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§ 125. A specimen of lappet figuring of a novel and ingenious
character is illustrated by Fig. 456. In this example, figuring
threads are caused to actually cross each other in reverse direc-
tions, and thereby develop an effect closely resembling that of a
net leno produced by the principle of gauze or cross-weaving,
for which it might easily be mistaken. For the production of
such effects, it is only necessary to pass the figuring threads of
one or more than one needle-frame, entirely underneath the
needle-frame or frames that are in the rear of those, and thus
permit of figuring threads passing or crossing each other. For
example, if two needle-frames are employed, the figuring threads
of the first frame must pass entirely underneath the second
frame before passing through their respective needle eyes, as
represented in the diagram, Fig. 448. The usual method of
passing whip threads through the needle eyes is to take them
upward immediately after passing underneath the lower reed
case, and then insert them through their respective needle eyes,
as indicated in the diagram by means of a dotted line extending
from the lower reed case to a needle in the front frame B^.

Spot Lappet Figuring.

§ 126. Some lappet fabrics are woven with detached figures
arranged alternately, or otherwise, to evenly distribute them over
the surface of cloth. In the production of such examples it is
the usual practice, after weaving each horizontal row of figures,
to cause the needle-frame or frames to automatically become
inoperative until they are required for the next row of figures,
when they are "shunted" sideways for the required distance,
so as to dispose the figures of alternate rows either midway
between those of intermediate rows, or otherwise, in a similar
manner to the swivel-figured spots illustrated by Figs. 457a and
457b. Now, seeing that lappet fabrics are usually woven face
downward (as explained at the end of § 123), it follows that
whip threads will trail loosely between the intervals separating
the figures produced by the same whip thread. These loose


threads are subsequently cut away, thereby leaving a short rem-
nant or tail of thread exjjosed on the face side of cloth, at both
the initial and final extremities of each figure, and causing
blemishes of an objectionable character. This disfigurement,
however, may be averted by causing the needles to rise in exactly
the same position for all picks inserted between the end of one
row of figures and the beginning of those in the next row, there-
by inserting the respective whip threads uniformly between the
same warp ends, for those picks. The object of this procedure
is to cause the whip threads to trail or lie above the picks of weft
between the horizontal rows of figures (when in the loom) and
therefore to be on the reverse side or back of cloth, whence they
are subsequently cut away, leaving the severed tail ends exposed
on that side, and thus keeping the face of cloth free from such
blemishes. Lappet figures or spots developed in accordance with
this practice, and which are known in the trade as "tailless"
lappet spots, constitute a superior style of lappet figuring as
compared with those constructed in the usual manner.

Swivel Figuring.

§ 127. Swivel figuring is a system of ornamentation by means
of extra weft inserted by auxiliary shuttles specially designed for
the pui-pose. It is a method of figuring extensively adopted for
the decoration of silk fabrics for book-marks, ties, ribbons, ladies'
dress materials, and sometimes of light cotton fabrics for similar
uses. Being of a more refined and elegant character than either
*' tissue " or " lappet " figuring, it is capable of producing decor-
ative designs, figures, and pictorial representations of a floral and
scenic description, in a very effective manner. The extra figur-
ing weft is usually of silk, and, unlike "lappet " figuring, it may
interweave with warp ends in any conceivable manner, instead
of having to float loosely between the extreme edges of the
figures. The foundation texture upon which swivel figures are
formed is usually of the plain or tabby weave ; or else that of a
simple three-end or four-end twill weave. An example of swivel
figuring of a very simple character is illustrated in Figs. 457a
and 4:57b, which show both the face and back of the same fabric.



Fig. 457.— Showing the Face and Back of a Twill Fabric embellished with
small detached figures produced by SAvivel Weaving.


Swivel figuring is very easily distinguished from " lappet " figur-
ing, by the interlacement of the extra figuring weft with warp
ends, between the extreme edges of figure ; and also by that
weft bending around luarp ends when returning at the edges of
figure, and 7iot around picks of weft, as in "lappet" figuring.
During the operation of weaving, swivel-figured fabrics, like lap-
pet-figured fabrics (produced by means of bottom needle-frames)
are produced face downward, as represented in Fig. 457b. The
auxiliary shuttles containing the figuring weft are of very differ-
ent shape to that of ordinary loom shuttles ; and, unlike the latter,
they are not propelled separately and independently across the
entire width of the loom; but in the prevailing type of swivel
loom a number of them are carried simultaneously and positively
through a corresponding number of sectional warp sheds formed
at regular intervals apart across the width of cloth, for the pur-
pose of inserting the extra figuring weft for the development of
figure. The swivel shuttles, termed "poppets," are carried by,
and move to and fro with, the sley, as the latter oscillates.
They may be arranged in one, two, or more horizontal rows, or
tiers (according to the number of colours of figuring w^eft required
for the same figure) above the warp ends. Each tier may contain
any practicable number of "poppet" shuttles, but with a cor-
responding number in each row. They are supported at regular
intervals apart, in a frame termed the " poppet rack," w^hich is
capable of a vertical movement, to enable it to be alternately
depressed and raised in a prescribed manner, in order to place
any particular tier of " poppets " in a position to enter their
respective sectional warp sheds, and insert picks of figuring weft.
They are then passed simultaneously through the sheds, and
quickly raised clear of the cloth to permit of the reed coming for-
ward to beat up the short picks of weft which they have inserted.
A shed is then formed all across the warp for the passage of the
ordinary shuttle to insert an ordinary pick of weft for the founda-
tion texture ; after which, the sectional figuring sheds are again
formed for the reception of figuring weft from the same or
another tier of "poppets, " according to the colour of weft required.




Woven Ondule Effects.

§ 128. The term ondule is used to distinguish an unusual and
interesting variety of woven fabrics in which either warp ends
or picks of weft are caused to assume undulating, wavy, or
sinuous lines. An example of warp ondule is represented by
Fig. 458, which is reproduced from a specimen of cloth of this
description. (It may be observed, incidentally, that the speci-

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Fig. 458. — Warp Ondule Fabric, with Net Leno and Cross-thread
Lappet Stripes.

men here represented also embodies the principles of cross-
weaving, in combination with lappet figuring, of the special
variety described in § 125, and illustrated by Fig. 456, in
which the whip or figuring threads cross each other in reverse
directions.) Apart from the features just indicated in paren-
theses, there is nothing of an unusual structural character in
the class of fabrics under consideration, which are generally


of simple construction. Their chief interest, therefore, Ues in
the special mechanical devices required for their production,
which are sometimes of a novel and very ingenious character.
When the undulations are required in the direction of warp
€nds, these devices consist essentially of some means whereby
warp ends may be gradually spread apart and then closed in
alternately, to produce contrary sinuous lines running lengthwise
of the fabric. This may be achieved by either of two distinct
methods. One method is to employ a reed, of which the dents
may be contracted in some parts and expanded in others according
iio the effect desired ; but a more approved and practical method
of obtaining warp ondule effects, however, is by means of what are
variously termed '' paqtoet," " 07idule," and inverted "fan" reeds,
in which some of the reed wires are permanently inclined at




Fig. 459. Fig. 460.

Ondule, Paquet, or Fan Reeds, for the production of Warp Ondule


gradually varying angles, and in opposite directions ; albeit, they
are all in the same vertical plane when viewed from the ends
of the reed. Ondule or paquet reeds are made in a great variety
of forms according to the particular effect desired in cloth ; and,
during weaving, they are operated by auxiliary mechanism
which slowly raises and depresses them alternately, thereby
causing warp ends to gradually deviate from their normal straight
course, and assume the characteristic undulating or sinuous
lines. Three typical varieties of ondule reeds are represented by
Pigs. 459, 460, and at E, Fig. 461. That shown in Fig. 461 is
a common variety termed a double or inverted fan reed, for the
production of regular and contrary sinuous lines ; whilst those
represented by Figs. 459 and 460 are designed to produce per-
forations in cloth. The intervals at which the perforations will
occur both horizontally and vertically, in cloth, is determined



Fig. 461. — Part Front Elevation of a Loom adapted for the development of Warp
Ondule Effects by means of specially-designed Reeds, of which an example
is represented at R.


Fig 462 —End Elevation of a Loom for the production of Warp Ondule



by the distance between the gaps in the reed, and the velocity
with which it is reciprocated, respectively. Sorne ondule or
paquet reeds are of a variegated character, with vertical dents
alternated with dents inclined at various angles to the right and
left, on each side of the vertical dents. They are also made in
a variety of other forms according to requirements.

§ 129. A loom equipped with a device (invented by Mr. E.
Foulds) for the development of ondule effects, is represented in
front and end elevation by Figs. 461 and 462 respectively. In
this loom an inverted fan reed R is contained in a frame to which
is imparted a slow reciprocal vertical and intermittent move-
ment by means of a dobby acting through the medium of a.
train of wheels and suitable connections of rods and levers,
as indicated in the diagrams. Mounted freely upon a stud or
pin J, fixed in a wheel I, is a pendant arm K, from which is
suspended a long rod L, with its lower end attached to a lever
M, fixed to a cross bar N, on the opposite end of which is a
duplicate lever M. Resting upon the respective levers M are
two rods Q, which slide freely in brackets bolted to the sley
swords, and therefore oscillate with the sley. The sley cap S,
containing the upper ribs of the reed, is secured by means of
brackets to the upper ends of rods Q, which are supported (at
different times) by means of one or other of two arms, secured
to their lower ends, and furnished with bowls or runners O, P,
that rest upon their respective levers M. It will now be seen,
therefore, that as wheel I is slowly and intermittently rotated,
levers M will alternately rise and fall with a corresponding
velocity, whereby different parts of the reed wires are brought,
opposite the fell of cloth ivhen beating up the loeft. Thus, in
consequence of the angular disposition of reed wires, warp ends
are congested or expanded in width, according as they pass
through the congested or expanded extremities of the reed dents

The object of employing two runners O, P, placed at the ends
of separate arms extending both forward and rearward of the
respective rods Q, to which they are secured, is to cause the reed
to assume a position midway between its highest and lowest
elevations, during the formation of warp sheds, and thereby


prevent excessive chafing of warp ends that would otherwise be
caused by their bearing hard and rubbing against the reed
wires at the upper and lower extremities of a fan reed. This
object is achieved in the following manner : As the sley oscil-
lates, runners O and P are alternately brought to bear upon
different parts of levers M, thereby causing the reed to either
descend or ascend to a neutral position as the sley recedes,
according to the upward or downward inclination (from the
cross bar N) of levers M, respectively.

Weft Ondule Effect.

§ 130. An exceptional and interesting specimen of cloth of
the ondule variety is photographically represented by Fig. 463-
This example may be described as a weft, or cross-over ondule
effect, since they are picks of loeft and not warp ends, that
assume a wavy character (as indicated by the selvedge, on the
left of the fabric). This example is produced from organzine silk
warp picked with genapped worsted, to produce a light musHn
texture of the plain or calico weave, suitable for a summer dress

A weft ondul3 effect may be developed in a variety of ways,
either by means of shaped reeds expressly designed to produce
the required effect in cloth ; or by applying a constantly varying
degree of tension to alternate groups of warp ends. Eeeds,
styled "Erdmann " reeds (after their inventor), are either con-
structed of shaped wires placed vertically, so as to appear
curved on their front edge when the reed is viewed end- wise ;
or the wires may be straight and arranged at varying angles, so
that if the reed were viewed end-wise, they would appear to
cross each other like the letters V or X ; and if viewed in plan,
they would form a serpentine or undulating line from end to end
of the reed. By slowly and alternately raising and depressing
such reeds, the picks of weft will assume varying degrees of
undulation according to the velocity with which the reed is
vertically reciprocated. By keeping the reed stationary at any
given point, picks may be inserted uniformly parallel with each



other, either straight, or in raore or less undulating lines, as

§ 131. Weft ondule effects may be produced in looms fur-
nished with ordinary reeds, by dividing warp ends (immediately
after leaving the warp beam) mto groups according to the length
of wave required, and by passing alternate groups of threads over
one bar, and intermediate groups over a second bar. By slowly

Fig. 463.— Weft Ondule Fabric.

oscillating both bars in contrary directions (by means of cams,
cranks or eccentiics) a gradually varying degree of tension will
be imparted to warp ends, whereby the two divisions of threads
will be alternately tautened and slackened. This will cause the
picks of weft to assume more or less wavy lines, according to the
disparity between the tension of the two divisions of threads.
An alternative, though less practical method of obtaining a


similar result would be to wind the two divisions of threads upon
separate warp beams, and, by any suitable means, apply varying
degrees of resistance to the withdrawal of yarn from them, and
thereby alternately increase and diminish the tension of the two
divisions of warp ends in a contrary manner.

Looped Fabrics.

§ 132. A variety of fabrics in vogue as dress materials are
formed with a series of loops either sparsely distributed, or
arranged in stripes, on the face side of the cloth only. The
loops are developed by means of extra warp ends, upon a founda-
tion texture of simple construction. The extra warp ends require
to be wound upon a separate warp beam, which is very lightly
weighted, to permit the threads to be freely withdrawn when
required to form loops. Fabrics of this class are but very
remotely, if at all,' related to the well-known type of terry pile
fabrics described in Chapter VIII., as they neither embody the
same principles of construction, nor is it essential to employ a
terry motion to produce the loops — although loops are some-
times formed in these fabrics by causing the reed to recede for
certain picks, and to be held fast in its normal position for
others, in a manner similar to that which obtains in terry
weaving (as described in ,§ 82), excepting that the liberation of
the reed is effected by means of the dobby (if such is employed),
or by other improvised contrivance, to save the expense of a
loom equipped with a special terry motion. The prevailing
method, however, of forming loops in this variety of fabrics is
to pass the required warp ends between two cloth-covered rollers
which are rotated intermittently, to deliver uniform lengths of
warp according to the size of loops required to be formed on
the fabric, and to weave without the reed being allowed to swing
backward at the bottom, from its normal position, as the sley
advances to beat up picks of weft.


Action of the loose reed in terry looms, 164.

Alternative dispositions of pile and ground warp ends in terry pile fabrics,

relative merits of, 163, 166, 173.
Angle of twill, 30.


Back standard healds, 182.

position of, in relation to regular healds in leno looms, 227.

Backed fabrics, 119.

reversible, 125.

warp-, 123.

weft-, 121.

what to bear in mind when preparing designs for, 120.

Beaverteen fabrics, 132.

Bedford cord fabrics, 103.

alternative methods of introducing extra coloured warp ends into,.

for figuring purposes, 113.
detailed specifications of all the examples of, herein described,


plain-ribbed, 105.

twill-ribbed, 108.

usual means of embellishing, 104.

variegated, 107.

with Jacquard figuring, 115.

Bottom-doup harness for cross-weaving, 179.
" Brighton " weaves, 85.

construction of, 86.

Brocade fabrics, leno, 179.
Broken twills, 66.

Brussels carpets, formation of the looped pile in, 162.


268 INDEX.

Calico or plain weave, construction of the, 6.

definition of the, 6, 9.

methods of embellishing the, 16.

modifications of the, 6.

variety of form in the, 10.

variety of texture in the, 8.

Cantoon or " diagonal" fabrics, 129.

Canvas cloth, 234.

" Cassimere " or " Harvard " (o-) twill, 27.

Catch-cord, the function of a, 169.

Classification of twill weaves, 24.

Combination of two twill weaves, end-and-end, 61.

pick-and-pick, 63.

Combined twills, 60.
Compound net leno fabric, 195.
Corded and ribbed fabrics, simple, 10.

with variegated ribs, 19.

Corded or ribbed velveteen fabrics, 145.
Cords, velvet, 146, 158, 156.
Corduroy fabrics, 153.

figured, 156.

machines for cutting, to form pile, 157.

(circular knife), 158.

(straight knife), 161.

thickset, 155.

with variegated cords, 153.

Corkscrew twills, 48.

" Cover" in cloth, definition of, 32.

Cross shed, formation of a, with a bottom-doup harness, 184.

with a top-doup harness, 191.

Cross-weaving, different types of shedding harnesses for, 179.
steel-wire doup harnesses for, 228.

Density of pile in terry pile fabrics, circumstances affecting the, 169.
Design, chief divisions of textile, 3.

— definition of woven, 3.

— Grammar of Textile, definition of, 3.

— or point paper, counts of, 4.
• use of, 4.

Designs, leno, what to bear in mind when preparing, 227.
Details of leno weaving, practical, 227.

INDEX. 269

'• Diagonal " or cantoon fabrics, 129.

Diamond weaves, 77.

Direction of twist in yarn, and the influence it exercises upon the relative

prominence of twills, the, 32.
Dispositions of pile and ground warp ends in terry pile fabrics, relative

merits of alternative, 163, 166, 173.
Dobbies for gauze and leno weaving, relative merits of different types of,

Double-faced or reversible fabrics, 125.
Double reeds for terry pile weaving, 170.
Doup harnesses, relative merits of top and of bottom, 219.
steel-wire, for cross-weaving, 228,

— healds, 182.

worsted, disadvantages of, 228.

steel-wire, disadvantages of, 232.

— warp ends, 182.
Doups, definition of, 182.


Easers, slackeners or vibrators in leno looms, the function of, 184.

Embossed designs in velveteen fabrics, 153.

" Erdmann " reeds, 263.

Essential factors in terry pile weaving, 169.

— parts of a gauze or leno harness for cross-weaving, 182.

Fan, ondule or paquet reeds, 259.

Figured Bedford cord fabrics, Jacquard, 115.

— corduroy fabrics, 156.

— or ornamented twills, 72.

— terry pile fabrics, 173.

— velveteen fabrics, Jacquard, 147.
Firmness of texture, influences affecting the, 6.
Flexible reeds, advantages of, 227.

Formula for the construction of satin weaves, 46.
Front standard healds in leno looms, 182.
Full-cross leno fabrics, 218.
Fustian fabrics, the chief varieties of, 126.

(beaverteen), 132.

(cantoon or "diagonal"), 129.

(corduroy, figured), 156.

(corduroy, plain), 153.

("imperial," reversible), 129.

270 INDEX.

JFustian fabrics ('• imperial " sateen), 129.

(" imperial " or swansdown), 128.

(lambskin), 129.

(moleskin), 130.

(moleskin, printed), 131,

(velveteen, Jacquard figured), 147.

(velveteen, plain), 132.

(velveteen, ribbed or corded), 145.

cutting, 126, 133, 135, 157.

by hand, 135.

by machinery, 157.


Gauze or leno fabrics, 178.

different types of shedding harnesses for weaving, 179.

heald harness, essential parts of a, 182.

— plain, 179.

— reed, construction of a, 242.
function of a, 243,

Grammar of Textile Design, definition of, 3.
" Grecian " weaves, 94.

Harness, essential parts of a gauze or leno heald, 182.
Harnesses, relative merits of top and of bottom doup, 219.

— steel-wire doup, for cross-weaving, 228.
" Harvard" or " Cassimere " twill, 27.
Herring-bone twills, 72.

Hollow-cut or ribbed velveteen fabrics, 147.
Honeycomb effects, how they are produced, 85.

— weaves, 78.

characteristics of, 78.

Huck-a-back weaves, 90.

^'Imperial " or swansdown fabrics, 128.

— reversible, 129,

— sateen, 129.

Influence exercised by the direction of twist in yarn upon the relative

prominence of twills, 32.
Intervals of selection, for the construction of satin weaves, 48.

INDEX. 271

Liambskin fabrics, 129.
Lappet figuring, 237, 245.

cross-thread, 254.

of a novel character, 254.

spot, 254.

— loom, essential parts of a, 246.

— looms, disadvantages of needle frames being situated below warp ends

in, 250.

— motion, Scotch, 249.

— wheel, description of a, 249.
Leno brocade fabrics, 179.

— designs, what to bear in mind when preparing, 229.

— device for douping or crossing warp ends in front of the reed, White-

head and Wood's, 213.

— effects, special, 212.

— fabric, compound net, 195.

— fabrics, full-cross, 218.
mock or imitation, 233.

— or gauze fabrics, 178.

heald harness, essential parts of a, 182.

— looms, position of back standard healds in relation to regular healds in,


— weaving, practical details of, 227.

relative merits of different types of dobbies for, 222.

Linear zigzag weaves, 96.

Looped fabrics, 237, 265.

Loose reed action in terry looms, 164.

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