species, formerly regarded as belonging to Vitrina,
are now scattered in widely separated genera.

The true Vitrina seems confined to the northern hemisphere.
The following sections are recognized :

Vitrina Drap. s. s. 1801. Type V. pellucida Miiller. Helicoli-
max Fe"russac pere, 1801, is identical, and Semilimax Stabile hardly

Oligolimax Fischer. Type V. pauluccia Fischer.

Phenacolimax Stabile, 1859. Type V. major Fe"r.

Gallandia Bourguignat, Aug., 1880. Type V. conoidea von
Martens. Trochovitrina Schacko, Oct., 1880, is synonymous.

The North American and Greenland species are true Vitrina, the
other forms belong to the Old World only.

The New World groups Vitrinozonites Binney and Velifera Binney
may be regarded as of generic rank, and are extra limital to the region
now under discussion.

Vitrina angelicae Beck.

Vitrina angelica BECK, Index, p. i, 1837 ; name only. MOLLER, Index, p. 4,
1842. MORCH, Am. Journ. Conch., iv, p. 27, pi. in, figs. I, 4, 1868.
MORCH, in Rink's Danish Greenland, p. 436, 1877.

Helix pellucida FABRICIUS, Fauna Gronl., p. 389, 1780, not of Miiller, 1774.


Range. Greenland.

This species is more like the V. beryllina of Europe than the
American species. The latest data given by Posselt
indicate that it is not found in Iceland. Binney has
given an enlarged illustration of this species (fig. 25)
in his Land and Fresh Water Shells of North America, FIG. 25. Vit-
I, p. 28. rina angelica, \.

Vitrina limpida Gould.

Vitrina pellucida DE KAY, Zool. N. Y. Moll., p. 25, pi. in, fig. 42, 1843;

not of Miiller, 1774.
Vitrina limpida GOULD, in Agassiz, Lake Superior, p. 243, 1850. MORSE,

Journ. Portland Soc. Nat. His., I, p. u, pi. v, fig. 17, 1864. BINNEY,

Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., i, p. 27, figs. 23, 24, 1869.
Vitrina americ ana PFEIFFER, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., for 1852, p. 156;

Conch. Cab., ed. n, Vitrina, p. 9, pi. I, figs. 22-25, 1854.

Range. Central New York and northward, from
New Brunswick to Alberta and Hudson Bay.

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Manitoba at Carberry
FIG. 26. Vit- anc j L a k e o f the Woods ; Red Deer and Laggan in

rina limpida Alberta . Moose Factory ! James Bay ; Norway House,
(Maine), \. .

in damp woods.

This species has been reported from the Rocky Mountain region by
Ingersoll, but I regard his specimens so identified as varieties of V.

Vitrina alaskana Ball, nom. nov.

Vitrina pfeifferi NEWCOMB, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., n, p. 92, 1861. TRYON,
Am. Journ. Conch., n, p. 244, pi. in, fig. 3, 1866. BINNEY, Land and
Fw. Sh. N. Am., I, p. 28, fig. 26, 1869. Not V. pfeifferi Deshayes, in
Fr., Lindens, 1822.

Range. New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, central California, all at
considerable altitudes, and northward.

Nanaimo, Vancouver Island, B. C. ; Muir Inlet, Alaska ! St. Paul,
Kadiak Island ! Popof and Unga Islands, of the Shumagin group !
Akutan ! Unalga ! Rooluk ! and Unalaska ! of the Aleutian chain ; St.
Paul ! and St. George Islands, Bering Sea, Alaska, in tall grass of
bluff fifty feet above the sea !

This species has been referred to as pellucida, limpida and exilis,
and when fully grown under favorable conditions the shell may reach
10 mm. in major diameter, though most of the specimens as collected
are considerably smaller. The shell is translucent, with a marked
greenish tinge, and not over three whorls. It is flatter than limpida,


larger, and of a different tint, and the size of the whorls increases
more rapidly. It is less flat and much larger than V. exilis, which is
also of a different hue.

It is the most common land shell on most of the islands of Bering
Sea and on the continent near the sea, where it usually occurs, but as
we move southward we find it occurring at continually greater eleva-
tions and entirely absent from the warm dry plains and valleys. It
attains from 7,500 to 10,800 feet elevation in the Sierra and Rocky

*Vitrina exilis Morelet.

Vitrina exilis MORELET, Journ. de Conchyl., vn, p. 8, 1858. PFEIFFER,
Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, p. 799, 1859. BINNEY, Bull. U. S. N. Mus., No.
28, p. 178, fig. 172, 1885 ; Terr. Moll., v, pp. 138, 200, pi. n, fig. B.

Range. Northeastern Asia and adjacent islands, from Japan

Kamchatka, at Petropavlovsk ! Bering Id. (Vega Expd.).

This is a small species, of a whitish or translucent glassy hue ;
smaller and with a more elevated spire than its American representa-
tive V. alaskana. According to Binney V. exilis has the jaw and
radula as usual in the genus, the transverse rows of teeth numbering
37 . I . 37, with seven perfect laterals.

I have seen no specimens from east of the Commander Islands ; the
shells thus identified are probably all V. alaskana.

Genus Vitrea Fitzinger.
Vitrea radiatula Alder.

Helix radiatula ALDER, Cat. Test. Newcastle upon Tyne, p. 12, No. 50,
1830. GRAY, in Turton's Man., p. 173, pi. xn, fig. 137, 1840.

f Helix hammonis STROM, Trondj., Selsk. Skrift., p. 435, pi. vi, fig. 16, 1765.

? Zonites viridulus MENKE, Syn., ed. n, p. 137, 1830.

Helix electrina GOULD, Inv. Mass., p. 183, fig. m, 1841.

Hyalina viridula BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., I, p. 34, figs. 41-43,
1 869 ; not of Menke ?

Hyalina pellucida LEHNERT, Science Record, n, p. 172, June 16, 1884.

Range. Holarctic. Northern Europe, Asia and America.

Manitoba, at Lake of the Woods, Carberry and Pembina ; Alberta,
at Laggan and Red Deer ; Fort Resolution, Great Slave Lake ! British
Columbia, at Departure Bay ! Comox ! and Union Bay ! Alaska, at
Killisnoo ! Klukwan ! Portage Bay ! Seduction Tongue ! Anuk ! St.
Paul, Kadiak Island ! Unga Island, Shumagins ! Unalaska, Aleutians !
Nulato, Yukon River ! Point Barrow ! Bering Island, Bering Sea !
Petropavlovsk, Kamchatka !



The species as described by Strom is unrecognizable and his name
should be rejected. There is some doubt as to whether the Z.
viridula of Menke is identical with the present species or not.

Vitrea nitidula Draparnaud.

Helix niiidula DRAPARNAUD, Hist. Moll., p. 117, pi. vni, figs. 21-22, 1805.
Zonites nitidulus GRAY, in Turton, Man., p. 172, pi. xu, fig. 136, 1840.

Range. Europe, northern and middle; Italy.
Fort Resolution! Great Slave Lake (Kennicott).
The identification and locality are indubitable.

Vitrea binneyana Morse.

Hyalina binneyana MORSE, Journ. Portland Soc. Nat. Hist., I, p. 13, figs. 25,
26, pi. II, fig. 9, pi. iv, fig. 31, 1864. BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N.

Am., I, p. 39, figs. 56-8, 1869.
Helix morsei TRYON, Am. Journ. Conch., i, p. 188,


Hyalina binneyi BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am. ,
I, p. 39, footnote.

Vitrea binneyana PILSBRY, Class. Cat., p. 26, 1898.
FIG. 27. Vitrea bin- ,

neyana Morse. Range. Quebec and Maine to northern Mich-

igan and British Columbia.
Brandon, Manitoba ; Nanaimo, B. C.

Vitrea indentata Say.

Helix indentata SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., n, p. 372, 1822.

GOULD, Inv. Mass., p. 181, fig. 109, 1841.
Hyalina indentata MORSE, Journ. Portland Soc. Nat. Hist., I, p. 12, fig. 21;

pi. ii, fig. 11, pi. v, fig. 22, 1864. BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am.,

J. P- 35. n g s - 44-46, 1869.

Range. Mexico to Manitoba, United States and Canada, eastward
from the Rocky Mountains. Pine Creek, Manitoba.

Genus Euconulus Reinhardt.

Helix (sp.) MULLER, Gmelin, Montagu, Draparnaud, eta/., 1774-1820.
Trochus (sp.) DA COSTA, Brit. Conch., p. 35, 1778.

Teba (sp.) LEACH, Proofsheets, 1820, fide Rossmassler Icon. , 11, p. 38, 1838.
Conulus FITZINGER, Syst. Verz. Weichth., p. 94, 1833 ; not Conulus Rafi-

nesque, Analyse de la Nature, p. 145, 1815.
Polita (sp.) HELD, Weichth. Bayerns, Isis, Dec., 1837, col. 916.
Petasia (sp.) BECK, Index, p. 21, 1837.
Zonites (sp.) MOQUIN TANDON, Moll, de France, p. 68, 1855.
Hyalina (sp.) VON MARTENS' Albers, p. 73, 1850. BINNEY, L. & Fw. Sh.

N. Am., pt. I, p. 46, 1869.
Euconulus (fulvus) REINHARDT, Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Fr. zu Berlin, for 1883,

p. 86. PILSBRY, Nautilus, xiv, Nov., 1900, p. 81. WOODWARD,

Brit. Nonmarine Moll., p. 353, 1903.
Hyalinia (sp.) MORCH, Syn. Moll. Terr. Dan., p. 14, 1864. WESTERLUND,

Nachrichtsbl. Mai. Ges., xv, p. 173, Dec., 1883.


Arnouldia BOURGUIGNAT, Bull. Soc. Mai. de France, vn, p. 328, 1890.
Vitrea (sp.) E. A. SMITH, Journ. Conch. (Leeds), vi, p. 339, 1891.
Trochulus WESTERLUND, Fauna Pal. Reg., ui te beil, p. 16, 1886 ; not of the

Museum Calonnianum, p. 26, 1797, not Trochula Schleuter, Verz., p. 7,


This genus has had a number of names applied to it, among which
one is proposed by Westerlund as taken from Da Costa (1778) but, as
indicated by Sherborne in the Index Animalium, Da Costa merely
quoted part of a polynomial phrase _( Trochilus terrestris mortoni}
in his synonymy, from Morton's Northamptonshire (London, 1712),
and did not use the word Trochilus in a generic sense. Moreover, if
he had, Trochilus had previously been used by Linne for a genus of
birds. There seems at present no reason to doubt that the first valid
name for the genus is Euconulus Reinhardt, while the typical species,
as will be evident from the following synonymy, is E. trochiformis
(Montagu) .

Euconulus trochiformis (Montagu).

? Helix fulva, ex parte MULLER, Verm. Terr, et Fluv., II, p. 57, 1774 ; Zool.

Dan. Prodr., p. 240, No. 2905, 1776.
Trochus terrestris (LISTER) DA COSTA, Brit. Conch., p. 35, 1778; not of

Pennant, 1767.
Helix trochiformis MONTAGU, Test. Brit., n, p. 427, pi. n, fig. 9, 1803. Not

of Ferussac, 1819.
Helix trochulus MONTAGU, op. cit., in syn., not of Miiller, 1774. DILLWYN,

Descr. Cat. Rec. Sh., n, 916, 1817.
Helix fulva DRAPARNAUD, Hist. Nat. des Moll. Ter. et Fluv. France, p. 81,

pi. VII, figs. 12, 13, 1805. R6SSMASSLER, Icon., II, pt. II, p. 38, pi. 39,

%. 535. l8 38.
Helix nitidula VON ALTEN, Syst. abh. Erd. u. Fluss-Conch., p. 53, pi. iv, fig.

8, 1812.

Helix fulva NILSSON, Hist. Moll. Suec., p. 13, 1822.
Helix trochiformis MATON and RACKETT, Linn. Trans., vin, p. 200, 1807.

FLEMING, Edin. Encyc., vn, p. 80, 1813. WOOD, Ind. Test., pi. 32, fig.

68, 1825. JEFFREYS, Linn. Trans. , xvi, p. 331, 1830.
Teba fulva LEACH, Syn. Brit. Moll. Proofsheets, p. 99, \2>2o;fide Rossmas-

sler, Icon., n, p. 38, 1838. LEACH, Syn. Brit. Moll. (ed. Gray), p. 72,


Helix trochilus FLEMING, Brit. An., p. 260, 1828.

Helix mandralisci BIVONA, Nuovo Moll. Palermo, p. 16, pi. i, fig. 6, 1839.
Helix fulva var. mortoni JEFFREYS, Linn. Trans., xvi, p. 332, 1830.
Conulus fulvus FITZINGER, Syst. Verz., p. 94, 1833.
Polita fulva HELD, Weichth. Bayerns, Isis, Dec., 1837, col. 916.
Helix (Petasid) trochiformis BECK, Index, p. 21, 1837.
Zonites {Conulus) fulvus MOQ. TANDON, Moll. France, p. 68, 1855.
Helix (Conulus) fulva ALBERS, Heliceen, p. 73, 1850.
Hyalina {Conulus) fulva VON MARTENS' Albers, p. 73, 1860.
Hyalinia (Petasia} fulva MORCH, Syn. Moll. Terr. Dan., p. 14, 1864.
Euconulus fulvus REINHARDT, Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde zu Berlin, p. 86,



Arnouldia fulva BOURGUIGNAT, Bull. Soc. Mai. de France., vn, p. 328, 1890.
Vitrea (Conulus) fulva E. A. SMITH, Journ. Conch. (Leeds), vi, No. x, p. 339,


Euconulus fulvus WOODWARD, Brit. Nonmarine Moll., p. 353, 1903.
Helix egena SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., v, p. 120, 1825.
Hyalina (Conulus) fulva BINNEY, Land and Freshw. Sh. of N. Am. part I, p.

46, fig. 73, 1869.
Hyalinia (Conulus) trochifonnis (MONTAGU) WESTERLUND, Nachr. Mai. Ges.,

xv, p. 173, Dec., 1883.
Trochulus trochifonnis WESTERLUND, Fauna Pal. Reg., in 18 beilage, p. 16,

Conuhis chersinus MORSE, Journ. Portland Soc. N. Hist., I, p. 19, figs. 44,

46, pi. II, fig. 4, pi. vii, fig. 45, 1864, not Helix chersina Say, 1821.
Conulus fulvus (MULLER), and var. alaskensis PILSBRY, Nautilus, XII, No.

10, pp. 115-6, 1899.
Euconulus fulvus PILSBRY, Nautilus, xiv, Nov., 1900, p. 81.

Variety fabricii (Beck).

Helix nitida FABRICIUS, Fauna Gronl., p. 389, 1780, not of Miiller.
Helix (Petasid) fabricii BECK, Index, p. 21, 1837, nude name. MOLLER,
Index Moll. Groenl., p. 7, 1842.

Range. Holarctic, and widely distributed south-

Canada ; Manitoba at Carberry, Pine Creek, Pem-
bina, and Lake of the Woods ; in Alberta at Laggan,
Red Deer, Olds and McLeod ; English River, Kee-
watin; California! Oregon! Washington! Victoria, f orm ^ ( maen i_
Vancouver Island ! Sitka, Alaska ; Unalaska ! Bering fied x
Island, Bering Sea ! Petropavlovsk, Kamchatka !
Pooten, Konyam and St. Lawrence Bays, eastern Siberia.

Variety fabricii Moller. Greenland ! Ungava !

Variety alaskensis Pilsbry. Yukon drainage, Lake

FIG. 29. Eu- Lindeman to Point Romanof and St. Michael,
conulus trocki- Alaska ; Dyea valley, Southeastern Alaska !
formis var. fa- This f am iii ar ii tt i e s h e ll has had various vicissitudes
in nomenclature. The name fulva Miiller, by which
it is best known, was based, according to Beck, who
was custodian of Muller's types, upon Helix bidentata Gmelin, while
a shell which Miiller supposed to be the young, but did not figure
or fully describe, was supposed by some of the early naturalists to be
our species. Another unfigured species, Helix trochulus Miiller, was
thought by Dillwyn to be identical with our fulva, but the measure-
ments forbid the identification, and Pfeiffer came to the conclusion
that H. trochulus is identical with the young tip of Buliminus ob-
scurus. Fabricius supposed our shell to be identical with Helix


hammonis Strom (1765), but Strom's figure is widely umbilicated and
so rude as to be practically unidentifiable.

The first specific name which unmistakably applies to our shell, and
to it alone, is the trochiformis of Montagu, which it seems advisable
to adopt.

Under the name fulva several distinct though very closely allied
forms have been generally included. Reinhardt, Bourguignat and
lastly Pilsbry have thrown additional light on this subject, and a num-
ber of species or marked varieties are now recognized. The Helix
chersina of Say is a southern form, while the U. egena of Say is
generally admitted to be a synonym of the trochiformis.

The Euconulus fabricii of Greenland seems to be merely a case
of an offshoot which by isolation has been enabled to assume distinctive
characters, which have hardly reached a greater than varietal rank.

Genus Zonitoides Lehmann.
Zonitoides nitidus Miiller.

Helix nitida MULLER, Hist. Verm., II, p. 32, 1774.

Helix lucida DRAPARNAUD, Hist. Moll, de France, p. 103, 1805 ; not of the

Tableau, 1801.
Hyalina nitida TRYON, Am. Journ. Conch., n, p. 250, pi. iv, fig. 24, 1866.

BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., I, p. 31, figs. 35, 36, 1869.
Zonitoides nitidus PILSBRY, Class. Cat., p. 27, 1898.

Range, Holarctic. Europe, northern United States, British
America, Alaska, Japan.

Red River drift, Manitoba ; Peace River, Athabaska ; Fort Resolu-
tion, Great Slave Lake ; Seattle, Wash. ! Klukwan, Alaska (Krause) .

This species has been found so widely spread that it cannot reason-
ably longer be regarded as merely a European emigrant.

Zonitoides arboreus Say.

Helix arboreus SAY, Nicholson's Encyl., ist Am. edition, pi. iv, fig. 4, 1817.
Helix arborea GOULD, Inv. Mass., p. 182, fig. no, 1841. MORSE, Am. Nat.,

I, p. 542, fig. 30, 1867.
Hyalina arborea MORSE, Journ. Portland Soc. Nat. Hist., I, p. 14, fig. 28, pi.

vi, fig. 29, 1864. BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., i, p. 33, figs. 38-

40, 1869.
Helix breiveri NEWCOMB, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., in, p. 118, 1864.

Range. North America generally and Japan.

Labrador ; Ontario ; English River ! Keewatin and Moose Factory ;
Carberry and Lake of the Woods, Manitoba ; Laggan and Red Deer,
in Alberta ; Great Slave Lake ! Oregon, at Weston ! Vancouver Island
at Victoria ! Departure Bay ! Nanaimo ! Comox ! Union Bay ! etc. ;
in Alaska at Unalaska ! Petropavlovsk, Kamchatka! Japan (Hirase).



Zonitoides randolphi Pilsbry.

Zonitoides randolphi PILSBRY, Nautilus, xii, p. 87, 1898. RANDOLPH, op.
cit., p. no, 1899.

Range. Lake Lindeman, headwaters of the Yukon, British

I have not seen this species, which is less than 5 mm. in diameter.
It has not been figured.

Zonitoides minusculus Binney.

Helix minuscula BINNEY, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., in, p. 435, pi. xxn, fig.

4, 1840. MORSE, Am. Nat, i, p. 543, fig. 35, 1867.
Pseudohyalina minuscula MORSE, Journ. Portland Soc. N. Hist., i, p. 16, fig.

34, pi. vii, fig. 35, 1864.

Range. North America generally.

Red River of the North, Manitoba ; Victoria and Departure Bay !
Vancouver Island ; Berg Bay, Muir Inlet ! Alaska ; Coal Harbor,
Unga Island, Shumagins ! Rooluk Island ! near Unalga, Aleutians,

Zonitoides milium Morse.

Helix milium MORSE, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vn, p. 28, 1859; Am.

Nat., i, p. 543, fig. 36, 1867.
Striatura milium MORSE, Journ. Portland Soc. Nat. Hist.,

I, p. 1 8, figs. 41, 42, pi. vii, fig. 43, 1864.

Range. Eastern United States and Canada. Mani-
toba (rare, Hanham).

The report of this species from Vancouver Island FlG> 3- Zon ~

was probably based on the following form. Z. minus- {t ides mt7t ' um <

from below
culus has also been wrongly identified as Z,. tmhurn. ( maffn ifj et n

Zonitoides pugetensis Dull.

Patulastra f (Punc turn ? ) pugetensis DALL, Nautilus, vin, No. n, p. 130,

Mar., 1895.

Zonitoides pugetensis PILSBRY, Nautilus, ix, p. 18, 1895.
Zonitoides (^Pseudohyalina) pugetensis DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxiv,

p. 500, pi. xxvn, figs. 10, 12, 1902.

Range. Puget Sound region, Oregon, California.
Seattle, Wash. ! Nanaimo, Vancouver Island.

Genus Gastrodonta Albers.
*Gastrodonta gularis Say ?

Helix gularis J. DE C. SOWERBY, in Richardson, Fauna Bor. Am. , m, p.
315, 1836 (nude name).

Range. Lake Superior, Winnipeg, and Saskatchewan River
( So werby ) .


This name is doubtless one given by Sowerby to some unknown
shell, as it is as certain as almost anything can be, that Helix gularis
Say was never collected in the region referred to.

Genus Pristiloma Ancey.
Pristiloma lansingi Bland.

Zonites lansingi BLAND, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., xi, p. 74, figs, i, 2, 1875.
Microphysa lansingi BINNEY, Man. Am. Land Sh., p. 90, figs. 55, 56, 1885.
Pristiloma lansingi PILSBRY, Class. Cat., p. 29, 1898.

Range. Oregon, Washington, British Columbia.
Astoria, Oregon ! Seattle, Wash. ! common at Victoria ! and Nan-
aimo ! Vancouver Island.

Pristiloma stearnsii Bland.

Zonites stearnsii BLAND, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., xi, p. 76, fig. 3, 1875,

(Astoria, Oregon).
Microphysa stearnsii BINNEY, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xi, No. 8, p. 147, pi.

ii, figs. N, o, 1883 ; xiii, No. 2, p. 44, 1886.
Pristiloma steamsi BINNEY, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xxn, No. 4, p. 176,


Range. Columbia River to Dyea, Alaska.

Astoria and Portland, Oregon ! Olympia, Wash. ! Comox ! Union
Bay ! and Salt Spring Island, British Columbia ; Killisnoo, Por-
tage Bay, Anuk, Dyea valley, Klehini and Klukwan, Southeastern

Pristiloma taylori Pilsbry.

Pristiloma taylori PILSBRY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., for 1899, p. 185, pi.
ix, figs. 6, 7, 8 (Nanaimo).

Range. Oregon, Washington and British Columbia at Nanaimo,
Vancouver Island.

*Pristiloma pilsbryi Vanatta.

Pristiloma pilsbryi^ ANATT 'A, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., for 1899, p. 120,
fig. I (3 views).

Range. Portland, Oregon.

*Pristiloma idahoense Pilsbry.

Pristiloma idahoense PILSBRY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., for 1902, p. 593,
(Weiser Canyon).

Range. Idaho, in Washington and Boise counties at Weiser
Canyon and Big Payette Lake.

This and the preceding species will probably be found within our
area when it is thoroughly explored.


Pristiloma? arctica Lehnert.

Hyalina arctica. LEHNERT, Science Record, n, p. 172, June 16, 1884.
f Conulus arcticus DALL, in Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. , for 1 899, p. 1 87.
? Pristiloma arctica PILSBRY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., for 1899, p. 186,
pi. ix, figs. 3, 4, 5.

Range. Yakutat Bay, Alaska, to Point Barrow.

Point Barrow, Lat. 71 25' N. ! Unalaska ! Coal Harbor, Unga
Island, Shumagins ! Orca, Prince William Sound ! and Yakutat Bay,
Alaska !

This may prove to be a depressed Euconulus when the animal is
anatomically examined.

The species was formerly confused with P. stearnsii. It occurs
in the moss of the tundra near Point Barrow, where at most it can
have but three months of activity out of the whole year.

Family LIMACIIXffi.

Genus Agriolimax Morch.

FIG. 31. Agriolimax agrestis L.

Agriolimax agrestis Linnet

Limax agrestis LIKNE, Syst. Nat., ed. x, p. 652, 1758. FORBES and HAN-
LEY, Brit. Moll., iv, p. 13, pi. DDD, fig. 3, 1853.

Range. Both coasts of America, introduced from Europe.
Victoria, B. C. ! Manitoba ; Ungava !

Agriolimax hyperboreus Westerlund.

Limax hyperboreus WESTERLUND, Land och Sotv. Moll. Sibiriens, p. 21, 1876.

BINNEY, Man. Am. Landsh., p. 473, fig. 416, 1885; Bull. Mus.

Comp. Zool., xin, No. 2, p. 42, 1886 ; xix, No. 4, p. 205, fig., pi. vm,

fig. F, 1890.
Limax (Agriolimax) hyperboreus DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., for 1886, p.

202, Oct., 1886.

Range. The Arctic and boreal regions of both hemispheres.

Bering Id. ! Kamchatka ! Chukchi Peninsula ! Alaska at Norton
Sound ! Nushagak ! Unalaska ! Coal Harbor, Shumagins ! St. Paul
Island, Bering Sea ! Kadiak Island ! Sitka ! and Cape Fox ! In Van-
couver Island at Comox ; Seattle, Wash. ; Alberta at Laggan, altitude
5, 200 feet; Manitoba; Ungava, Labrador !

This little black slug is the prevalent and almost the only animal of
its kind in the higher latitudes of North America. It has been referred


to A. campestris as a variety by some authors, but it is at least the
only form of campestris known in the north and seems distinct enough
to be recognized as a species.

Agriolimax berendti Strebel.

Limax berendti STREBEL and PFEFFER, Mex. 1. u. siissw. Conch., iv, p. 22,

pi. ix, figs. 10, 12 ; pi. xv, fig. 3, 1880.
Limax hemphilli BINNEY, 3d Suppl. Terr. Moll., v, p. 205, pi. vin, fig. E ;

pi. I, fig. 13, pi. II, fig. 3, 1890; Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xxn, No. 4,

p. 166, pi. in, fig. i, 1892.

Range. Guatemala to British Columbia.

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