Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899).

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Genus Amalia Moquin Tandon.
* Amalia hewstoni Cooper.

Limax (Amalia) hewstoni COOPER, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., for 1872, p.

145, pi. in, figs. BI-B5.
Amalia hewstoni PILSBRY, Class. Cat., p. 29, 1898.

Range. San Diego to Seattle. San Francisco, Calif. !

This form may perhaps be an evolution from imported specimens
of the European A. gagates. It probably extends into British

Genus Prophysaon W. G. Binney.
Prophysaon andersoni Cooper.

Arion? andersoni COOPER, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., for 1872, p. 148, pi.

in, figs. FI-F5. PILSBRY, op. cit. for 1898, p. 245, pi. x, figs. 18-22 ;

pi. XI, figs. 28, 29 ; pi. xin, figs. 59-62 ; pi. xvi, figs. 92-93, 1898.

Not P. andersoni. BINNEY, in 2d Suppl. Terr. Moll., p. 42.
Prophysaon andersoni BINNEY, 3d Suppl. Terr. Moll., v, p. 208, pi. in, fig.

i, pi. vn, fig. c, pi. i, fig. 3, pi. ix, figs, i, j, 1890.
Prophysaon andersoni vars. marmoratum and sujfusum COCKERELL, The Con-

chologist, II, pp. 72, 1 1 8.
Prophysaon hemphilli BLAND and BINNEY, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., x,

p. 295, pi. xiir, excluding fig. 5.
Prophysaon pacificum et P. flavum COCKERELL, Nautilus, in, p. in, Feb.,

1890. PILSBRY, op. cit., p. 246, 1898.
Prophysaon andersoni var. pallidum COCKERELL, Nautilus, v, p. 31, July, 1891.

Range. San Francisco north to Alaska and eastward to Idaho.

Variety pallidum Cockerell, Vancouver Island! British Columbia;
Cape Fox, Alaska !

Type (andersoni} Victoria and Nanaimo, British Columbia.

Var. pacificum Cockerell, Victoria, B. C. !

I have followed Dr. Pilsbry's arrangement of the varying forms of
this remarkable self-amputating slug.


* Prophysaon foliolatum Gould.

Arion folio latus GOULD, Moll. U. S. Expl. Exped., p. 2, pi. i, figs. 2a, 2b,

1852 : Puget Sound.

Phenacarion foliolatus COCKERELL, Nautilus, in, p. 127, Mar., 1890.
Phenacarion hemphilliVJ. G. BINNEY, 3d Suppl. Terr. Moll., v, p. 208, pi.

vni, fig. c, ix, fig. H ; 4th Suppl., p. 183 ; not Prophysaon hemphilli

Bland and Binney.
Prophysaon foliolatum (GOULD) PILSBRY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., for

1898, p. 248, pi. x, figs. 15, 1 6, 17; pi. xi, fig. 32; pi. xin, figs. 55, 56,

57, 58; pi. xiv, fig. 70; pi. xv, fig. 80; pi. xvi, figs. 90, 98.

Range. Puget Sound region.

Prophysaon humile Cockerell.

Prophysaon humile COCKERELL, Nautilus, HI, p. 112, Feb., 1890. W. G.

BINNEY, 3d Suppl. Terr. Moll., v, p. 211, pi. vn, figs. E, G, L, M, 1890.

PILSBRY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., for 1898, p. 251, pi. xvi, fig. 97.
Prophysaon fasciatum COCKERELL, in Binney, 3d Suppl. Terr. Moll. , v, p.

209, pi. vn, fig. A, 1890. PILSBRY, op. tit., p. 251, pi. x, figs. 23-27 ;

pi. xi, fig. 34; pi. xii, figs. 37-40; pi. xvi, figs. 91, 94-96.
Prophysaon fasciatum var. obscurum COCKERELL, The Conchologist, H, p. 119,

Mar. 1893.

Range. Northern Idaho to Puget Sound and northward to Alaska.

P. humile Loring, Alaska ! Seattle !

P. fasciatum Old Mission, Idaho; Chehalis and Seattle, Wash.

* Prophysaon coeruleum Cockerell.

Prophysaon caeruleum COCKERELL, Nautilus, in, p. 112, Feb., 1890. BIN-
NEY, 3d Suppl. Terr. Moll., v, p. 209, pi. vn, figs, i, j, May, 1890.
PILSBRY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., for 1898, p. 253, pi. ix, figs. 7-11;
pi. xi, fig. 30; pi. xin, figs. 51-53 ; pi. xvi, fig. 86, Nov., 1898.

P. caruleum var. dubium COCKERELL, loc. cit., 1890.

Range. Portland, Oregon; Seattle and Olympia, Wash.

Genus Ariolimax Morch.

Ariolimax columbianus Gould.

Limax columbianus GOULD, Terr. Moll., 11, p. 43, pi. LXVI, fig. I, 1851 ;
Moll. U. S. Expl. Exp., p. 3, fig. i, a, b, 1852.

Ariolimax columbianus MORCH, Mai. Bl.,vi, p. no, 1859. BINNEY, Am.
Journ. Conch., i, p. 48, pi. vi, figs. 11-13, ^65 ; Land and Fw. Shells
N. Am., i, p. 279, fig. 499, 1869 ; Man. Am. Landsh., p. 98, figs. 58-
61, 1885. PILSBRY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. for 1896, p. 342;
1898, p. 235, pi. xv, fig. 81; pi. xiv, fig. 66; pi. xv, figs. 73, 74, 1898.

Range. Santa Barbara, northward to Sitka,Victoria, and Nanaimo.

Malcolm Island and Broughton Strait, British Columbia ; SE. Alaska
(to Cross Sound?) Klawak, Prince of Wales Archipelago! Sitka,
Alaska ! and probably north to Cross Sound and Icy Strait, or even
Lituya Bay.


This is the common slug of British Columbia and Alaska, found in
damp places in the wooded region. It varies from dark maculate to
yellowish olive, and when full grown may reach a length of eight or
nine inches, when fully extended. It is very fond of the leaves of the
Alaskan skunk cabbage, a taste shared by bears and the Alaskan deer.
It produces a profuse and most tenacious slime. When the Indians
wish to catch the ruby -throat humming bird they gather two or three
of these slugs and whip them with small bare twigs. Under this
treatment slime is given off in large quantity and adheres to the twigs,
which are afterward placed among the flowers visited by the hummers.
If they alight on one of the twigs they cannot escape from the ad-
hesiveness of this singular birdlime. It is said one of the ancient chiefs
had a cape entirely covered with the resplendent plumage of the male
ruby-throat, and which was regarded as incredibly valuable. The
black spotted form seems to have been named maculatus, by Cockerell,
and the yellow mutation stramineus , by Hemphill, but they occur in-
discriminately in Alaska and are probably only individual color-muta-

'Ariolimax steindachneri Babor.

Ariolimax steindachneri BABOR, Ann. K.K. Naturh. Hof-Museum, Wien, xv,
p. 85, 1900.

Range. Puget Sound.

I am unable to state whether this is distinct or one of the mutations
of A. columbianus.

Genus Hemphillia Bland and Binney.

FIG. 32. Hemphillia glandulosa Binney.

* Hemphillia glandulosa B. and B.

Hemphillia glandulosa BLAND and BINNEY, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., x,
p. 209; pi. ix, figs, i, 3, 5, 15, 16, 17, 1872. PILSBRY and VANATTA,
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., for 1898, p. 233, pi. ix, figs, i, 2 ; pi. xn,
figs. 49, 50.

Range. Astoria, Oregon, and Puget Sound region.

* Hemphillia camelus Pilsbry and Vanatta.

Hemphillia camelus PILSBRY and VANATTA, Nautilus, xi, p. 44, Aug., 1897 ;
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., for 1898, p. 234, pi. ix, figs. 3, 4 ; pi. xn,
figs. 41, 42 ; pi. xvi, fig. 85.


Range. Northern Idaho, at Old Mission. Like other species of
northern Idaho this probably extends across the parallel into British

Genus Pyramidula Fitzinger.

Subgenus Patula Held.
Pyramidula solitaria Say.

Helix solitaria SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., u, p. 157, 1821. BIN-
NEY, Terr. Moll. U. S., I, p. 254, pi. viu, figs. 6-10 ; u, p. 208, pi.
xxiv, 1851.

Patula solitaria (SAY) BINNEY, Man. Am. Landsh., p. 254, figs. 263, 267,
268, 1885.

Helix limitaris DAWSON, Rep. Brit. N. Am. Boundary Survey, Geology, pp.

347-35. 1875.

Pyramidula solitaria limitaris PILSBRY, Class. Cat. Am. Landsh., p. 31, 1898.
Patula solitaria var. occidentalism w MARTENS, fide Pilsbry, 1. c., p. 31, 1898.

Range. Arkansas north to Ohio, west to eastern Oregon, and
northward in Alberta.

Var. limitaris, Waterton Lake, Rocky Mts. in Alberta; northern

Var. occidentalis, Dalles of the Columbia near Fort Vancouver;
Coeur d'Alene Mts., Idaho.

FIGS. 33-35. Pyramidula alternata Say.

* Pyramidula alternata Say.

Helix alternata SAY, Nicholson's Encycl., ist Am. ed., u, pi. i, fig. 2, 1817.

BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., i, p. 73, figs. 122-129, 1869.
Anguispira alternata MORSE, Journ. Portland Soc. N. Hist., I, p. 1 1, fig. 15,

pi. iv, fig. 1 6, 1864.
Helix dubia SHEPARD, Trans. Lit. Sci. Soc. Quebec, i, p. 194, 1829.

Range. Eastern North America as far north as Nova Scotia,
Lower Canada, and the international boundary.

Lake of the Woods ! (Kennicott) ; Canso, Nova Scotia {fide Bin-

Binney (op. cit., pp. 74, 76) gives the northeastern range of this
species as Labrador, but Canso, where his specimens were obtained, is


in Nova Scotia, not Labrador. I have no authentic record of this
species north of Lake of the Woods.

Subgenus Gonyodiscus Fitzinger.
Pyramidula striatella Anthony.

Helix striatella ANTHONY, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., m, p. 278, pi. in, fig.

2, 1840. GOULD, Inv. Mass., p. 178, fig. 112, 1841.
Patula striatella BINNEY, Man. Am. Land Shells, p. 69, figs. 28, 29, 1885.
Pyramidula (Gonyodiscus) striatella PILSBRY, Class. Cat. Am. Landsh., p. 32,


Range, Kansas northward to Great Slave Lake and from New
England to the Sierra Nevada, and south to Arizona.

Woods of the Winnipeg basin, Turtle Mt., Lake of the Woods !
English River ! Manitoba ; Moose Factory ! James Bay ; Great Slave
Lake at Fort Resolution ! in Alberta at Laggan, Red Deer, Olds,
and McLeod, west to the Selkirk Range.

It is difficult to distinguish immature specimens of this species from
P. cronkhitei Newc. , but when full grown perfect specimens are com-
pared it is seen that striatella is a smaller shell with a proportionately
larger umbilicus, it is of a richer brown color, more regularly and
elegantly ribbed and more polished or glistening on the surface. The
animal of striatella shows no red maculations through the translucent
shell when living, such as are seen in P. ruder ata.

Pyramidula cronkhitei Newcomb.

Helix cronkhitei NEWCOMB, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., in, p. 180, 1865.

Patula cronkhitei TRYON, Am. Journ. Conch., n, p. 263, 1866. BINNEY,

Man. Am. Landsh., p. 70, fig. 30, 1885.

Pyramidula striatella cronkhitei PILSBRY, Class. Cat. Am. Landsh., p. 32, 1898.
Patula pauper BINNEY (ex parte), Man. Am. Landsh., p. 187, 1885.

Range, Nevada and California in the wooded mountain region to
6,000 feet ; Klamath Lake and valley, Oregon, and northward.

British Columbia at Nanaimo ; Lake Lindeman, Yukon Territory ;
in Alaska at Sitka ! Chilkat Inlet ! and valley ; Chilkoot Inlet ! and
valley ! shores of Yakutat Bay ! English Bay (Merriam) ! and St.
Paul, Kadiak Island ! Popof and Unga Islands ! Shumagins ; Chika
Rocks ! and Akutan Island ! Akutan Pass ; Unalaska (Dall, Elliott,
Kincaid, Turner) !

Mr. Binney observes that this species is larger, of a lighter color, is
more coarsely (and I may add more irregularly) striated than P.
striatella. It also has when full grown a larger shell and relatively
smaller and deeper umbilicus. I am obliged to confess that I am not
able to distinguish shells long dead from those of P. ruderata, which


replaces this species on Bering Island and in Kamchatka. But when
the animals are living P. ruderata shows through the translucent shell
deep red or red-brown radiating maculations, which are situated on
the mantle. After the shells have been dead some time this macula-
tion disappears. Now the living/ 1 , cronkhitei do not show any such
color-markings. The presence of the latter led Morelet to name an
immature ruderata, Helix Jloccata. The shell figured by von Martens
in the Conchologische Mittheilungen under the name of Jloccata does
not agree with Morelet's original diagnosis, and was not found by me
during much energetic collecting at his locality, Petropavlovsk, Kam-
chatka, in 1865. If, as stated by von Martens, it really comes from
the original lot collected by Morelet it is evident that his diagnosis
(which calls for a shell with an angular periphery like young ruderata)
was founded on a mixture, of which young ruderata probably formed
a part. But I am inclined to believe that von Martens was misled in
regarding the shell he figured to be a native of Kamchatka.

Pyramidula pauper Gould was described from the same locality
as Morelet's Jloccata, and is undoubtedly the same as the shell I have
called ruderata, following Morelet, Middendorff and others. But the
P. cronkhitei from Unalaska and other places in Alaska which has
been called pauper by Dr. Cooper and others, is our American shell.
Mr. Binney thought it different from P. cronkhitei, but after much
study and consideration I cannot confirm this opinion.

Subgenus Planogyra Morse.

*Pyramidula asteriscus Morse.

Helix asteriscus MORSE, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vi, p. 128, 1857 ; Am.

Nat, I, p. 546, fig. 43, 1867.
Planogyra asteriscus MORSE, Journ. Portland Soc. Nat. Hist., I, p. 24, figs.

51, 52 ; pi. II, fig. 5 ; pi. vni, fig. 53, 1864.

flsUtflaasffrisfttsBlSHSy, Man. Am. Landsh., p. 186, figs. 185, 186, 1885.
Pyramidula {Planogyrd) asteriscus PILSBRY, Class. Cat. Am. Landsh., p. 33,


Range. Maine; Provinces of Quebec and Ontario, Canada; Van-
couver Island ? Tacoma, Wash. ?

This species has been reported from British Columbia and Wash-
ington, but it seems the identification is somewhat doubtful, and the
shells were probably Punctum clappi Pilsbry.

Genus Oreohelix Pilsbry.

Oreohelix strigosa Gould.

Helix strigosa GOULD, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., n, p. 166, 1846 : Moll. U.

S. Expl. Exped., p. 36, fig. 41, 1852. BINNEY, L. and Fw. Sh. N. Am.,

i, p. 72, 1869.


Helix cooperi BINNEY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., for 1858, p. 118 ; Land

and Fw. Sh. N. Am., I, p. 78, figs. 132-137, 1869.
Helix haydeni GABB, Am. Journ. Conch., v, p. 24, pi. vin, fig. i, 1869.
Anguispira bruneri ANCEY, La Nature, in, p. 468, Sept., 1881.
Oreohelix strigosa PILSBRY, Nautilus, xvn, No. 11, p. 131, footnote, 1904.

Range. Type at Spokane, Wash., also in the Rocky Mountain
region from northern Mexico to and somewhat beyond the 49th parallel
westward from the Lake of the Woods.

Var. cooperi, Lake of the Woods, and westward to the Rockies
near the 49th parallel.

Var. stantoni Dall (1905). Thirty-three miles southeast of Medi-
cine Hat, Assiniboia, near top of Cypress Hills, altitude 4,700 feet ;
latitude about 49 30', west longitude 110 10'.

The variety stantoni is dwarfed, measuring in maximum diameter
10.0, minimum 8.5, and height 8.0 mm., with about five whorls, a
peripheral brown band with a narrower one above and sometimes
others on the base, the remainder ashy, rudely incrementally striate,
with rounded periphery and deep narrow (i mm.) umbilicus. It is
very similar to some varieties of the European H. virgata Da Costa.
Eight specimens were collected by Dr. T. W. Stanton in 1903.

A large number of names, varietal and other, have been given to the
mutations of this species, which barely enters the region covered by
this memoir, at its southern border near the Rocky Mountains. The
group is viviparous, and the young attain a large size before extrusion.

Genus Eelicodiscus Morse.

Helicodiscus lineatus Say.

Helix lineataStCi , Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., i, p. 18, 1819. GOULD, Inv.

Mass., p. 179, fig. 103, 1841. MORSE, Am. Nat., i, p. 546, fig. 44,


Planorbis parallelus SAY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., li, p. 164, 1821.
Helicodiscus lineatus MORSE, Journ. Portland Soc. Nat. Hist, I, p. 25, figs.

61, 62, pi. ii, fig. 3; pi. vn, fig. 63, 1864. BINNEY, Man. Am. Landsh.,

p. 75, figs. 34-37 A, 1885.

Range. New Mexico to Manitoba, New England to California.
Reported as rare in Manitoba by Hanham.

FIG. 36. Helicodiscus lineatus, shell and animal (magnified).


Genus Punctum Morse.
Punctum pygmaeum Draparnaud.

Helix pygmaa DRAPARNAUD, Hist. Moll., p 114, pi. vm, figs. 8, 9, 10,

Helix minutissima LEA, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., IX, p. 17 ; Proc., n, p. 82,

1841. BINNEY, Terr. Moll., iv, p. 100, pi. LXXVII, figs. 6, 7, 1859.

MORSE, Am. Nat., i, p. 546, fig. 46, 1867.
Punctum minutissimum MORSE, Journ. Portland Soc. Nat. Hist., I, p. 27,

figs. 69, 70, pi. vm, fig. 71, 1864.

Microphysa pygmcea BINNEY, Man. Am. Landsh., p. 71, figs. 31-33, 1885.
Punctum pygniceum PILSBRY, Class. Cat. Am. Landsh , p. 33, 1898.

Range. United States generally; Quebec; Manitoba; Victoria,
Vancouver Island. Europe.

* Punctum randolphi Dall.

Pyramidula? randolphi DALL, Nautilus, vm, p. 130, Mar., 1895.
Punctum randolphi PILSBRY, Nautilus, ix, p. 18, June, 1895. DALL, Proc.
U. S. Nat. Mus., xxiv, p. 500, pi. xxvii, figs. 7, 8, 9, 1902.

Range. Seattle, Wash.

Probably exists throughout the Puget Sound region and adjacent
British Columbia.

Punctum clappi Pilsbry.

Punctum c lappi PILSBRY, Nautilus, xi, p. 133, Apr., 1898 ; Class. Cat. Am.
Landsh., p. 33, 1898.

Range. Oregon, Washington, Vancouver Island.

Salem, Wash. ; Tacoma, Wash. ; Seattle, Wash. ; Nanaimo and
Comox, Vancouver Island.

This is probably the shell which has been reported as P. asteriscus
Morse, from Vancouver Island and Tacoma. It has not been figured.

Punctum conspectum Bland.

Helix conspecta BLAND, Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist., vn, p. 163, fig. 7,

Zonites conspectus BINNEY, Terr. Moll., v, p. 121, 1873 ; Man. Am. Landsh.,

p. 86, fig. 51, 1885.
Punctum conspectum PILSBRY, Nautilus, xi, p. 133, Apr., 1898 ; Class. Cat.

Am. Landsh., p. 32, 1898.

Range. West America from middle California northward, and
east to the west slope of the Rocky Mountains. Kamchatka.

California ! Oregon ; Washington ; Puget Sound region generally ;
Victoria, British Columbia ! Departure Bay, Vancouver Island !
Sitka ! Chilkoot Inlet and valley ; Chilkat Inlet and valley ; Coal
Harbor ! Unga Island, Shumagins ; Unalaska ! Alaska. Petropav-
lovsk! Kamchatka (Dall).


The most common of the minute species in Alaska ; often found in
numbers under bits of cast-off leather and chips near the tops of
beaches. The Kamchatkan specimens are beyond suspicion.

Genus Sphyradium Charpentier.
Sphyradium edentulum Draparnaud.

Pupa edentula DRAPARNAUD, Hist. Moll., p. 59, pi. in, figs. 28, 29, 1805.
Pupa simplex GOULD, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist, in, p. 403, pi. in, fig. 21,

1840; Inv. Mass., p. 190, fig. 121, 1841.
Vertigo simplex STIMPSON, Shells of N. Engl., p. 53, 1854. MORSE, Am.

Nat., I, p. 670, figs. 67, 68, 1868. BINNEY, Man. Am. Landsh., p. 191,

fig. 195, 1885.
Pupa alticola INGERSOLL, Bull. U. S. Geol. Geogr. Survey of the Terr., No.

2, p. 128, 1875 ; ed. n, p. 391, fig., 1876. BINNEY, Man. Am. Landsh.,

p. 174, fig. 166, 1885.
Pupa columella ' ' BENSON, ' ' var. gredleri CLESSIN, from Alaska, is probably

S. edentulum.

Range. Northern Europe, Asia and America.

Canada ; heights of 8,000 to 9,000 feet
in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado ! Un-
gava Bay, Labrador ! Laggan, Alberta ;
Vancouver Island at Comox, Nanaimo and
Victoria ; Kukak Bay, Peninsula of Alaska !
Popof Island ! Shumagin Islands ; Rooluk
Island near Unalga Pass, Aleutians ! Port
, , ', -cj\ Clarence, Alaska ! Petropavlovsk ! Kam-

chatka (Dall).

This species has a wide distribution and considerable synonymy.


The following Helicidce are incertce sedis.

Helix rudis J. de C. Sowerby in Richardson, Fauna Bor. Am.,
in, app., p. 315, 1836. Nude name.

" Lake Superior, Winnipeg and Saskatchewan River."

Helix attenuata J. de C. Sowerby, op. cit., p. 315, 1836. Nude

" Lake Superior, Winnipeg, and Saskatchewan River."

Helix belcheri Pfeiffer, P. Z. S. London, for 1845, p. 128; Mon.
Helic. Viv., i, p. 104; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Mon. Hehx, pi. 190,
fig. 1328.

This species, supposed to have been collected by Capt. Belcher,
during his voyage to the Northwest Coast of America, has not been
recognized from that quarter since ; and probably, like many other


species brought home by Belcher from time to time, had got wrongly

Family SUCCINEDXffi.

Genus Succinea Draparnaud.

Succinea DRAPARNAUD, Tabl. Moll., pp. 32, 55, 1801 ; Hist, des Moll. Terr.,
pp. 24, 29, 58, 1805. Helix putris Linne and S, oblonga Drap. ;
Blainville, Man., i, p. 455, 1825.

< Amphibulima LAMARCK, Ann. du Museum, vi, p. 304, 1805; ist sp.

A. cuculata Lam. = patula Brug. Froriep, Lam. Syst. Conch., p. 19,

< Amphibulimus MONTFORT, Conch. Syst., n, p. 90, 1810.

Lucena OKEN, Lehrb. d. Naturg., in, pp. x, 311, 312, 1815; Succinea
putris (L.) Draparnaud. HARTMANN, in Sturm, Fauna Deutschl., vi,
pp. 27, 40, 54, 1821, L. pulchella Hartmann, sole ex. Not of Hart-
mann Neue Alpina, i, p. 208. MORCH, Vidensk. Medd., p. 296,1864.

Amphibulina HARTMANN, in Sturm, Fauna Deutschl., vi, pp. 42, 55, 1821 ;
i st sp. Helix putris L.

Amphibina HARTMANN, Neue Alpina, I, p. 208, 1821. MORCH, Syn. Moll.
Dan., p. 33, 1864; Vidensk. Meddel. Kjob., p. 295, 1864; ist sp. S.
Pfeiffcri Rossm.

< Cochlohydra FERUSSAC, Tabl. Syst., pp. xxxn, 26, 1821.
Succinia GRAY, in Turton, Man., 2nd ed., p. 110, 1840.
Tapada STUDER, Syst. Verz., p. u, 1820.

Succincea DESHAYES, Encyc. Meth., n, p. 18, 1830, passim.

> Helisiga LESSON, Voy. Coquille, p. 316, 1829, H. sanctcehelence Lesson,

H. and A. ADAMS, Gen. Rec. Moll., n, p. 130, 1855.

> Helisigna MRS. GRAY, Fig. Moll. An., iv, pp. 55, 113, 1859.
Neritostoma MORCH, Vidensk. Meddel. Kjob., for 1863, p. 294, 1864, ist sp.

S. putris L.

Tapada ALBERS, Heliceen, p. 55, 1850. PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, pp.
803, 808, 1859.

> Brachyspira PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv., iv, pp. 803, 804, 1859. Not of

Ehrenberg, 1858.

< Truella PEASE, P. Z. S., 1871, pp. 459, 472 ; type T. elongata Pease.
Neritostoma WESTERLUND, Fauiiu d. Pal. Reg., n, v, pp. i, 2, 1885 ; S.

putris L.

Oxyloma WESTERLUND, op. cit., pp. i, 7, 1885 ; S. dunkeri (Zelebor).
Amphibina WESTERLUND, op. cit., pp. i, 8, ist sp. S. elegans Risso.
Lucena WESTERLUND, op. cit., pp. i, 14, ist sp. S. oblonga Draparnaud.

This genus has been divided into sections on the basis of the den-
ticulation of the jaw, as follows :

Jaw without denticulations. Oxyloma (hungarica).
Jaw with a single median denticle. Amphibina {Pfeifferi}.
Jaw with a minute median denticle. Lucena {oblonga).
Jaw with three denticles Neritostoma. = Succinea s. s.

According to this scheme S. avara is an Amphibina, S. totteniana
a typical Succinea, while 5". ovalis (Say) Morse has seven denticles
and is unprovided for. The differences among the few species which


have been examined are so great that it is probably better to await a
more thorough knowledge of all the species, in the light of which we
can judge better whether this character has any systematic value or
not. Our American species resemble one another so closely that it
seems hardly likely that there are any fundamental differences between

Succinea oregonensis Lea.

Succinea oregonensis LEA, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., p. 32, 1841 ; Trans. Am.
Phil. Soc., ix, p. 5, 1844. BINNEY, Terr. Moll., n, p. 77, pi. LXVII,
fig. 2, 1851. TRYON, Am. Journ. Conch., u, p. 235, pi. (n) xvn,
fig. 1 8, 1866. BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., i, p. 270, fig. 485,

Range. California (to 6,500 feet alt .) , Oregon, Washington, and
British Columbia.

Victoria, B. C. ! Wallawalla, Wash. !

This species on the Pacific Coast takes the place in the fauna
occupied in the East by S. avara Say, which it much resembles.
The S. ' oregonensis ' reported from Winnipeg by Hanham was
probably a variety of avara. The surface has a silky unpolished
appearance, from the very fine close wrinkles with which it is covered,
and which are characteristic.

Succinea retusa Lea.

Succinea retusa LEA, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., v, p. 117, pi. xix, fig. 86, 1837.
W. G. BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., i, p. 256, fig. 454, 1869.
Succinea ovalis GOULD, Inv. Mass., p. 194, fig. 125, 1841, not of Say, 1817.
Succinea haydeni var. minor W. G. BINNEY, Land and Fw.
Sh. N. Am., i, p. 256, 1869. TRYON, Am. Journ.
Conch., n, p. 236, 1866.

Succinea decampi TRYON, Am. Journ. Conch., II, p. 237,
pi. xvii, fig. 23, 1869. BINNEY, /. c., p. 257.

Range. Northern United States, from Kentucky
FIG. -18. Sue- northward to Canada and British America.
cinearetusaLea. In Manitoba at Carberry, Lake of the Woods and
Pembina Mountain ; in Alberta at Laggan and Red
Deer. Ungava, Labrador ! James Bay at Moose Factory ! Lower Sas-
katchewan near Lake Winnipeg ! Norway House ; York Factory ;
Fort Resolution, Great Slave Lake ! Yukon River near old Fort
Yukon, Alaska ! Stewart River, Yukon district ! Dall River, north of
the Yukon ! Duncan Bay, Discovery Passage, British Columbia.

A widespread and abundant species identified by comparison of the
typical specimens or cotypes furnished by the author to the National


Succinea hawkinsi Baird.

Succinea haivkinsi BAIRD, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 68, 1863. BINNEY,
Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., i, p. 268, fig. 481, 1869.

Range. British Columbia and eastward to Manitoba.

Lake Osoyoos, B. C. ; Sitka, Alaska ! Carberry, Manitoba ! not

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