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through each dent of the reed.

A third example of a mock leno effect, which is very exten-
sively employed, is that illustrated by Fig. 438. The design for

Fig. 441.

Fig. 442.

Mock Leno Designs.

that example (as given in Fig. 441) repeats on six warp ends
and six picks, and is counterchanged after the fifth and sixth
threads in both directions, thereby causing the sixth thread of
warp and weft to become quite isolated from adjacent threads,
and so develop a leno effect of a very pronounced character. By
drawing the first five warp ends in the first dent, and the sixth
warp end in the third dent, with the second and fourth dents
left empty, a very realistic simulation of a genuine gauze or leno
effect is developed in cloth. A modification of this weave is given
in Fig. 442. With this weave warp and weft would be displayed
in equal quantities on both sides of cloth. This circumstance is
favourable to the effective introduction of coloured threads (say,
the second, fourth, seventh and ninth warp ends and picks) to
produce pleasing decorative effects. The mock leno designs


given in Figs. 441 and 442 bear a close resemblance to the
sponge design given in Fig. 237 (§ 43) and also to the huck-a-back
weave, Fig. 245 ( § 44) to which they are closely allied ; and if
warp ends were suitably drawn through the reed, those weaves
would also develop good mock leno effects. Many other varieties
of mock leno designs could be given, but the present examples
are sufficient to demonstrate their general character



§119. The terms " tissue," "lappet," "swivel," "ondule"
and "looped" fabrics are used to designate certain varieties of
woven fabrics, each of which is distinguished by certain charac-
teristics. Such fabrics do not, as a rule, embody any special
feature of constructive design, but merely consist of light and
simple textures which, during weaving, are embellished with a
scheme of figuring developed by one or other of the systems just
named. Such fabrics, therefore, owe their chief interest to the
special mechanical devices employed in their production ; but
as that phase of fabric structure is only incidental to the main
purpose of this treatise, it is proposed to chiefly describe the
salient features of those fabrics, with only such description of
the mechanical devices employed in their production as will
enable students to more readily and intelligently comprehend
how the figuring is developed upon them. The chief advantages
of figuring textiles by means of tissue, lappet and swivel weaving
are to produce decorative effects without materially increasing
either the bulk or weight of a fabric, and to produce such effects
with a minimum amount of material.

Tissue Figuring.

Tissue figuring is a system chiefly employed in the production
of light cotton mushn textures intended for use as window
curtains, of which an example is illustrated in Fig. 443. Fabrics
of this class are frequently embellished with elaborate Jacquard
designs of great beauty. These are developed by means of an
extra series of picks which interweaves, with a foundation tex-




ture of either the plain cahco weave, or, as in " Madras muslin,"
upon a texture of gauze produced on the principle of cross-
weaving, whereby the extra figuring weft is firmly secured to
the principal texture. The figuring weft is both softer and
coarser than that employed for the body of the fabric, with the
object of imparting prominence to the figure. These two
series of picks may be inserted in the order of two ground and

Fig. 443.— Light Muslin Fabric with Pattern developed by means of Tissue


two figuring picks, alternately ; or one of each alternately ; or
one ground pick, and two figuring picks alternately. The two-
and-two system of picking is, however, more economical, as
it may be accomplished in a loom equipped with an ordinary
picking motion, and with two shuttle boxes at only one end of
the sley. If either of the other two systems of picking were
adopted, they would involve the use of a loom provided with a
special picking motion, to permit of picking two shuttles in



succession from each end of the sley, which latter would require
two shuttle boxes at each end.

The example of tissue weaving, illustrated in Fig. 443, has a
foundation texture of muslin of the plain or tabby weave, woven
with two ground and two figuring picks alternately. In fabrics
of this class, the extra figuring weft interweaves only with warp
ends where it is required to produce figure, and (when in the
loom) floats loosely above all warp ends in the ground portion of
the fabric, from which it is subsequently cut away as superfluous
material. By weaving these fabrics face downward the work

Fig. 444. — Portion of the Design for Tissiie-figured Fabric represented by-
Fig. 443.

of shedding is made considerably easier, as all warp ends in the
ground portion are left down en masse. A portion of the design
showing the method of interweaving figuring weft with the
foundation texture is given in Fig. 444, in which it will be seen
that the first two and subsequent alternate pairs of picks
(which are fine ground picks) interweave separately with warp
ends on the tabby (plain calico) principle throughout, and
thereby develop a perfect texture, irrespective of figuring weft ;
whereas, the third and fourth, and subsequent alternate pairs of
picks (which are coarse figuring picks), interweave with warp


ends, only where they are required to be retained in the fabric
for figuring purposes, and float above intervening warp ends. In
the figure portion, figuring picks He together in pairs (although
inserted separately during weaving) between odd-numbered and
even-numbered warp ends by which they are firmly secured to
the principal texture.

On examining the design it will be observed that figuring
picks always lie between the same series of warp ends ; that is,
say, with odd - numbered threads above, and even - numbered
threads below them. This circumstance permits of a more
economical production of these fabrics, as alternate warp ends
only require to be governed by means of a Jacquard machine,
and intermediate warp ends by means of a heald. Thus a
Jacquard machine with 408 hooks would serve to produce a
design extending over any number of warp ends up to 816.
Also, since two figuring picks are inserted between the same
series of warp ends, only one pattern card would be required for
four picks of weft, provided the card cylinder and griffes were
controlled independently. For example, when the first ground
pick is inserted, the heald only is raised ; when the second
ground pick is inserted, the griffes of the Jacquard machine are
raised with the card cylinder out : and for the third and fourth
picks, which are figuring picks, the griffes ascend and take up
only such hooks as govern alternate warp ends in the figure
portion of the fabric, in accordance with the selection made by
the pattern card for those picks.

Not only does the foregoing system effect a considerable saving
in the cost of harness threads, pattern cards and card cutting,
but it also greatly facilitates the preparation of designs, as the
latter may be prepared en bloc, instead of with the actual work-
ing of each thread of warp and weft being indicated as in Fig.
444. Therefore, since only alternate warp ends are governed
by the Jacquard machine, and only one pattern card is necessary
for four picks, the counts of design paper required for a design
is in the ratio of loarp ends per inch, divided by two, to the total
picks per inch, divided by four. Thus, assuming there are to be
forty-eight warp ends and eighty-four picks per inch, in the
finished ifabric, the required counts of design paper (for a 400's



Jacquard machine with eight rows of hooks from front to back)
would be in the ratio of (48 ^ 2) - 24, to (84 -f 4) = 21, or
ruled with eight squares by seven squares in each bar.

Madras Muslin.

§ 120. Fig. 445 is a diagram showing the structure of that
variety of tissue-figured fabrics known as "Madras muslin," of

Fig. 445.— Graphic Diagram sliowing the structure of

Madras" Muslin

which the foundation texture is of gauze or cross-weaving. The
diagram represents a fabric in which ground and figuring picks
are inserted alternately, thereby requiring for its production a
loom having a " pick-and-pick " picking motion, and with two
shuttle boxes at each end of the sley.

The peculiar partial crossing of warp ends in these fabrics is
obtained by the use of a special kind of reed known as a gauze




reed, which is auxiUary to the ordinary beating-up reed carried
by the sley. A gauze reed, as illustrated in Fig. 446, is con-
structed with wide dents or divisions A, in each of which is
centrally fixed a short pointed reed wire B, secured to the
bottom rib C, and extending about half-way between the bottom
and top ribs. The shorter reed wires are each provided with an
eye D, near the top, for the reception of alternate warp ends,

Fig. 446.— Gauze Reed, as employed in weaving " Madras" Muslin Fabrics.

termed "doup" threads. The intermediate warp ends, termed
*' standard" threads, which are controlled by the Jacquard har-
ness, pass separately through the wide dents of the reed. A
"doup" and a "standard" thread, contained in the same dent
of the gauze reed, are also passed together through the same
dent of the ordinary reed to permit of their crossing each other.
When in the loom, a gauze reed is placed a little in front of the
Jacquard figuring harness, as shown at E (Fig. 447), and is



raised to form a warp shed for the insertion of ground picks
only. Its function, therefore, is analogous to that of a " doup "
heald in an ordinary gauze loom. Previous to the ascent of the
gauze reed, the Jacquard harness is moved sideways for a short
distance, first to the right (when facing the loom) and then to
the left, for consecutive ground picks, thereby placing " stan-
dard " warp ends on opposite sides of " doup " warp ends for the

Fig. 447.— Part Sectional Eud Elevation of a Loom for weaving " Madras"
Muslin Fabrics.

purpose of crossing and recrossing them. The lateral side
movement of harness threads, and the consequent movement of
"standard" warp ends which they control, is accomplished by
means of an auxiliary comber board F, situated a few inches
below the ordinary comber board G. The auxiliary comber
board is virtually a coarse wire comb whose teeth are crossed at
right angles by three or four wires, so as to form compartments


for the reception of several mounting threads to prevent the
latter from swinging. Comber board F receives its lateral
movement in one direction by means of a lever connected to it
at one end, and actuated by a cam ; whilst its return movement is
effected by means of a spring attached to the opposite end of the
comber board, and which is constantly pulling against the lever.
On referring to Fig. 445, it will be seen that all " doup " warp
ends only are raised for the insertion of ground picks, and that
" standard " warp ends are raised en masse in the figure portion
only, and left down en masse in the ground portion, for the inser-
tion of figuring picks. Thus, figuring weft lies between "doup "
and " standard " warp ends in the figure portion, and floats
loosely above all warp ends in the ground portion of the fabric,
from whence it is subsequently cut away as waste material.

Madras Muslin with Two and More Colours of Figuring-


§ 121. Madras muslin fabrics are sometimes woven with two
different colours of figuring weft to increase their decorative
effect. In the production of this variety, three shuttles are re-
quired, namely, one to insert the fine ground picks, and one each
to insert the respective figuring picks of coloured weft. The
three shuttles are picked across the loom in succession; and
although it may not at first appear to be practicable, it will, upon
reflection, become manifest that a loom furnished with an ordi-
nary picking motion, and two shuttle boxes at each end of the sley,
will enable that order of picking to be achieved without having
recourse to a more complex and costly type of loom with a " pick-
and-pick " motion, and three shuttle boxes at each end of the sley.

A pick of each colour of figuring weft is inserted after every
ground pick ; and they may be displayed in any manner
according to the desired scheme of decoration. For example,
each colour of weft may be displayed alone, or picks of each
colour may be inserted alternately with each other in the same
part of the fabric, in order to produce a chintz or mingled
effect by blending the two colours together. In the figure por-
tions that are developed in such a manner, alternate standard


warp ends only are raised in those parts for picks of one colour,
and intermediate standard warp ends only for picks of the other
colour. In all other respects, this variety of Madras muslin
is similar to the two-shuttle variety described in § 120. Some
Madras muslins contain as many as three and four different
colours of figuring weft, which may be displayed either inde-
pendently, or in any combination with each other, as desired.

Lappet Figuring.

§ 122. Lappet figuring is usually confined to the ornamenta-
tion of light muslin textures of cotton, and sometimes of silk, of
the plain or calico weave ; and less frequently it is employed
in combination with gauze or leno and other woven effects. It
consists of the development of figured effects produced by a more
or less zigzag arrangement of extra warp threads, withdrawn
from one or more than one auxiliary small warp beam. These
extra warp ends are wrought into the foundation texture luithout
interweaving with warp ends, and are permanently held in posi-
tion by passing underneath jiicks of lueft (when cloth is viewed
obversely). The figuring warp threads, termed " whip " threads,
are thereby made to lie in the same direction as picks of weft,
which float quite freely on the face side of cloth only, between
the points of their intersection, as clearly indicated in the accom-
panying photographic reproductions of lappet-figured fabrics.
These characteristics are specially emphasised because they
constitute the essential principles of lappet figuring, which
sometimes bears a close resemblance to swivel figuring ; and
when once properly understood, they enable the difference be-
tween lappet and swivel figuring to be readily discriminated.

Lappet figuring is confined to the production of comparatively
simple decoration, as the system prohibits the development of
such elaborate designs as are frequently met with in tissue-
figured and swivel-figured fabrics, which varieties are usually
produced by means of a Jacquard machine. The examples of
cloth represented in Figs. 449 to 456 will serve, better than any
verbal description, to indicate the general character and scope of
lappet figuring ; whilst the following brief description of the



essential features of a lappet loom will enable the production of
these fabrics to be more easily comprehended.

§ 123. Lappet looms differ in details of construction, with
different loom makers ; but there are certain essential auxiliary-
parts common to all. These are represented in part sectional
elevation by Fig. 448, and comprise one or more needle-frames
B, B\ situated between a reed A of ordinary construction, and


Fig. 448.

-Part Sectional End Elevation of a Loom adapted for Lappet

a false reed or pin-stave C, all of which parts are supported by,.
and oscillate with, the loom sley, as indicated by representing
those parts at their rear and forward extremities of their move-
ment, by means of full and dotted lines respectively. The reed
A, which is situated several inches to the rear of the position a
reed usually occupies, serves the usual functions of maintaining-
an ev3n distribution of warp ends over the required width of


cloth, and of beating up picks of weft. The pin- stave C is a
stave containing a number of sharply-pointed pins, placed ver-
tically at intervals of about an inch to an inch and a [quarter.
This is placed immediately behind the rear edge of the shuttle
race- board, and alternately rises and falls in unison with the
backward and forward strokes of the sley. Its function is to
serve as a guide for the shuttle in its passage through the wai-p

Fig. 449,— Fabric with Lappet Figuring produced by One Needle-frame.

sheds, after which it disappears below warp ends and cloth, as
the sley advances to beat up the picks of weft.

The needle-frames B, B^ are narrow staves, each containing a
series of sharply-pointed needles placed vertically, and having
eyes formed near the top, for the reception of whip or figuring
threads, which they control. In addition to their oscillation
with the sley, needle-frames receive a reciprocal compound
movement both vertically and laterally. These movements


synchronise with the backward and forward strokes of the sley
respectively. Thus, as the sley recedes, and just before picking
takes place, needles are raised to insert their whip threads
between the ordinary warp ends, to take their place with the
upper half of the warp shed. Then, after each pick of weft is
inserted in the shed, the needles descend, as the sley advances
to beat up the picks of weft, which, by passing underneath lohip
threads, prevent the withdrawal of these as needles descend,
and retain them at the points at which they were inserted
between ordinary warp ends. When the needles have descended

Fig. 450.— Fabric with Lappet Figuring produced by Two Needle-frames.

a sufficient distance to be quite clear of warp ends and cloth,
they may be moved laterally, in either direction, for the purpose
of passing figuring threads from side to side of the figure, and
placing them in the required positions, according to the pattern,
ready for insertion into the warp shed for the next pick of weft.
The lateral movement of needle-frames may be effected in
various ways, either by means of lattices furnished with pegs of
different lengths, varying according to the amount of movement
required ; or by means of shaped pattern or "lappet " wheels, of
which there are several varieties. Perhaps the device known as
the " Scotch " lappet motion is that most generally applied to



lappet looms. This motion essentially consists of a wooden pat-
tern wheel or disc, freely mounted on a stud at one end of the loom,
and having such number of irregularly stepped concentric grooves
of uniform depth cut into the face side as corresponds with the
number of needle-frames to be actuated by it. The configuration
of each groove is in accordance with the particular movement to
be imparted to the respective needle-frames, for the develop-
ment of the required pattern.

Each groove receives and acts

451. — Fabric with Lappet Figuring produced by Two Needle-frames.

upon a small bowl or runner mounted upon a short pin or stud
fixed in an extension of each needle-frame. These extensions
pass horizontally in front of the wheel, so as to place the axes of
the runners and pattern wheel in exactly the same horizontal
plane. The rim of the pattern wheel is also formed with such
number of saw or ratchet teeth as corresponds with the number
of picks (or half that number, according to special circumstances)
to be inserted in each repeat of the pattern. It will now be-


come manifest that by intermittently rotating the pattern wheel
one tooth for each pick (or for every two picks) the needle-frames-
will be moved sideways in accordance with the configuration of
the respective grooves, and thereby cause the whip threads to
assume a more or less zigzag course, and float freely between
the extreme edges of figiire tuithout intermediate intersections.
A separate needle-frame is required for each distinct order of
interweaving the figuring threads. If all figuring threads are re-
quired to interweave in the same manner, only one needle-frame,
operated by one groove in the lappet wheel, is required ; but, if
figuring threads are required to interweave in four different
orders, then four needle-frames operated by a figuring wheel

Fig, 452. — Fabric with Lappet Figuring produced by Two Needle-frames.

w^ith four grooves will be required. It is rarely, however, that
more than three needle-frames are employed in one loom.

Since needle-frames are situated below^ w^arp ends, it follow^s
that the cloth will be woven face downward, and that the pattern
is thereby obscured from the observation of a weaver. This
circumstance is obviously to the disadvantage of a weaver, who
is unable to readily detect any imperfection in the pattern that
may arise during weaving : hence, in some lappet looms needle-
frames are situated above w^arp ends, w^ith the needles inverted,
so as to weave the cloth face upward, and with the pattern in
full view of a weaver. With this arrangement, however, the
small warp beams containing the figuring threads are conveni-



ently placed above the healds ; and as those threads descend in
front to their respective needle eyes, they form an obstruction to
a weaver v^hen piecing and drawing in warp ends. Also, in con-
sequence of inserting " whip " threads from above, instead of from
below, regular warp ends, during shedding, they are more liable
to cause the lower half of the warp sh«d to become uneven, and
thereby impede the free passage of a shuttle during picking.
§ 124. Fig. 449 illustrates an example of lappet figuring pro-

FiG. 453. —Fabric with Lappet Figuring produced l)y Two Needle-frames.

duced by one needle-frame. In that example, groups of five
figuring threads, of two different colours, are made to assume
linear rounded waves or sinuous lines running lengthwise of the
fabric. Fig. 450 is a more typical example of lappet figuring in
which successive figuring threads are worked in opposite direc-
tions so as to produce a diamond formation, thereby requiring two
needle-frames operated by two grooves in the pattern wheel. Fig.
451 is of a similar character to Fig. 450, but with two figuring


threads interweaving in opposite directions, to produce a double


;saf«*'5*'«£ ft?i .tf?" ■?*• i.^ -=%. jAa

Fig, 454.— Fabric with Lappet Figuring produced by Three Needle-frames.
diamond effect, which would require two needle-frames. Fig.

Fig. 4.55,— Fabric with Lappet Figuring produced by Four Needle-frames.
452 is a stripe formation, produced by a pointed wave running



lengthwise, alternating with a stripe of beads, and would require
two needle-frames. Fig. 453 is a peculiar all-over design which
at first appears somewhat complex ; but a close inspection will
show that only two needle-frames have been required for its
production. In addition to the lappet figuring, this specimen
has been additionally embellished by means of a printed pattern.
Fig. 454 is an unsuccessful attempt to represent foliage consist-

FiG. 456.— Fabric with Lappet Figuring of a Novel Character in which
pairs of Whip Threads cross and re-cross each other at regular
intervals, to develop a series of small circles, tor which Two Needle-
frames would be required.

ing of a running stem containing leaves and fruit. The pattern
would require three needle-frames for its formation — one for the
stem and two for the leaves and fruit on each side of it. Patterns
of this description are not suited to lappet figuring, and are rarely
achieved with success. Fig. 455 is a linear geometrical effect
consisting of a combination of circles and diamonds, and would
require four [needle-frames for its production.


Cross-thread Lappet Figuring.

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