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GRAMMAR




OF



TEXTILE DESIGN



BY

HARRY NISBET



WEAVING AND DESIGNING MASTER, MUNICIPAL TECHNICAL SCHOOL, BOLTON



WITH 490 ILLUSTRATIONS



LONDON

SCOTT, GREENWOOD & SON
8 BROADWAY, LUDGATE HILL, B.C.



CANADA : THE COPP CLARK CO., LTD., TORONTO

UNITED STATES : D. VAN NOSTRAND CO., NEW YORK

1906

[All rights remain with Scott, Greenwood b" Son'\



Uftassoa^-"-"*^



v~



^ PREFACE.

The Grammar of Textile Design is a treatise upon the
Fundamental Principles of Structural Design in Woven
Fabrics, and the application of those principles in the
production of various types of cloth.

It has been chiefly prepared as a text-book for students
of v^eaving and designing in all branches of the v^eaving
trade, and contains much information of practical utiHty

V to designers, salesmen, manufacturers and others, to
v^hom a knov^ledge of the construction, characteristic

"^ features and uses of textile fabrics v^ill be helpful.
. In the descriptions of fabrics that are produced by the
"^ aid of special mechanical devices, these are briefly described
and illustrated by scale diagrams, and include descriptions
of three types of steel-wire doup harnesses for cross-
v^eaving ; a loom for weaving leno fabrics in which
warp ends are crossed by a system of douping in front
of the reed; and a loom for weaving ondule fabrics in
which warp ends, and sometimes picks of weft, are
caused to assume undulating or wavy Hues in the direc-
tion of warp, or weft, respectively.

HARRY NISBET.



Bolton, October, 1906.



SMT\



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CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

Introduction.

General Principle of Fabric Structure (§§ 1-4) and the use of Design Paper
(§5) pages 1-5



CHAPTER II.

The Plain Weave and its Modifications.

Firmness of Texture (§ 7).
Variety of Texture (§ 8). Variety of Form : Ribbed Fabrics {§§ 9-13).
Corded Fabrics (§ 14). Matt Weaves (§§ 15, 16) - - pages 6-23



CHAPTER III.

Twill and Kindred Weaves.

Classification of Twill Weaves (§ 17). I. Continuous Twills (a) warp-
face Twills (§ 18). (6) Weft-face Twills (§ 19). (c) Warp and Weft-
face Twills (§ 20). The Angle of Twill (§ 21). Influences affecting
the Prominence of Twills and Kindred Weaves [a) Character of Weave,
(6) Character of Yarn, (c) Number of Threads per Inch, (d) Direction
of Twill in Relation to the Direction of Twist in Yarn (§§ 22-26).
2. Zigzag or Wavy Twills (§§ 27 29). 3. Rearranged Twillsl:
Satin Weaves (§§ 30-32). Table of Intervals of Selection for the
Construction of Satin Weaves (§ 32). Corkscrew Twills (§§ 33, 34).
Rearrangement of Twill Weaves on Satin and other Bases (§§ 35, 36).
4. Combined Twills (§37). 5. Broken Twills (§ 38). 6. Figured
or Ornamented Twills (§39) pages 24-76



VI CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IV.

Diamond and Kindred Weaves.

Diamond Weaves (§ 40). Honeycomb and Kindred Weaves (§ 41).
Brighton Weaves (§ 42). Sponge Weaves (§ 43). Huck-a-Back and
Kindred Weaves (§ 44). Grecian Weaves (§ 45). Linear Zigzag
Weaves (§46) pages 77-102

CHAPTER V.

Bedford Cords.

Plain Calico-ribbed Bedford Cords (§§ 47-49). Plain Twill-ribbed Bedford
Cords (§§ 50, 51). Figured Bedford Cords (§§ 52, 53). Tabulated
Data of Particulars relating to the Manufacture of Seventeen
Varieties of Bedford Cord Fabrics described in this Chapter (§ 54)

pages 103-118

CHAPTER VI.

Backed Fabrics.

Weft-backed Fabrics (§ 55). Warp-backed Fabrics (§ 56). Reversible or
Double-faced Fabrics (§57) pages 119-125

CHAPTER VII.

Fustians.

Varieties of Fustians (§ 58). Imperials or Swansdowns (§ 59). Can-
toons or Diagonals (§ 60). Moleskins (§ 61). Beaverteens (§ 62).
Velveteens and Velveteen Cutting (§§ 63-71). Ribbed or Corded
Velveteen (§ 72). Figured Velveteen (§§ 73, 74). Corduroy (§§ 75,
76). Figured Corduroy (§ 77). Corduroy Cutting Machines (§§ 78,
79) - - pages 126-161

CHAPTER VIII.

Terry Pile Fabrics.

Methods of producing Terry Pile on Textile Fabrics (§§ 80, 81). Terry-
forming Devices (§ 82). Varieties of Terry Fabrics (§§ 83-87). Action
of the Reed in Relation to Shedding (§ 84). Figured Terry Weaving
(§ 87). Practical Details of Terry Weaving (§ 88) - pages 162-177



CONTENTS. Vll

CHAPTER IX.
Gauze and Leno Fabrics.

Gauze, Net Leno, and Leno Brocade Varieties of Cross=Weaving

(§ 89). Plain Gauze, and a Heald Gauze or Leno Harness (§§ 90, 91).
Net Leno Fabrics (§§ 92-94). Gauze and Net Leno Figuring by
means of several Back Standard Healds to each Doup Heald (§§
95-103). Leno Specialities produced by a System of Crossing
Warp Ends in front of the Reed (§ 104). A Device for the Produc-
tion of Special Leno Effects (§ 105). Full-cross Leno Fabrics (§ 106).
Relative Merits of a Top and a Bottom-doup Harness (§ 107).
Relative Merits of Different Types of Dobbies for Gauze and Leno
Fabrics (§ 108). Shaking Devices for Leno Weaving (§§ 109-113).
Practical Details of Leno Weaving (§§ 114-116). Tempered Steel=
wire Doup Harnesses for Cross=weaving (§ 117). Mock or
Imitation Leno Fabrics (§ 118) pages 178-236



CHAPTER X.

Tissue, Lappet and Swivel Figuring ; also Ondule
Effects, and Looped Fabrics.

Tissue Figuring (§ 119). Madras Muslin Curtains (§§ 120, 121). Lappet
Figuring (§§ 122-126). Spot Lappet Figuring (§ 126). Swivel
Figuring (§ 127). Woven Ondul^ Effects (§§ 128-131). Loom
for Weaving Ondule Effects (§ 129). Weft Ondule Effects (§§ 130, 131).
Looped Fabrics (§ 132) pages 237-265

Index pages 267-276



CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

General Principle of Fabric Structure and the Use of
Design Paper.

§ 1. All woven fabrics are composed of at least two distinct
series of threads respectively termed "warp" and "weft".
Warp threads lie lengthwise of the fabric, parallel with the
selvedges (self edges), and weft threads, also termed " picks "
of weft, traverse at right angles to warp threads. During the
operation of weaving, warp threads are simultaneously with-
drawn from their source as a continuous sheet or layer of
evenly distributed threads that are spread out to the required
width of cloth ; whereas weft is (with exceptional instances)
inserted only one thread or "pick" at a time, by means of a
shuttle which places a continuous thread in successive parallel
lengths, extending across the entire width of cloth between the
selvedges, around which the weft returns for each successive
" pick ".

§ 2. The interlacement of warp and weft threads is effected
by dividing or separating (in a prearranged order for each pick
of weft), the sheet of warp ends into two separate and distinct
layers, one above the other (seen thus -


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