Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899).

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olive sometimes purplish tint, very thin, malleated, microscopically
reticulated, with obscure revolving ridges ; the aperture ovate, not
expanded, the margins thin, that on the pillar narrowly reflected;


pillar gyrate, pervious, in the early whorls widely so, a condition
concealed in the adult.

This form grows in a region containing little lime, and the shells
are extremely thin and often eroded into holes, which exhibit the
peculiarities of the axis by which the species is relegated to the typical
Lymnaeas, though externally it has much the appearance of a small
Radix. The species has been figured in the newer portion of the
Conchylien Cabinet, but I have not the reference at hand.

Adults measure :

Height. Max. Diam. Height of Aperture. Width. Whorls.

26.5 16.5 16.5 10.5 4

24.0 13.0 14.0 9.2 y/i

17.0 11.5 n.2 7.5 4%

*Lymnaea lepida Gould.

Limnaa lepida GOULD, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., n, p. 211, 1847 ; Moll.
U. S. Expl. Exp., p. 121, figs. 141, I4i, 1852.
BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., n, p. 29, fig. 33,

Range. Lake Vancouver, Oregon (Wilkes) ; near
Challis, Idaho (Merriam) !

A species existing near the boundary and doubtless FIG. 43. Lym-

to be found in southern British Columbia. n(ea lepida


*Lymnaea (Bulimnea) megasoma Say.

Lymna-us megasomus SAY, Rep. Long's Exp., n, p. 263, pi. xv, fig. 10, 1824.
KUSTER, Conch Cab., ed. u, Limncea, p. 36, pi. vi, figs. 20, 21.

Umnea megasoma HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., p. 13, pi.
in, figs. 1-3, 1841. WHITFIELD, Bull. Am.
Mus. Nat. Hist. N. Y., I, No. 2, p. 29, pi. v, 1882.
Limncea megastoma SOWERBY, Conch. Icon., xvui, pi.

n, fig. 12, 1872.

Limncea megalosoma SANDBERGER, Conch, d. Urw., p.
581, 1873.

Range. Northern New England, Canada and
British America to Lat. 57 N.

Lake Superior! Vermilion Lake, H. B. T. ; to
Etchimamish Lake, in Lat. 57 between the Nel-
FIG. 44. Lymncea son River and the Height of Land, Keewatin;
megasoma Say. Bois Blanc Lake, Manitoba !

The British American localities are cited from the literature, and
except the last I have been unable to verify them by an examination
of authentic specimens.


Lymnaea (Radix) mighelsi Binney.

LLmncea decollata MIGHELS, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., i, p. 49, 1841.
MIGHELS and ADAMS, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., iv, p. 336, pi. iv, fig. 13
(four views), 1842.

Limnea catascopium HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., p. 52, 1842 ; not of Say.

Limnaus decollatus KUSTER, Conch. Cab., ed. n, Mon. Limn., p. 45, pi.
vui, figs. 11-14, 1862.

Limncea ampla MIGHELS, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., iv, p. 347, pi. xvi, figs.
la-ic, April, 1843 ; not of Hartmann, 1842. BINNEY, Land and Fw.
Sh. N. Am., 11, p. 30, figs. 34-35, 1865.

Ltmncea mighelsi, W. G. BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., n, p. 31, foot-
note, 1865.

Limncea angulata SOWERBY, Conch. Icon. , xvui, Mon. Limncea, pi. vn, fig.
47, Dec., 1872.

Limncea emarginata SAY, var. mighelsi BINNEY, Nylander, Distr. of Limnaa,
etc., pis. i-iv, 1901.

Range. Aroostook Co., Maine; Province of Quebec; northern
Michigan ?

Aroostook Co., Maine! Brome Lake, Province of Quebec! Lake
Namakan, north of Lake Superior, western Ontario ; Lake of the
Woods, Manitoba.

The earliest name of this species is decollata, which was applied to
a stunted variety living in acidulous water which destroyed the early
whorls. This name, however, being quite inapplicable to the normal
shell, would best be kept for the shells to which it was
applied, and retained in a varietal sense. After an
examination of Say's types of L. emarginata I am
quite confident, as species go in Lymncea, that it is
distinct from the present form, which I have never
seen from the Western region. This species, L.
' / / ^ m \ mighelsi, is apparently a representative of Radix,
while the thickening of the outer lip internally in
L. emarginata var. canadensis leads to the suspicion that it is
related to Stagnicola. Owing to the manner in which various forms
of emarginata have been summarily united with L. mighelsi by rep-
utable students, I shall on the present occasion waive this doubt and
proceed to its immediate consideration. It may, however, be pointed
out that W. G. Binney seems to have been of the same opinion when,
in 1865, he placed L. emarginata in the same group as L. palustris.

Lymnaea (Stagnicola?) emarginata Say.

Lymneus emarginatus SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., II, p. 170, 1821 ;

Long's Exp. Rep., n, p. 263, 1824 (Maine).

? Limneus emarginatus SAY, Am. Conch., vi, pi. 55, fig. I, 1834.
Umneus ontariensis MUHLFELDT in Kiister, i^fa, fide W. G. Binney, op. !.,

p. 52, 1865.


Limnea emarginata HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., p. 10, pi. n, figs. 4-5, 1841.

f Limnea serrata HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., p. 12, pi. n, fig. 7, 1841 (path-
ologic specimen, figure copied by Binney, op. cit., p. 52, fig. 78).

Limnaa scalaris WESTERLUND, Vega Exp. Vet. lakt., iv, p. 201, pi. iv, fig.
13, 1885. Not L. scalaris A. Braun, 1853, or Sowerby, 1872.

LimtKza canadensis SOWERBY, Conch. Icon., xvm, Mon. Umncea, pi. vn, figs.
45, a-b t 1872.

Range. Northern United States east of the Mississippi, Canada,
and northwestward.

Lakes in northern Maine (Say) ! Lake Champlain and Ontario;
Crooked Lake, Emmet Co., Michigan ! English River, Keewatin,
Hudson Bay ! Port Clarence, Alaska (Vega Expd.).

After considerable study I have been forced to the
conclusion that several species were identified under
this name by Say himself, as well as others. Say's
figure is wretched and does not represent the typical
form from Maine, as at first described. The latter is
apparently represented by specimens labelled by Say
himself, still preserved in the Academy at Philadel-
phia, and which must be regarded as typical. The FlG - 4<>- Lym-
shell is small, with an acute spire ; one of the specimens n ^ a <ar S tnata
has the suture deeply impressed, but not the others,
which seem more normal. Westerlund's figure fairly represents the
species ; Sowerby's L. canadensis, judging from specimens com-
pared with the types by Mr. E. A. Smith of the British Museum, is
probably the same, though the shells are heavier and larger, with the
lip thickened internally, and a marked umbilicus. I should not, in
default of this comparison and if obliged to depend on Sowerby's
figures, have felt justified in uniting them.

Lymnaea (Radix) binneyi Tryon.

Limncea binneyi TRYON, Am. Journ. Conch., I, p. 229, pi. xxm, fig. 3, 1865

(Hellgate River, Oregon).
Umneea ampla TRYON, Mon. Freshw. Univ. Moll., part II, p. 91, 1872, ex

parte, not of Mighels.

Range. Northern United States west of Lake Huron and the
adjacent British possessions.

Lake Higgins, southern Michigan ! Lake Houghton, northern Mich-
igan ! east of Fort Colville, Wash. ! Fort Vancouver, Columbia River !
Sumas Prairie, B. C. ! Vancouver Island ; Clear Lake, Athabaska,
N. Lat. 56 ! Lake Isle Lacrosse, Athabaska ! English River, Manitoba !

This species appears to be quite recognizable but has been frequently
distributed under the name of L. sumassi or ampla, with the latter of


which Tryon himself at one time confounded it. It has a short spire
with appressed or moderately conspicuous suture, ovate form, tumid
whorls, pale color, well marked umbilicus, and fine spiral striation.
The largest specimen I have seen measured 27 mm. high and 18 mm.
in maximum diameter ; but the average adult is about 24 x 15 mm. I
have not seen any specimens angulated at the shoulder.

Lymnaea (binneyi var. ?) preblei Dall, nov. Plate i, figs, i, 2.

A shell which when young is almost identical with L. binneyi, and
which may prove merely a giant growth of it, occurs in the Hudson
Bay drainage. When full grown it has six whorls, with much the
same contour as Bulimnea megasoma, the last whorl being much the
largest, moderately expanded, and somewhat produced in front. The
umbilicus is deep and partly hidden by the reflected pillar lip, which
is continuous and more or less raised across the body. There is no
fold on the pillar. The surface, when in perfect condition, is minutely
but sharply sagrinate by the intersection of axial and spiral striae, and
is often malleate besides. The shell is nearly white or pale straw

Adults measure :

Whorls. Height. Max. Diam. Height of aperture. Diain.

6 37 23 22.5 13 mm.

5-5 38 26 26 19 "

Range. English River, Manitoba (Kennicott) ! Knee Lake, Kee-
watin (E. A. Preble) !

This form is remarkable for its size, its surface, and its deep umbil-
icus. The resemblance of its profile to that of L. megasoma is so
marked that one wonders whether some of the records of the latter spe-
cies from high northern localities may not have been
based on specimens of this form. They are easily
separated, however, if one pays attention to the other
characters, and the present form probably never at-
tains the solidity and rich coloration so characteristic
of megasoma.

FIG. 47. Lym- Lymnaea (Radix?) columella Say.
ncta columella. Lymnaa columella SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., i, p.

14, 1817.

Lymnceus columellus SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., n, p. 167, 1821.
Limnea columella HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., p. 38, pi. xn, figs. 13-15, 1842.
BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., n, p. 32 (ex parte), fig. 38, 1865.


Range. Manitoba to New England, New Mexico, and Georgia.

Lake Superior ! Lake Winnipeg (Rich) !

This attractive species is readily recognized by its Succtnea-like form
and fine spiral sculpture. The synonymy as given by Binney and others
seems to need revision. I am not of the opinion that this form belongs
properly in the Radix group, as it has several features in common
with Stagnicola, notwithstanding the form of the shell. An anatomi-
cal examination will decide the question.

Lymnaea (Radix) randolphi F. C. Baker, Plate i, figs. 3, 4.
Lymnaa randolphi BAKER, Nautilus, xvm, No. 6, p. 63, Oct., 1904.

Shell large, thin, angulate or subangulate at the shoulder ; constricted
strongly at the suture, narrowly and deeply umbilicate, whorls about
four, rapidly increasing in size but frequently decollate ; when entire
the spire is less in length than the aperture but the proportion is vari-
able ; in conformity with the sutural constriction the posterior angle of
the aperture is usually somewhat narrow, the apertural margin con-
tinuous over the body, with a narrow deep umbilicus over which the
pillar lip may be reflected. The pillar is sometimes slightly sinuous
but not plicate, the surface may be smooth and polished, malleated,
spirally threaded or minutely reticulated by axial and spiral lines.
The periostracum is pale, but usually has a dark line at resting stages ;
the outer lip is hardly expanded though often a little patulous in front ;
it is never internally thickened. Measurements :

Whorls. Height. Max. Diam. Height of aperture. Width.

3.5 31 19 18 n.o mm.

4 4i 23 *4 I5-S "

4 35 27 24 15.6 "

Range. Lake near Cosmos River, north of the Kowak River,
Alaska, about N. Lat. 68 (Lieutenant Stoney) ! Kowak River, Alaska
(Stoney) ! Nushagak River, Alaska ! Lake Marsh! and Lake Linde-
man, Yukon Territory ! Lake La Hoche, British Columbia ! East of
Fort Colville, Wash. !

This form is very recognizable, with its angular whorls and deeply
constricted suture. A specimen from near Fort Colville, figured by
Binney as a possible variety of L. sumassi Baird (op. cit., p. 43, fig.
58) , may prove a feebly angulated and unusually short spired specimen
of this species . I have received it under the names ampla, sumassi, etc. ,
from several Pacific Coast correspondents, and a large number of mostly
defective specimens were obtained by the expedition into northwestern


Alaska commanded by Lieutenant Stoney, U. S. N. The true L.
sumassi Baird is apparently a Stagnicola, but the present species
belongs to Radix. It is not in the least like L. mighelsi (ampla
Mighels) though often given that name.

Lymnaea (Acella?) kirtlandiana Lea.

f Limncea exilis LEA, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., v, p. 114, pi. xix, fig. 82, 1837.


Limncea kirtlandiana LEA, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., n, p. 33, 1841 ; Trans.
Am. Phil. Soc., ix, p. 12, 1842. BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am.,
n, p. 67, 1865.

Limncea lanceata GOULD, Proc. Boston Soc. N. Hist, in, p. 64, 1848.
AGASSIZ, Lake Superior, p. 244, pi. vn, figs. 8, 9, 1850. TRYON, Mon.
Limn., pt. 2, pp. 112-113, P 1 - xvni, figs. 10, II, 1872.
Range. Ohio to Nebraska, and northward.

Poland, Ohio ! Iowa River, Iowa ! Apple Creek, Nebraska ! Pic
Lake, north of Lake Superior, in western Ontario !

The original types of Lea's Limncea exilis are in
the National Museum, and after a careful examina-
tion of them I am inclined to believe that they are
somewhat abnormal dead specimens of this species
rather than a mutation of L. rejlexa, as supposed by
Binney ; unless we extend L . rejlexa to cover the

whole group, which seems to me unwarranted. L.
ncea kirtlandt- . .

ana Lea. lanceata is an immature specimen of what was earlier

called kirtlandiana by Lea. The figures of both
these forms in Binney 's work are uncharacteristic, especially that of
lanceata, which shows nothing of the " flatness of its whorls " re-
ferred to by Gould in his remarks.

These shells have all the characteristics of Acella except that they
are less fragile, larger, and darker colored. They have the gyrate
pillar of Lymncea and not the plicate columella of Stagnicola, which
in other respects they recall. Until an exhaustive anatomical and
experimental study of these animals is made, all group-references must
be merely tentative.

Lymnaea (Galba) truncatula Miiller.

Bucdnum truncatulum MULLER, Verm. Terr, et Fluv., n, p. 13. ! 774

Limneus minutus DRAPARNAUD, Tableau, p. 51, 1801 ; Hist., p. 53. P^ m

figs. 5-6, 1805 (France).
Limncea ferruginea HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., pt. 3, third page of cover, Mar.

13, 1841 ; pt. 4, p. 49, pi. 13, figs. 19, 20, 1842 (Oregon).

Range. Europe, northern Asia and America.


Bering Id., Commander Islands, Bering Sea! Kadiak Island,
Alaska ! ponds near Yakutat Bay, Alaska (Kincaid) ! Fort Simpson,
Mackenzie River (Kennicott) ! near Brandon, Manitoba (Christy) !
Oregon (Nuttall) ; Hannah Bay (out of James Bay)
near Moose Factory ! A

Specimens absolutely identical with those from Eu- \fM

rope have been collected from the indicated localities.
It is quite likely that some of the specimens reported FlG ' 49- Lym-

bv collectors under the name of humilis or desidiosa

J Muller. (Euro-

may have belonged to this species. The form called pea n specimen. )

ferruginea by Haldeman seems to differ only by
having the pillar lip more closely appressed, a character which any
large series will show to be inconstant in individuals among them-
selves as well as in the same individual in different stages.

Lymnaea (Galba) humilis Say.

Lymneus humilis SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., n, p. 378, 1822 (South

Limnca humilis (SAY) HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., p. 41, pi. 13, fig. i, 1842

(syn. exclus.). BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am.,

n, p. 63, fig. 99, 1865.

ijr\ Range. From Georgia and Kansas northward.

\) Lake Superior ; Lake Winnipeg ; Brandon ; and Pem-

bina Mt., Manitoba.

I have been unable to examine any authentic speci-
neea humilis , , T n 111

Say (Typical ) rnens from north of Lat. 49, and the above localities

are cited from the literature.

Lymnaea (Galba) desidiosa Say.

Lymneus desidiosus SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., n, p. 169, 1821

(Cayuga Lake, N. Y.).
Limneus desidiosus SAY, Am. Conch., vi, pi. 55, fig. 3, A

1834- ff\

Limnea desidiosa HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., p. 31, pi. x, wH

1842 (ex parte^ . BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., \J

II, p. 49, fig. 68, 1865. FIG. 51. Lym-

Range Northern United States and northward, naeadesidiosa

Red Deer and McLeod, Alberta. Lower Saskatch- ( o6 *") Sa y-
ewan near Lake Winnipeg ; Brandon ; Manitoba. Osoyoos Lake,
British Columbia (J. K. Lord fide P. P. Carpenter).
The above localities are cited from the literature.

Lymnaea (Galba) galbana Say.

Lymneus galbanus SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., v, p. 123, 1825 (New
Jersey Pleistocene).


Limnea galbana HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., p. 51, pi. xm, figs. 22, 23,

Limncea philadelphica LEA, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., n, p. 32, 1841 ; Trans.

Am. Phil. Soc., ix, p. 8, 1844. BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am.,

II, p. 50, fig. 71, 1865. (Philadelphia, Pa.)
Limncea traski TRYON, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., for 1863, p. 149, pi. i,

fig. 13, 1863. BINNEY, Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., n, p. 60, fig. 94,

j865. TRYON, Mon. Limn., p. 119, pi. 17, fig. 3 (not p. 96, nor fig. 2),

1872. (Mountain Lake, near San Francisco, Calif.) Not L. traskii Lea,

1864, nor L. proximo. Lea, 1856.

Range. Pleistocene marls of Franklin, New Jer-
sey ; of Anticosti Island ! of Ottawa, Canada ! and of
the left bank of the Yukon River, Alaska, below old
Fort Yukon ! Recent, at the Grand Rapids of the
Saskatchewan River, near Lake Winnipeg ! Grind-
stone Creek, Nebraska ! Centre City, Pennsylvania !
n<za galbana '

Say var. phila- Vancouver, Columbia River ! and near Monterey,

delphica Lea. California ! Alaska (von Martens) ; Attawapiskat

River, S. E. Keewatin ! (Mclnnes).

This small species has the spire acute and short, the last whorl dis-
proportionately swollen and usually shouldered. It appears to have
flourished during the melting of the glacial ice, and to the muddy
waters of the period its peculiarities may be due. The recent form
seems less abnormal on the average.

There are two species which have been called traskii the pres-
ent one, with which Try on afterward mistakenly united L. proxima
Lea, a much larger species ; and L. traskii Lea, later
called tryoni and tryoniana by Dr. Lea, which is a

Lymnaea (Galba) holbolli (Beck) Moller. FlG 53 Lym .

Limncea (Limnophysa) holbolli BECK, Index, p. in, 1838 ; ncea holbolli.

nude name. Greenland.

Lymnoea holbolli MOLLER, Index, Moll. GronL, p. 5, 1842.
Limncea holbolli MORCH, Am. Journ. Conch., iv, p. 36, pi. iv, fig. 8, 1868.

Range. Godhaab, Greenland.

This has the appearance of a large L. truncatula, but may be merely
a depauperate variety of the next species.

Lymnaea (Galba) vahlii (Beck) Moller.

Limncea ^Limnophysa) vahlii BECK, Index, p. in, 1838; nude name.


Limncea -vahlii MOLLER, Index, Moll. Gronl., p. 4, 1842.
Limncea (Limnophysa) vahlii MORCH, Am. Journ. Conch., iv, p. 34, pi. iv,

figs. 1-7, 1868.


Limnaa {Limnophysd) senegalensis BECK, Index, p. in, 1838 (nude name),

fide MORCH, op. tit., p. 35, footnote.
Limnaa grdnlandica (BECK, MS.) JAY, Cat. Coll., 1850, p. 269, No. 6298.

MORCH, op. cit., p. 33.

Limna-a nwlleri BECK, Naturf. Vers. Kiel, p. 123, No. 4, nude name. GERST-
FELDT, Land and Sussw. Conch. Sibiriens, p. 37, 1859.

Lymnaa pingelii (BECK) MOLLER, Index Moll. Gronl., p. 5, 1842. MORCH,
Am. Journ. Conch., IV, o. 35, 1868, et vars. nitida et solidula et malleata
Morch, /. c.

Lymncea wormskioldi BECK, Naturf. Vers., Kiel, p. 123, No. 7, nude name.

MORCH, Am. Journ. Conch., iv, p. 35, pi. iv, fig. 6, 1868.
Limncsa vahlii var. leucostoma MORCH, Prod. Moll. Gronl., p. 4, No. 11 /3;

also var. minor MORCH, Am. Journ. Conch., iv, p. 34, 1868.
Limncea vahlii var. elongata MOLLER (MS.), in Morch, Am. Journ. Conch.,

iv, p. 40, pi. iv, fig. i, 1868.
JLimn&a arctica LEA, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vi, p. 160, pi. xxiv, fig.

75, 1866. Hudson Bay.

Range. Greenland to Alaska and south to Minnesota and British

Ft. Resolution ! and Ft. Rae, Great Slave Lake ! Moose River, at
Moose Factory, Hudson Bay ! Greenland (many localities) ! Ungava,
Labrador ! Weatoga, Canada ! Minnesota (Lapham) ! Stewart and

FIG. 54. Lymncea vahlii M511er. FIG. 55. Lymncea vahlii var. pingelii

(Typical.) Moller.

Ball Rivers, north of the Yukon, Alaska ! St. Michaels, Norton
Sound, Alaska ! headwaters of the Yukon in Lakes Bennett, Marsh,
and Lindeman ! Loring, Southeastern Alaska, on Behm Canal !
Shawnigan Lake, British Columbia ! Headwaters of the Liard
River in Lakes Finlayson and Frances ! Hannah Bay near Moose
Factory !

Making the usual allowances for variation, this is a fairly well dis-
criminated species, which frequently has been identified as L. desidi-
osa, palustris, etc. The largest are more fragile, smaller and paler
than L. palustrh, and not especially similar to it. I have had the
advantage of being able to consult a very large series of authentically
named Greenland shells, received from Morch and others, as well as
the fine Arctic series in the National Museum. Most of the specimens
are microscopically wrinkled on the surface, like L. palustris, but
this character is not absolutely constant.

7 6


Lymnaea (Stagnicola) palustris Muller.

Buccinum palustre MULLER, Verm. Terr., n, p. 131, 1774.

Limneus palustris DRAP., Hist., p. 52, pi. n, figs. 40-42, in, figs. 1-2, 1805.

Stagnicola communis LEACH, in Jeffreys, Linn. Trans., xvi, n, p. 376, 1830.

ROSSMASSLER, Icon., I, p. 96, figs. 51, $2, 1835. TURTON, Man., p.

121, 1831. GRAY'S Turton, p. 237, 1840. LEACH, Syn. Moll. Gt.

Brit., p. 103, 1852.
Limnaus elodes SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., II, p. 169, 1821 ; Am.

Conch., iv, pi. xxxi, fig. 3, 1832.
Limnaa elodes GOULD, Inv. Mass., p. 221, figs. 146-7, 1841.

FIG. 56, a-f. Lymnaa palustris Muller vars. FIG. 56,^. var. roruelli Lea
from Pacific Coast.

Limnea fragilis H ALDE'MAN, Mon. Limn. , p. 20, pi. vi, pi. xv, fig. i , 1 842 ;

not of Linne.
Umncea nuttalliana LEA, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., n, p. 33, 1841. BINNEY,

Land and Fw. Sh. N. Am., n, p. 45, fig. 6, 1865.

Limnea expansa HALDEMAN, Mon. Limn., p. 29, pi. ix, figs. 6-8, 1842 (patho-
logic mutation).

Limncea haydeni LEA, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 166, 1858. BINNEY,
op. cit., p. 44, fig. 59, 1865 (pathologic mutation).

Limnaa plebeia GOULD (nude name), in Adams, Am. Journ.

Sci., XL, p. 268.

Limnaa proximo, LEA, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vnr, p.
80, 1856. BINNEY, op. cit., p. 48, fig. 67, 1865.

Range. Circumboreal. Northern United States
and Canada.

Manitoba : Lake Winnipeg ; Saskatchewan River !
Lake of the Woods ; Red River of the North ! Pem-
bina ; Turtle Mt. ; Carberry. York Factory ! Kee-
P , watin. Ungava ! Labrador. Alberta : Laggan ; Egg

ncea palustris Lake; Red Deer; McLeod; Olds. English River,
var. nuttalliana. Keewatin ! Moose Factory, Keewatin ; Slave River,
25 miles below Peace River ! Great Slave Lake at
Fort Resolution ! Fort Smith, Mackenzie River ! Upper Mackenzie
River ! Great Bear Lake ; Anticosti Island ; Cypress Hills ! Assiniboia.


California ! Oregon ! Seattle, Wash. ! Sumas Lake, British Colum-
bia ; Vancouver Island ! headwaters of the Yukon ! Lake Marsh !
Lake Lindeman ! Old Fort Yukon, Alaska ! Saccatalontan and Nu-
lato ! Lower Yukon, and in the Yukon delta ! Dall River ! north of the
Yukon in Alaska. Point Romanof, Norton Sound, Alaska ! Avacha
Bay, Kamchatka ! etc.

This well known species is almost universally distributed in the
quiet waters of boreal America, and in the Pleistocene marls. The
distinctions which have been relied on to separate L. haydeni Lea,
and L. expansa Haldeman, are due to pathologic mutations. L.
nuttalliana and proximo. Lea, are trivial varieties.

Lymnaea (Stagnicola) reflexa Say.

Lymneus reflexus SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., n, p. 167, 1821 ; Am.

Conch., iv, pi. xxxi, fig. 2, 1832 (Lakes Erie and Superior).
Limneus elongatus SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 11,

p. 167, 1821 ; not of Draparnaud, 1805.
Ltmneus umbrosus SAY, Am. Conch., iv, pi. 31, fig. i,

1832 (new name for elongatus Say).
Limn&a exilis LEA, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., v, p. 114, pi.

xix, fig. 82, 1837 (pathologic mutation).

Range. Northern United States and Canada.
Prairie Lake, near Red River of the North; and
Beaver Creek, Manitoba.

This species barely crosses the boundary and may

be one of those captured by the northward drainage

* .... . ncEa rejfexa Say.

when the headwaters of the Mississippi were inter-
rupted and turned northward by the changes in the land levels of this
region which have been elucidated by the late General G. K.

Lymnaea (Stagnicola) catascopium Say.

Lymntza catascopium SAY, Nicholson's Encycl., Am. ed., II (no pagination),

pi. 2, fig 3, 1817 (Delaware River).

Lymnceus catascopium SAY, Am. Conch., vi, pi. 55, fig. 2, 1832.

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