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illustrated in Fig. 7, so extensively employed for window blinds in
railway carriages and other vehicles, and for the upholstering of
furniture. In general appearance it closely resembles the ribbed
cloth illustrated in Fig. 4 ; but a close inspection of both ex-
amples will reveal a great difference in their construction and



14 GRAMMAE OF TEXTILE DESIGN.

texture — the repp cloth being much firmer and stronger than
the ribbed cloth.

In the production of repp cloth, as illustrated in Fig. 7, two dis-
tinct series of both warp and weft are employed — the counts
and character of each series being such as to develop a series
of very prominent and sharply defined ribs in the direction of
weft. The warp series comprise two counts of yarn — one fine




Fig. 7. — Repp (warp-ribbed) Cloth.

and strong, which is held at great tension during weaving, and
the other coarse and soft, w^hich is held at a less degree of
tension, to enable it to easily yield and bend over coarse and
under fine picks of weft. Each series of warp ends is wound
upon a separate warp beam to allow of a different rate of con-
traction during w^eaving. They may be arranged in the harness
and reed in the order of one fine and one coarse warp end



THE PLAIN OR CALICO WEAVE AND ITS MODIFICATIONS. 15



alternately ; but a superior rib will be produced by running two
mediu7n warp ends together, as in the example, Fig. 7, and as
indicated in plan, Fig. 8a. The weft series also comprise two
counts of yarn— one fine and strong, similar to the fine warp,
and the other very coarse and strong. These are inserted, one
fine and one coarse pick alternately, thereby requiring a loom








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Fig. 8a, b.— Plan and Longitudinal Section of Repp Cloth.

with two shuttle boxes at each end of the sley, and a " pick-
and-pick " picking motion, i.e., one capable of picking twice,
or more than twice, in succession, from each side of a loom.
When coarse picks are inserted, all medium warp ends only
are raised to form ribs ; and when fine picks are inserted, all
fine warp ends only are raised, thereby forming deep furrows
by binding down all medium warp ends between the coarse



16 GBAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.

picks, as seen in longitudinal section, diagram, Fig. 8b. The
sample of repp cloth illustrated in Fig. 7 contains 21 x 2 = 42
medium, and 21 fine warp ends per inch ; and 17 coarse and 17
fine picks per inch. (The rectangle encloses one square inch of
cloth.)

§ 11. In the foregoing examples of ribbed fabrics, the ribs of
the respective pieces are of uniform size, and occur in im-
mediate succession, thereby producing a general evenness of
effect and uniformity of texture throughout the entire piece of
cloth. Cords or ribs are, however, frequently employed as a
simple means of ornamenting what would otherwise have been
entirely plain fabrics, but which are made to assume a variety
of decorative effects of a very pleasing character. Such effects
are, of course, confined to stripes, running either up or across
the cloth, and to checks. Stripes may be formed in an upward
direction in a plain calico fabric by disposing comparatively
coarse warp ends or else groups of warp ends at either regular
or irregular intervals apart, according to the effect desired.
Such threads may be either of uniform counts, to produce plain
ribs, or of different counts, to produce variegated ribs. By
inserting coarse picks of weft instead of coarse warp ends in
the manner just described, stripes would be formed across the
piece ; and by introducing coarse threads in both series,
checks of great variety may be formed. A familiar example of
this method of embellishing a plain fabric is that of a cambric
pocket handkerchief, bordered either by a series of thick threads
or by placing two or more fine threads together side by side to
form cords.

§ 12. The development of ribs and cords is not dependent
upon the employment of coarser threads in one series than in
the other. They may be formed in fabrics composed of warp
and weft of uniform counts, by causing two or more threads
of one series (according to the required prominence of rib) to
lie closely side by side, so as to virtually constitute a coarse
thread composed of several strands not twisted together, and
interweaving such groups of threads with separate threads of
the other series. If threads are grouped in uniform quantities
throughout, the ribs will be of uniform size ; but if grouped in



THE PLAIN OR CALICO WEAVE AND ITS MODIFICATIONS. 17

irregular quantities, a series of variegated ribs will be produced.
By this method the rib formation is caused by the combined
resistance of the grouped threads, which lie straight, thereby





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compeUing the separate threads of the other series to yield
and bend under and over them, in accordance with the prin-
ciple of fabric structure which determines that the relative




Fig. 11.



Fig. 12.



prominence of threads diminishes in proportion to the amount
of bending performed by them in cloth.

J^ 13. Simple ribs of various sizes may be formed in the direc-
tion of weft by separating alternate warp ends (as in the plain
cahco weave) and inserting two or more picks of weft in the

2



18



GRAMMAE OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



same sheds of warp. Figs. 9 to 12 are designs for this class of
rib weaves containing two, three, four and six picks respectively,
in each shed. Each design repeats on two warp ends, and such
number of picks as are contained in two ribs, namely, four, six,
eight and twelve respectively. In the production of these or




1234^

Fig. 13



other weaves, in which several successive picks are inserted in
the same shed, it is necessary to furnish a loom with a selvedge
motion, to operate selvedge warp ends in a different order from
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prevent picks of weft from being pulled backward into the shed
when a shuttle passes through the same shed for several picks
in succession.

§ 14. Simple cords may be formed in the direction of warp by
raising warp ends in uniform groups of two or more threads
which may pass through heald eyes either separately or in



THE PLAIN OR CALICO WEAVE AND ITS MODIFICATIONS. 19

groups. Figs. 13 to 16 are designs for cords in which two,
three, four and six warp ends respectively are grouped together.
Each design repeats on as many warp ends as are contained in
two cords, and two picks of weft. Since each pick is contained




Fig. 17.

in a separate shed, it is unnecessary to employ a special selvedge
motion when weaving those designs.

It was stated in § 12 that variegated cords or ribs may be
formed by an irregular system of grouping threads either warp
way or weft way respectively. It should be observed, however,




Fig. 18.

that much greater scope is afforded in this respect by grouping
warp ends, than by grouping picks of weft ; also that variegated
cords (warp way) may be more economically produced than
variegated ribs (weft way). This arises from the fact that cords
of any variety may be formed in a plain loom by simply varying
the drafting of warp ends through the healds ; whereas varie-
gated ribs would require to be woven in a loom mounted with a



20



CtRAmmae of textile design.



dobby or even a small Jacquard machine (for large patterns)
and furnished with a selvedge motion. Also, in addition to the
extra cost of such looms, a higher rate of wages would have to-
be paid to weavers engaged upon them. Figs. 17 to 20 ar&




Fig. 19.



designs for variegated cords, each repeating on twenty-four
warp ends and two picks. By turning those designs on their
side they become variegated ribs, repeating on two w^arp ends-
and twenty-four picks.




Fig. 20.



Matt Weaves.

§ 15. Simple matt weaves are those in which groups of two
or more contiguous warp ends and picks interlace with each
other so as to produce a chequered or dice effect, as represented
in designs, Figs. 21, 22 and 23. The simplest of these w^ eaves.



'THE PLAIN OR CALICO WEAVE AND ITS MODIFICATIONS. 21

is that known as a two-and-two or four-end matt weave indi-
cated in Fig. 21, in which warp ends and picks interweave in
pairs throughout the fabric, on the principle of the plain weave.
This matt weave is extensively adopted for a great variety of




1234



Fig. 21.



Fig. 22.



fabrics, of which dress materials, shirtings, sailcloth (for ships'
sails), and **duck" cloth are, perhaps, the more notable ex-
a-mples. Figs. 22 and 23 are designs for three-and-three (six-



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Fig. 24.



•end) and four-and-four (eight-end) matt weaves respectively.
When these and larger matt weaves are employed, the number
•of warp ends and picks per inch in cloth should be proportion-
ately increased, otherwise they would produce fabrics of an
open and flimsy texture, in which the threads would become



22



GRAMMAE OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



easily displaced, in consequence of the very few intersections
made by them.

§ 16. Variegated matt weaves are developed by combining
irregular groups of warp and weft threads, after the manner



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Fig. 26.



indicated in Figs. 24 to 29, of which the first three are designs
repeating on twelve, and the last three, on sixteen warp ends
and picks. They may be formed with weft preponderating on




Fig. 27.



Fig. 28.



the face, as Figs. 24 and 27 ; with warp preponderating on the
face, as Figs. 25 and 28 ; or they may be designed as true
counterchange or diaper patterns, as Figs. 26 and 29, in which
warp and weft are exactly counter to each other and in equal
quantities on both the face and back of the fabric. It will be



THE PLAIN OE CALICO WEAVE AND ITS MODIFICATIONS. 23

observed that in these designs, as in all others of the same class,
there are only two orders in which warp ends interweave with
weft, thereby requiring not more than two healds for their pro-



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duction in cloth, although the healds would require to be oper-
ated by a dobby or other shedding device, for designs repeating
on such number of picks as are beyond the reasonable scope of
tappets.



CHAPTER III.

TWILL AND KINDRED WEAVES.

§ 17. Twill weaves form a distinct departure from any of the
foregoing, and they constitute a most useful variety of weaves
extensively employed in the construction of numerous classes of
fabrics. They exist in endless varieties of form, and are based
on a simple principle of design ; but whatever particular appear-
ance they assume, they are generally characterised by a series
of more or less pronounced diagonal wales or ridges and furrows,
with either warp or weft preponderating, or in equal quantities, on
the face of the fabric. The twill may be produced continuously
either from right to left {i.e., sinistrally) , as in Fig. 30 ; or from
left to right {i.e., dextrally) ; or again, it may be produced in
reverse directions in the same fabric, as desired. The variety
of twill weaves is so considerable as to render an exact classifi-
cation of them impossible. For the present purpose, however,
they may be broadly divided into six chief varieties, namely:
(1) continuous twills ; (2) zigzag or wavy twills ; (3) rearranged
twills, including satin weaves and " corkscrew " twills ; (4)
combined twills ; (5) broken twills ; (6) figured and other twill
weaves of an indefinable character. Each of these divisions
may be subdivided into (a) warp-face twills ; {b) weft-face
twills ; and (c) warp and weft-face twills, in which warp and
weft are in either equal or unequal quantities on the face of the
fabric.

1. Continuous Twills.

§ 18. {a) Warp-face Twills. — These are formed by raising all
warp ends, excepting one, in each repeat of the pattern, for each
pick, and stepping one warp end in consecutive rotation (to the

(24)



TWILL AND KINDRED WEAVES.



25



Tight or left, according to the required direction of twill) as
successive picks are inserted. These will develop a series of
diagonal wales or ridges of warp, separated by furrows formed
by single stitches of weft. Twill weaves may be formed on any




Fig. 30.



Fig. 31.



number of warp ends and picks, from three upwards. Figs. 30
to 35 are designs for warp twills repeating on three to eight
warp ends and picks respectively, and will be sufficient to indi-
cate the principle of their construction.





§ 19. (b) Weft-face Tiuills. — These are produced by reversing
the conditions stated in ^5 18, by raising one warp end only, in
€ach repeat of the pattern, for each pick, and proceeding in a
similar manner to that described for warp-face twills. This will
produce a series of diagonal ridges of weft separated by single



^26



GRAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



stitches of warp, as indicated in designs, Eigs. 36 to 41, which
are for weft twills repeating on three to eight warp ends and
picks respectively.

§ 20. (c) Warj) and Weft-face Tioills. — These may be formed
with either equal or unequal wales of warp and weft arranged




Fig. 34.



Fig. 35.



alternately. If the wales are equal, that is, if both warp ends,
and picks pass over and under the same number of threads
uniformly, warp and weft will necessarily be in equal quantities-





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Fig. 37.



on both the face and back of the fabric ; but if the wales are
unequal, warp and w^eft may be either in equal or unequal
quantities on the face and back of cloth. Equal wales are
formed by alternately raising and leaving down equal groups of
two or more warp ends for each pick, and stepping one warp



TWILL AND KINDRED WEAVES.



27



end in consecutive rotation as successive picks are inserted.
The least of this class is that variously known as the '' two-and-
two " {- — -), the '' Harvard " and the ''Cassimere " twill given in
Fig. 42, which repeats on four warp ends and picks. This is a



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Fig. 39.



very useful weave, and one that is perhaps more extensively
employed than any other of its class. The principle on which
it is constructed is conducive to the production of firm and




Fig. 40.



Fig. 41.



strong cloth of comparatively light texture. These qualities
arise from warp and weft interlacing with such frequency and
in such a manner as to permit of the threads of each series
lying close together. On examining this weave, it will be seen
that alternate threads of warp or weft interweave in an opposite



28



GRAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN



manner at the same time ; that is, when one is above, the other
is below, the same threads of the other series, although all
threads in both series interweave in a precisely similar manner
to each other. For these reasons, this simple twill weave is




Fig. 42



capable of producing a firm, close and compact texture, and is
one of the most useful weaves to a textile designer. Figs. 43 and
44 are two other examples of twill weaves having warp and



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weft in equal quantities on both the face and back of cloth.
Fig. 43 is a six-end (^ — ~) twill, and Fig. 44 an eight-end {- — -)
twill. It will be observed in Fig. 43 that the first and fourth
threads in either series, counting from any thread, interweave
in an opposite manner to each other at the same time. Like-



TWILL AND KINDEED WEAVES.



29



wise with the first and fifth threads in Fig. 44. Knowledge of
these features is valuable to a designer in the development of
broken twills, and other designs having a twill foundation.




Fig. 45.



Fig. 46.



Figs. 45, 46 and 47 are designs for twill weaves to produce
unequal wales of warp and weft in equal quantities on both
face and back ; whilst Figs. 48, 49 and 50 are designs for twills







Fig. 47.



Fig. 48.



having unequal wales of warp and weft, but with warp pre-
ponderating on the face. The three designs of each of these
latter varieties repeat on eight, twelve and sixteen warp ends and
picks respectively.

Before proceeding to describe the second class of twill weaves,
as enumerated in "^



S 17, it wi



ill be both interesting and instructive



30



GRAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



to indicate the main influences atfecting the angle, and also the
relative prominence, of twills in cloth.

The Angle of Twill.

§ 21. The angle of twill in any continuous twill weave in
which the progression is accomplished by advancing one thread




Fig. 49.



Fig. 50.



only at a time, with both warp and weft, is determined by the
ratio existing between the number of warp ends and picks in a
given measurement, say, one inch. If warp ends and picks are




Fig. 51.



Fig. 52.



in equal numbers per inch, the angle of twill must necessarily be
one of forty-five degrees, irrespective of any difference that may
exist between the counts of warp and weft ; but if the threads of
one series are more numerous than those of the other, the angle



TWILL AND KINDRED WEAVES.



31



of twill will assume an inclination towards those threads in
greater number. Thus, if there are more warp ends than picks
per inch, the angle of twill will incline in the direction of warp
ends in proportion to the excess of warp ends over picks ; but if
there are more picks than warp ends per inch, the angle of twill
will incline more in the direction of weft. High-angle or low-
angle twills may also be formed by advancing two or more
threads together in one series, and one thread only in the
other series, as in Figs. 51 to 54. If a high-angle twill is pro-
duced by this method, or if warp ends exceed picks per inch, the
twill should be developed with warp, as in Figs. 51 and 52. If



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Fig. 54.



a low-angle twill is required, or if picks exceed warp ends per
inch, the twill should be developed with weft, as in Figs. 53
and 54.



Influences Affecting the Prominence of Twills and
Kindred Weaves.

§ 22. A twill weave will assume either a more or a less pro-
nounced character in cloth, according to different circumstances.
The relative prominence of twills is chiefly determined by (a)
the character of weave ; (h) the character of yarn ; (c) the
number of warp ends and picks per inch ; and {d) the direction
of twill in relation to the direction of twist imparted to yarn
during spinning.

{a) Character of Weave. — A twill weave will be relatively
more pronounced if developed from longer than from shorter
floats of yarn ; but unless the freer interlacement of threads is



32 GKAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.

counterbalanced by a proportionate increase in their number per
inch, the fabric will be relatively weaker, for reasons stated
in § 7. It is to obtain longer floats of yarn that high-angle twills
should be developed with warp, and low-angle twills with weft,
as explained in § 21. If those conditions were reversed, the
twill would lack fulness owing to the short flushes of yarn,
as may be readily observed on examining the reverse side of a
fabric of this class.

{b) Characte}- of Yam. — A more pronounced twill will result
from either coarse-spun or soft-spun yarn than from fine-spun or
hard-spun yarn; also from folded yarn {i.e., a thread consisting
of two or more single strands of yarn twisted together) than
from single yarn.

(c) Number of Threads per Inch. — A twill will be relatively
more or less pronounced in proportion to the number of threads
per inch.

{d) Direction of Twill in Belation to the Direction of Ttvist
in Yarn. — If the same twill weave is produced to the left in one
fabric, and to the right in another fabric of exactly similar tex-
ture, and woven from similar yarn, or (which amounts to the
same) if the same twill is produced in both directions in different
parts of the same fabric, it will appear to be more pronounced
in one direction than in the other, according to the direction of
twill in relation to the direction of twist in the yarn composing
it. This difference is also observable between the obverse and
reverse sides of the same fabric, especially if warp and weft are


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Online LibraryHarry NisbetGrammar of textile design (Volume c.2) → online text (page 2 of 19)