Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899).

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common.

A large species with a produced oblique aperture and acute spire.
Quite close to S. sillimani Bland.

Succinea avara Say.

Succinea avara SAY, Rep. Long's Exped., n, p. 260, pi. xv, fig. 6, 1824.
Succinea vermeta SAY, New Harmony Diss., n, No. 15, 1829. TRYON, Am.

Journ. Conch., n, p. 233, pi. (n) xvn, fig. 10, 1866.
Succinea wardiana LEA, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., n, p. 31, 1841; A

Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., ix, p. 3, 1844. TRYON, Am. |TA

Journ. Conch., n, p. 233, pi. (n) xvn, fig. 12, 1866. W}

Succinea avara BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., i, p. 262, >-'

fig. 468, 1869. Fio. 39. Sue-

Range. North America east of the Rocky Moun- cine a avara
tains from Texas to N. Lat. 62. * Sa ^

Lac des Mille Lacs to Lake of the Woods ; lower Saskatchewan
near Lake Winnipeg! Two Creeks, Manitoba; Laggan, Red Deer,
Olds, and McLeod, Alberta ; Fort Simpson, Mackenzie River in N.
Lat. 62 !

Succinea gronlandica Beck.

Succinea gronlandic a BECK, Index, p. 99, 1837 ; nude name. MOLLER, Ind.
Moll. Gronl., p. 4, 1842. MORCH, Am. Journ. Conch., iv, p. 31, pi. in,
fig. 10, 1868. BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., I, p. 265, fig. 474,
1869. POSSELT, Consp. Faunae Gronl., p. 263, 1898.

Range. Iceland and Greenland.

This species is rather close to retusa Lea but seems sufficiently dis-
tinct to be retained.

Succinea grosvenori Lea.

Succinea grosvenori LEA, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., for 1864, p. 109 ;
Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., n. s., vi, p. 179, pi.
xxiv, fig. 1 08, 1866. BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh.
N. Am., I, p. 260, fig. 462, 1869.

Range. North America, east of the Rocky Mts.
from Louisiana to British America but not far east of

clla'Tosvfnori ^ Mississi PF-

Lea"^ WoodMt., Manitoba ; Egg Lake and Red Deer, in

Alberta ; upper Mackenzie River at Fort Simpson !
1 Succinea verrilli Bland (1865, Binney, L. and Fw. Sh. N. Am., I, p. 264,
fig. 472) is probably either the young or a dwarf form of this species. It is from
Anticosti Id.




58 LAND AND FRESH WATER MOL.LUSKS

The distribution indicated by the literature is rather odd for a shell
ranging so far south, but there is no way of clearing up the doubt at
present.

Succinea rusticana Gould.

Succinea rusticana GOULD, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. Hist., n, p. 187, 1846 ; Moll.
U. S. Expl. Exp., p. 28, fig. 29, 1852. TRYON, Am. Journ. Conch., n,
p. 236, pi. (n) xvn, fig. 19, 1866. BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am.,
I, p. 269, fig. 483, 1869.

Range. Tulare valley, Calif., northward to British Columbia;
the variety alaskana to Alaska.

Comox, Vancouver Island, B. C. ! Sumas Prairie, Fraser River
valley, B. C. !

Variety alaskana Dall,nov. Flats near St. Michael, Alaska ! Point
Romanof ! Unalaska ! St. Paul, Kadiak Id. !

The Alaskan form is polished, of an olive greenish tinge, with rather
inconspicuous lines of growth ; with 3 tumid whorls, the general form
of rusticana as figured by Binney, but shorter and more tumid ; length
10, max. diam. 8, length of aperture 6.5 mm. This may prove, with
more material, to be a distinct species.

Succinea nuttalliana Lea.

Succinea nuttalliana LEA, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., 11, p. 32, 1841. BINNEY,
Terr. Moll., n, p. 81, pi. LXVII, a, fig. 4, 1851. W. G. BINNEY,
Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., i, p. 269, fig. 484, 1869.

Range. Oregon, California, Washington and British Columbia.
Victoria, Vancouver Island, B. C.

This species was also reported by Randolph from the Lewes River,
Yukon Territory, but in this case the shell was probably the quite
similar 5". retusa Lea.

Succinea obliqua Say.

Succinea obliqua SAY, Rep. Long's Exp., n, p. 260, pi. xv, fig. 7, 1824.
BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., I, p. 265, fig. 475, 1869.

? Succinea ovalis SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., i, p.

15, 1817. Not S. ovalis Gould.

Succinea campestris GOULD, Inv. Mass., p. 195, fig. 126,
1841. DE KAY, Nat. Hist. N. Y., Moll., p. 53. pi.
iv, fig. 54, 1843.

Succinea greeri TRYON, Am. Journ. Conch., II, p. 232,
pi. (n) xvii, fig. 8, 1866.

Range. From Louisiana to Hudson Bay and
FIG. 41. Sue- eastward to New England and Gasp, but not west
cinea obliqua. of the Mississippi Valley.




FAMILY



59



Lac des Mille Lacs to Lake of the Woods ! Halifax, N. S. ; Duf-
ferin, Manitoba ; Lake Winnipeg ! Moose Factory, James Bay ;
Peace River, Athabaska ! Great Slave Lake at Fort Resolution !
Balaena Bay, Newfoundland !

If the identification with Say's unfigured o-valis were beyond dispute,
the latter name is prior and would have to be adopted.

Succinea chrysis Westerlund.

Succinea chrysis WESTERLUND, Nachrbl. d. D. Mai. Ges., 1883, P- S 1 I Vega
Expd. Vetensk. lakttag. , iv, p. 198, pi. in, fig. 10, 1885.

Succinea annexa WESTERLUND, Vega Expd., p. 199, pi. in, fig. n, 1885.

Succinea chrysis var. aurelia VON MARTENS, Conch. Mitth., n, p. 184, pi.
xxxin, figs. 21-22, 1885.

Succinea lineata W. G. BINNEY, Man. Am. Landsh., app., p. 473, fig. 515,
1885, not S. lineata W. G. B., 1857.

Range. Boreal America from Greenland to Bering Strait, and on
the opposite shore of the Strait.

Greenland (Posselt) ; Fort Simpson, Mackenzie River; water-
shed of the Yukon, near Dawson, Yukon Territory ! 30 miles below
the Tanana River mouth on the Yukon, Alaska ! the Koyukuk River,
north of the Yukon ! Nulato ! Andreafski ! and the Yukon delta ! Point
Romanof ! shores of Norton Sound at Egg Island ! Besboro Island !
Cape Denbigh ! Norton Bay ! Golofnin Bay ! Port Clarence ! Konyam
Bay on the Asiatic shore of Bering Strait ; St. Michael ! St.
Mathew! St. Paul! and St. George! Islands, Bering Sea; north end
of Nunivak Island ! the Aleutian chain ! Unalaska ! Kadiak Island !
Sitka ! At Chilkat Inlet, Alaska, Krause obtained the variety aurelia
von Martens.

This is the commonest and largest land shell of the boreal American
region, passing through many mutations, but easily recognizable in all
of them ; often with a rich coloration varying from olive brown to
orange and usually lineated with more opaque lighter axial streaks. I
do not regard it as identical with the S. lineata of W. G. Binney,
though the species have some characters in common.



Family LYMNJEIDJE.

Genus Lymnaea Lamarck.

Limnea cochlea LINNE, Fauna Svecica, ed. i, pp. 374, 376, 1746 (not

binomial).
Vesica (ex parte) ANONYMOUS, Mus. Calon., p. 58, 1797 ; Helix stagnalis

(and amaruld) Linn6.
Helix (sp.) LINNE, Gmelin, Bolten in Mus. Bolt., p. 109, 1798.



60 LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS

Lymnaa LAMARCK, Prodr. Nouv. Clas. Coq., p. 75, 1799 ; Syst. des An. s.

Vert., p. 91, 1 80 1, Helix stagnalis Linne.
Limneus DRAPARNAUD, Tableau, pp. 30, 47, 1801, no type cited ; Hist., pp.

25, 28, 48, 1805. GOSSE, Nat. Hist. Moll., p. 86, 1854. TURTON,

Man., p. 127, 1831, type L. stagnalis L.

> Galba SCHRANK, Fauna Boica, in, pt. 2, pp. 262, 285, 1803 ; sole ex. L.

truncatula Miiller.
Lymnaa Roissv, Hist. Nat. Moll., v, p. 345, 1805. LAMARCK, Encycl.

Meth., pi. 459, 1816. SCHUMACHER, Essai, p. 199, 1817. LAMARCK,

An. s. Vert., vi, 2, p. 157, 1822.
Lymnaus CUVIER, Regne An., n, p. 412, 1817.
Lymnus MONTFORT, Conch. Syst., n, p. 262, 1810, L. stagnalis L.
Lymnea Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Men, iv, p. 94, 1826 ; ist sp. L. pereger

(Muller). Not Lymnea Rafinesque, Pisces, 1815.

> Radix MONTFORT, Conch. Syst., n, p. 266, 1810. Helix auricularia

Linne, sole ex. MORCH, Vidensk. Meddel. Kjob., p. 302, 1864.
Ltmnea FLEMING, Hist. Brit. An., p. 273, 1828.
Limncea DESMAREST, Rapp., Soc. Philom. Paris, 1812. BLAINVILLE, Malac,

i, p. 448, 1825. BECK, Index, p. no, 1838. MOQUIN TANDON, Hist.,

Nat. Moll. France, u, p. 458, 1855.
Lymneus BRARD, Hist, des Coq. Terr, et Fluv. Paris, p. 133, pi. 5, 1815.

SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., n, p. 167, 1821.

> Lymnula RAFINESQUE, Journ. de Phys., LXXXVIII, p. 423, 1819 ; = Lym-

nea of Authors, fide Rafinesque, 1. c.

> Omphiscola RAFINESQUE, op. cit. t p. 423, 1819. No species cited, but the

only Ohio shell corresponding even moderately to the diagnosis is L.
reflexa Say.

> Gulnaria LEACH, Proofsheets, pp. 146, 148, 1819 ; fi de Turton, Man., p.

117, 1831. GRAY'S Turton, p. 232, 1840. GRAY, P. Z. S., 1847, p. 180 ;

type L. auricularia (Linne).
Stagnicola LEACH, Proofsheets, pp. 141, 145, 1819. JEFFREYS, Linn. Trans.

xvi, ii, p. 376, May 29, 1830, L. pahistris Muller. TURTON, Man., pp.

121-124, Oct., 1831. GRAY'S Turton, pp. 237-242, 1840. GRAY, P. Z.

S., 1847, p. 1 80; no type cited. LEACH, Synops. Moll. Gt. Brit., p.

101, 1852, ist sp. L.glaber (Muller). Not Stagnicola Brehm, Aves, Dec.,

1830.
Auricularia FABRICIUS, Fortegnelse, p. 94, 1823 (nude name), not of Blain-

ville, 1816.

> Omphiscola BECK, Index, p. no, 1838, L. glabra (Muller). H. and A.

ADAMS, Gen. Rec. Moll., n, p. 255, 1855 ; not Omphiscola Raf., 1819.
~>Limnophysa FITZINGER, Syst. Verz., p. 112, 1833; type L. palustris (Muller).
BECK, Index, p. no, 1838. MORCH, Vidensk. Medd.,p. 298, 1864.

> Leptolimnea SWAINSON, Malac., p. 338, 1840; L. elongata Sowerby, =

L. glaber (Muller). MORCH, Vidensk. Meddel. Kjob., p. 298, 1864.
Adelina CANTRAINE, Mai. Med., I, p. 155, 1841 ; type A. elegans Cantraine,

not Adelina Chevrolat, Coleopt, 1833.
Leachia JEFFREYS, Linn. Trans., xvi, in, p. 519, 1833, not of Risso, 1829,

or Lesueur, 1821, L. stagnalis (Linne).

> Bulimnea HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., part 3, p. 6, July, 1841 ; typeZ/w#<?a

megasoma (Say) Haldeman. Not of H. and A. Adams.

> Acella HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., part 3, p. 6, July, 1841 ; type Limnea

gracilis (Say) Haldeman.

> Pleurolimncea MEEK, Checkl. N. Am. Fos. Eocene, pp. 9, 34, 1866 ; Rep.

Inv. Foss. Upper Missouri, p. 533, 1876 ; type P. tenuicostata Meek and
Hayden (Eocene).



FAMILY LYMN^EIDyE 6 1

> Polyrhytis MEEK, Rep. Inv. Fos. Upper Missouri, p. 532, 1876 ; type

Linincua kingi Meek (Pliocene).

> Omphiscola MEEK, Rep. Inv. Fos. Upper Missouri, p. 533, 1876 ; type

Limncea glabra (Miiller) ; not of Rafinesque.
Omphatia "RAF.," Meek, op. cit., p. 532, in syn. ; err. pro Omphiscola

Rafinesque.
? Erinna H. and A. ADAMS, Gen. Rec. Moll., n, p. 644, 1858; type E.

neivcombi Adams.

> Neritostoma H. and A. ADAMS, Gen. Rec. Moll., n, p. 253, 1855, ist sp.

L, auricularia (Linne). Not of Morch, 1864.

/ Velutinopsis SANDBERGER, Land u. siissw. Conch, d. Vorwelt, p. 700, 1875,
type Limncea velutina Desh. (Lower Pliocene).

> Leptolimnceus SANDBERGER, Land u. siissw. Conch, d. Vorwelt, p. 787,

1875 ; sole ex. cited L. glaber (Miiller).

Eulimneus SANDBERGER, Land u. siissw. Conch, d. Vorwelt, pp. 787, 844,
1875 ; sole ex. cited L. stagnalis (L).

> Fossaria WESTERLUND, Fauna, Pal. Reg., v, p. 49, 1885 ; L. truncatula

(Miiller); Acta Soc. Sci. Slav. Mend., CLI, p. 118, 1902.

> Tanousia BOURGUIGNAT, in Servain, Hist. Mai. du Lac Balaton, i88i. 1

Type L. zrmanjce Brusina ; Westerlund, op. cit., p. 53, 1885, p. 118,
1902.

> Lymnophysa (FITZINGER) HAZAY, Mai. Blatt., 2d ser., in, p. 163, 1881.

> Limnus DYBOWSKI, Bull. Imp. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg, xvm, p. 113,

March, 1903, not of Agassiz, nom., 1847.

> Omphalolimnus DYBOWSKI, Nachrichtsbl. d. d. Mai. Ges., Sept. -Oct.,

1903, xxxv, p. 143, 1903. Type L. lagorii Dybowski ; Bull. Acad. St.
Petersb., xvni, p. 113, 1903.

> Physastra TAPPARONE CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. Genov., xix, p. 245, 1883.

Type P. vestita T.-C., op. cit., p. 246. New Guinea.

> Zagrabica BRUSINA, Beitr. Pal. Oest.-Ung., 1884, Z. naticoides Brus.

WESTERLUND, Acta Acad. Sci. Slav. Mend., CLI., p. 119, 1902.
Not Limncea Poli, Test. Utr. Sicil., I, p. 31, 1791, u, p. 253, 1795 (not
binomial).

The genus Lymncea as now understood is due to Lamarck, though
several authors, including Westerlund as late as 1885, have given
credit for it to Bruguiere. This has probably arisen from a failure to
observe the dates of the different livraisons which contained the plates
of the Encyclopedic Methodique. The plate containing the name
Lymncea was not issued until 1816 (though often cited as 1791), and
then it was under the supervision of Lamarck, Bruguiere having
nothing to do with it. The name Lymncea had already been used
by Poli, in 1791, for the animal of various unrelated bivalves, but
his ingenious quadrinominal system takes the work of Poli out of
the category of those which can be cited in nomenclature, except
historically.

1 The multitude of group names used for mutations of Lymncea stagnalis and
other species by Servain in his ' Lake Balaton ' paper, can hardly be regarded as
having entered into systematic nomenclature, as they are groups of less value
than species, and physiological rather than hereditary, according to Hazay.



62 LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS

The name Lymncea has been spelled in many different ways, the
most correct being Limncea, but there seems to be no good reason for
changing the original form, especially as no derivation was given by
Lamarck. The Helix stagnalis of Linne, being the only species
mentioned, necessarily becomes the type.

Four years after Lamarck, Schrank gave the name Galba to a
species which was without doubt the Buccinum truncatulum of
Miiller. It has been referred to B. palustre Miiller, but a scrutiny of
the very careful description of both shell and animal reveals that it
agrees with no local species of the group except a young truncatula.
A little later Montfort separated the L. auricularia group under the
name of Radix, and in 1819 Rafinesque, in a summary of the forms
collected on the Ohio River, proposed Omphiscola for species which
have the peristome reflected over the pillar and body with an umbilical
chink between the reflection and the body of the shell. He cites no
species, but of the Ohio species only L. reflexa Say can be said to
agree with the diagnosis. This character is however of minor impor-
tance. Rafinesque's name has been applied to several European
species but without adequate grounds, since there is no species of the
Radix group known in any part of the Ohio system.

The name Stagnicola Leach was cited in synonymy by Jeffreys in
1830, in connection with L. palustris (Miiller) , thus antedating Lim-
nophysa Fitzinger, 1833, based on the same type. Stagnicola was
used by Brehm for a bird in December, 1830, but Jeffreys' paper was
issued May 29. Both these names have been loosely used in the lit-
erature, but must be restricted to the typical and original forms. If
the columnar species like L. glaber be separated in a section by them-
selves, Leptolimnea Swainson appears to be the first available name.
Erinna Adams is a Limnasid modified for existence on rocks in rapid
streams and waterfalls, the peristome being continued over the body
and behind the broad excavated pillar, and the spire shortened, so that
the animal may cling tightly to its situs. The descriptions of this
form are rather misleading, the so-called ' lamina ' being merely the
pillar. The fossil Velutinopsis is more like Choanomphalus than
Lymncea, judging by the figures. The description of Tanousia reads
as if it was founded upon an abnormal or monstrous specimen. The
reversed physiform Lymncea of the South Sea Islands will be included
under Physastra Tapparone-Canefri ; a species from Hawaii which
is dextral but may be otherwise similar, has recently been shown by
Pilsbry to have a somewhat different radula from the ordinary Lym-
ncea of north Europe and America.



FAMILY LYMN^EID^E 63

Dybowski has recently applied the name Omphalolinmus to a
species of Lymncea from the Crimea, which in outline resembles L.
stagnalis var. arenaria Colbeau, but which instead of having the
axis pervious and the pillar gyrate, as in most species of this type, has
the subumbilicate base and raised inner lip of the Radix section, to
which his L. lagorii probably belongs, although it has a more ele-
vated spire than most of the species of this section, being in this re-
spect intermediate between the latter and Lymncea proper.

The existence of fresh water shells in lakes or ponds where the
water, through evaporation, is gradually becoming more alkaline, has
been shown to be accompanied, in the lake-beds of the Great Basin of
the western United States, by a tendency to solidification, thickening
and corrugation or ribbing of the shells, regardless of their systematic
relations. This goes on until the alkalinity becomes so great that mol-
luscan life is no longer possible. We find in the fresh water Pliocene
beds of Utah, Lymncea, Pompholyx, Carinifex, Physa and Planorbis
exhibiting these changes as we ascend in the beds, until the latter be-
come barren of life. To these modifications we probably owe such
forms as Polyrhytis, Pleurolimncea, Vorticifex, etc. I have shown
in another place 1 how such factors may be supposed to act in the case
of land shells exposed to alkaline dust on tropical islands such as the
Galapagos. While such changes are the result of the direct action of
the environment on the individual, and not hereditary or evolutionary,
it is nevertheless convenient to recognize the results in the systematic
arrangement of the species.

Disregarding synonyms, which can be deduced from the preceding
data, the general arrangement of the groups of the genus Lymncea
would be about as follows :

Subgenus Lymnaea s. s.

Section Lymncea s. s. Shell thin, with an acute and slender spire
and expanded last whorl ; the axis twisted, forming a (usually per-
vious) spiral coil without a true umbilicus ; the callus on the body
closely appressed ; the outer lip flaring more or less, simple, sharp,
normally without any varical thickening. Type L. stagnalis (Linn) .
Holarctic.

Section Bulimnea Haldeman. Shell large and solid, bulimiform,
with an impervious axis, a twisted or subplicate pillar, the callus on
the body and pillar closely appressed, and the outer lip not thickened
or expanded. Type Lymncea megasoma Say. Nearctic.

1 Proc. A(d. Nat. Sciences Phila., for 1896, pp. 406-426.



64 LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS

Section Radix Montfort. Shell thin, usually with a short spire and
ample last whorl ; the axis twisted but not gyrate, the outer lip often
expanded, the inner one more or less elevated and continuous across
the body, forming a more or less conspicuous umbilicus ; the outer lip
thin. Type Lymncea auricularia (Linne) . Holarctic.

The umbilicus in this group varies from a mere chink to a rather
large orifice through which a bristle may be passed nearlv to the apex
of the shell.

Section Cyclolimncea Dall, nov. Shell thin, involute, the last whorl
as long as the shell, the outer lip thin, simple, not expanded, the inner
lip appressed, the axis not plicate, but with a small umbilical chink.
Type Lymncea involuta Harvey. British. The mantle is said to be
extended partly over the shell.

Section Polyrhytis Meek. Shell like Radix, but axially strongly
ribbed. Type L. u?*Meek. Pliocene, N. Am.

Section Acella Haldeman. Shell thin, smooth, acute, extremely
slender; the aperture expanded at the margin, the inner lip not
appressed, a moderate chink behind it, the axis gyrate, pervious,
not plicate; the outer lip simple, sharp. Type L. gracilis Jay.
Nearctic.

Section Pleurolimncea Meek. Shell like Acella, but axially promi-
nently ribbed. Type L. tenuicostata Meek and Hayden. Eocene,
N. Am.

Section Galba Schrank. Shell turrited, the whorls gradually in-
creasing, smooth ; the last whorl not inflated ; the aperture moderate ;
the outer lip not expanded or thickened ; the inner lip not appressed ;
the pillar not twisted or plicate, the axis minutely umbilicate. Type
L. truncatula (Miiller). Holarctic.

Subgenus Stagnicola Leach.

Section Stagnicola s. s. Shell elongate, smooth, the whorls gradu-
ally increasing, the last whorl moderate ; the outer lip sharp, not ex-
panded, with a varical thickening within, in the adult ; the pillar dis-
tinctly plicate, the inner lip appressed, the axis slightly or not at all
perforate. Type L. palustris (Mil Her). Holarctic.

Section Leptolimnea Swainson. Shell like Stagnicola but more
cylindrical, with numerous whorls and a small aperture. Type L.
glaber (Muller). Palearctic.

? Section Physastra Tapparone-Canefri. Shell like Stagnicola but
with a coarse dehiscent periostracum and coiled sinistrally. Type P.
vestita T.-C. Polynesian.



FAMILY LYMNuEID^E 65

Genus Erinna Adams.

Shell small, with a short spire, a large final whorl ; the aperture
with a continuous peristome which passes behind a broad somewhat
excavated pillar ; axis imperf orate and the pillar not plicate. Type
E. newcombi Adams. Hawaiian.

Incerta sedis.

Velutinopsis Sandberger. Shell almost planorboid, with few,
rounded, rapidly increasing whorls ; the aperture simple, suborbicular,
the peristome sharp, simple, not reflected ; the pillar lip broad, not
appressed; the axis umbilicate. Type L. velutina Deshayes. Plio-
cene of the Crimea.

Tanousia Bourguignat. Shell small ovate conic, closely and almost
involutely coiled ; the last whorl inflated, subcarinate behind, the aper-
ture contracted. Type L. zrmanjce Brusina. Pleistocene of Dalmatia.
The group was named Sandria by Brusina in 1885,^/2 Westerlund.

Zagrabica Brusina. Shell ventricose, with a short acute spire and
few rounded whorls, rugose, urnbilicate, the last whorl ample, with a
rotund transverse aperture, and continuous peristome appressed on the
columellar margin ; the outer lip simple. The type is a Pleistocene
fossil. A recent form from the Caspian has been referred to this group
by Dybowski, under the name of Z. brusiniana.

I have not seen specimens, but the description reads as if the shell
might be a member of the Radix group which has been modified by
life in brackish water.

Lymnaea stagnalis Linnet

Helix stagnalis LINNE, Syst. Nat., ed. x, p. 774, 1758; ed. XII, p. 1249,
1767.

Lymnaa stagnalis LAMARCK, Prodr., p. 75, 1799.

Lymnaa jugularis SAY, Art. Conchology, Nicholson's Encyc., I (no pagina-
tion), 1817 ; 3d ed. (p. 6), 1819. HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., p. 16, pi. iv,
1841.

Lymncea appressa SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., II, p. 168, 1818.
HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., p. 18, pi. v, 1842.

HmncEa stagnalis W. G. BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., n, p. 25, figs.
28-32, 1865.

Range. Europe, the Caucasus, western and northern Asia, the
northern United States, Canada and British America.

Lake Superior, Lake Winnipeg ! the Saskatchewan River ! Carberry,
Manitoba ; Moose Factory, James Bay ! Knee Lake, Keewatin ! Slave
River, 25 miles below Peace River ! Great Slave Lake at Fort Rae !
and Fort Resolution ! Fort Simpson ! and Fort Smith ! on the Mac-



66



LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS




FIG. 42. Lymncea
stagnalis.



kenzie River ; Fort Anderson, Lat. 68 N. ! and Lake Harrison, Lat.

70 N ! Shawnigan Lake, Vancouver Island ! and Dall River, Lat.
66 N. ! of the Yukon drainage in Alaska. The
following additional localities are cited from the
literature : York Factory, Keewatin, and the Nel-
son River ; Egg Lake, Alberta ; Red Deer, McLeod,
and Olds ; Lake Isle Lacrosse and Vermilion Lake ;
Lake Osoyoos, B. C. (but replaced west of the
Cascades by L. sumassii, according to J. K.
Lord) ; Syniakwateen Lake, B. C. ; lakes in the
Kenai Peninsula, Alaska (Wossnessenski) ; Stewart
River, Yukon district (Canadian Geol. Survey).

It seems unnecessary to cite the multitudinous
varietal names bestowed on the mutations of this
species in Europe. In a wide sense it is one of the
most easily recognizable of fresh water shells, as
it is one of the most conspicuous of circumboreal
species.

Lymnaea peters! n. sp. Plate n, fig. 3.

Shell extremely thin, of five or more tumid rapidly enlarging whorls ;
spire acute, the suture deep ; whorls rounded, the periphery nearer
the preceding suture ; shell of a blackish brown, polished, finely
sharply spirally striate ; periostracum brownish, darker at resting
stages ; aperture oval, a thin wash of callus on the body ; pillar very
thin, gyrate, the gyrations pervious ; the outer lip not thickened.
Height 16; max. diam. 8; height of aperture 8.5; width 5.2 mm.

Range. Koyukuk River, north of the Yukon in Alaska; W. J.
Peters of the U. S. Geological Survey.

This very delicate and pretty species appears to belong to the typical
Lymncea in spite of its small size ; it has much the aspect of a minute
L. randolphi, but has more whorls in less than half the height, and is
of quite a different color and without angularity to the whorls.

Lymnaea atkaensis Dall. Plate n, figs. 8, 10.

Limnaa atkaensis DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vn, p. 343, 1884.

Range. Lake on the island of Atka, Aleutian chain, near Korovin
Bay.

Shell with about four ovate whorls rapidly increasing, of a dark


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