Harry Nisbet.

Grammar of textile design (Volume c.2) online

. (page 4 of 19)
Online LibraryHarry NisbetGrammar of textile design (Volume c.2) → online text (page 4 of 19)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


indicated on design paper, in which the threads are represented
as if spread out and lying parallel side by side without com-
pression, it would appear that lueft would be visible on the face
of the fabric in warp-face corkscrews, and loarp in weft-face





LUW








r\




:


Zpmm 1 1 1 ■







rpi













rrr


JP










■^ru-










Ui


1





WW^
















1


■I


rc




1




M PP








wr




1


■WriTL








1




1


I




TT


Ui





■I




mcT








n


1





Tn w¥


















■i


pr




Tl




1 1 ^m 1 1 ■




.. Lj.




^^1




T


m^TTT
















T






ymTrmr


Jt












■ ■ 1 1 1 Hi








^














Hill




r


,


^ 1 1 ■


W










t^


^








iii^m~k












i^


!j^


^


^






sS









■fn wr\ 1


















^








^


'i^














^


! Bl^^ ■■










^


^






nr^mz














i^M^


1










4-LLJP


1


















i


m ^


















^


■■ii




^


i^




4nS


J












*.

^




S




^mB
















1;^$^^


w^^




^






w










^




























1


^


^


Tl H


-


3L














^


^


^










-


_


_




^^




-


-U



Fig. 102.



Fig. 103.



Fig. 104.



corkscrews. This would actually occur if the floating threads
were not in considerably greater numbers and therefore more
densely crowded than the other series of threads. But by in-
creasing the numerical density of floating threads, over covered
threads, the latter will be quite obscured by the former closing
over and entirely covering them.




Fig. 105,



Fig. 106.



§ 34. Corkscrew weaves may be modified to a considerable
extent without departing from the general principle governing
their construction. They may also be made to assume varie-
gated and other decorative effects, as horizontal and obUque
waves, and many others ; but the necessity of having one series
of threads greatly in excess of the other series prevents the

i^tm ayfifi£ ceu:'-' ■■■■.;.;..



54



GEAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



successful employment, in bulk, of the sparse threads. Simple
corkscrews may also be constructed on an even number of
threads ; but these will lack the perfect uniformity of surface
possessed by those constructed on an odd number of threads ; yet,
on the other hand, it opens out unlimited scope to a designer in
the productipn of new and varied effects. It should be pointed
out, however, that odd-thread warp-face corkscrews repeat on




Fig. 107.— Even-thread Corkscrew
Weave.



Fig. 108.



-Even-thread Corkscrew
Weave.



the same number of threads as their base weaves, and require
only that number of healds to weave them ; whereas even-thread
warp-face corkscrews occupy twice as many threads as their base
weaves, and sometimes require twice that number of healds to
weave them.

Fig. 107 is an example of an even-thread corkscrew weave,
based on an eight-end four-and-four twill, and requiring sixteen
warp ends and eight picks to complete the pattern. It is but



TWILL AND KINDKED WEAVES. 55

slightly removed from a perfect corkscrew weave, and virtually
consists of a double diagonal warp rib, separated by a single
diagonal cutting of weft which emphasises the twill formation in
cloth. Fig. 108 is another example of a corkscrew weave on
eight threads, but without a definite twill formation. It is pro-
duced by causing alternate warp ends to float over one pick
more than the others, thereby preventing weft from passing
over more than one warp end, as in perfect corkscrews. This
unequal floating of warp ends will, of course, produce diagonal
ribs of different widths ; but that feature will be scarcely, if at
all, discernible in the larger weaves, excepting where the varia-
tion in the length of float is considerable. It is worthy of note,
also, from an economical point of view, that the slight departure
in the construction of Fig. 108 involves the use of sixteen
shafts of healds, with a straight-over draft, whereas Fig. 107
could be woven with only eight shafts of healds, with a broken
draft, as indicated above the respective designs.

§ 35. It was explained in § 31 that satin weaves were evolved
by rearranging threads of warp-face or weft-face continuous
twill weaves in a prescribed manner. That system of re-
arrangement is equally applicable to other forms of continuous
twills, and is one that offers considerable scope to a designer in
the production of fancy weaves of great utility. Whatever form
of twill weave may be selected, its rearrangement on a satin
basis is governed by the same principle as that which operates
in the construction of simple satin weaves. The weave to be re-
arranged must, of course, repeat on the same number of threads
as that of the satin weave which forms the basis of rearrange-
ment ; otherwise the new design could not be completed on
that number. The rearrangement may also be made in respect
of either warp ends or picks of weft, with oftentimes very
different results, as will be seen in some of the following
examples. The best course to adopt, in the rearrangement of
twills, on a satin basis, is to indicate on design paper the par-
ticular satin weave required to form the basis of rearrangement,
and then proceed to rearrange either warp ends or picks of the
base twill weave, according to the disposition of the binding
points indicated, which serve as starting-points. In the follow-



56



GEAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



ing examples, illustrating the development of designs by this
method, shaded squares in the base weaves indicate the twill
basis ; whilst in the re-formed designs, shaded squares indicate
the satin basis on which they are rearranged.




Fig. 109.



Fig. 110.



Fig. 111.



Fig. 112.



Fig. 109 is a twill weave contained on five threads, and
constitutes the base weaves for designs Figs. Ill and 112. Fig.




Fig. 113,



Fig. 115.



Ill is produced by rearranging ivarp ends of Fig. 109 on a
five-end satin basis, as indicated in Fig. 110. Fig. 112 is another





Fig. 116.



Fig. 117.



Fig. 118.



weave produced by rearranging, in the same order, j^ioks of lueft
of the same base weave. Figs. 115 and 116 are rearrange-
ments of warp and weft threads respectively of a six-end twill



TWILL AND KINDRED WEAVES.



57



(Fig. 113) on the six-end satin basis indicated in Fig. 114 ;
whilst Figs. 118 and 119 are rearrangements of warp and weft
threads respectively of the same base weave (Fig. 113), but on
the six-end satin basis indicated in Ficr, 117.







Fig. 119.



Fig. 120.



Fig. 121.



When a base weave is contained on such number of threads
as will permit of two or more intervals of selection that are not



I



Fig. 122.



Fig. 123.



Fig. 124.



complementary to each other, a proportionately greater diversity
of new* weaves may be produced from it by rearranging its





-


1







^-HB


I










1^ 1 ^ "" '' iHB


m^A












1 iH^^^n ii^^^^








I










■^^^M^lH|^^^l






_


!|


^ I










"^^^1 ■■ 1 TlHi




jr 1










M ■■^B^M l^^l














1 B^^^^l Ht^^KfSiin




i


-














k^^^M H^^^n^ u














P^_pHI^^^I kl
















^1 H^^^^l hH^^^


1


i










■■p^^i ■' ■ r




I


1


1


^


1^








1 ■' r iBiiK^ ■



Fig. 12.^



Fig. 126.



threads on the respective intervals which that number gives.
For example, a base twill weave (Fig. 120) repeating on eleven
threads, may be rearranged so as to produce eight different



58



GRAMMAK OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



weaves constructed on a satin basis, because eleven is a number
v^hich gives eight intervals of selection, namely, two, three, four,
and five, and their complements. Therefore, by rearranging
both warp and weft threads on each interval, eight new designs
may be made. Figs. 121 to 124 are produced by rearranging
warp ends, and Figs. 125 to 128 are produced by rearranging,



"J."!,












i:in ■ ■■






-


-


-


!B B-" x..i"


■ ■ '■■





■■ ■■ . ^BB


^"










1 1 ^^ ■ ■


1^ ■ ■. ^ ^










UiATT ii ■ n


■ ^BBI ■ ■










1 ^BB B BB


■ ■■ in










■■B ■ ■■ M


■■ ■ ■■ ^










1 B BB ^BB


^■ii ■ ■


I










■■ H^^ ■


■■ €■■


■ ■








MP^H ■ n




_






■mTb ■ n_



Fig. 127.



Fig. 128.



picks of weft, at intervals of two, three, four, and five threads,,
respectively.

§ 36. Another method of rearranging either warp or weft
threads of a base pattern, to create new designs, is by adopting
a uniform interval of two threads irrespective of the number of
threads on which the original weave is contained. This system,,




however, offers considerably less scope to a designer than the
foregoing, and should only be employed for the production of
weaves in which a decided twill formation will not be displeas-
ing. By this system, a twill formation will almost inevitably
result in all cases, in consequence of laying alternate threads of
a base weave in consecutive rotation, or vice versa. If warp ends



TWILL AND KINDEED WEAVES.



59



are rearranged, the twill will approach the vertical, and if weft
threads are rearranged, the twill will approach the horizontal.
It should be observed that by this system, rearranged weaves
based on odd-thread weaves will repeat on the same number of
warp ends and picks as that of their base weaves ; whilst those
based on even-thread weaves will repeat on only one half the
number of threads in one direction, as that of their base weaves.
This is explained by the fact that tiuo (the interval used) is a
measure of even numbers, but not of odd numbers. Therefore^
designs repeating on an odd number of threads require them all
to be employed in order to complete the new design ; whilst only
one half are necessary in respect of even-thread designs.





Fig. 131.



Fig. 132.



Figs. 129 to 134 will serve to demonstrate the application of
this principle of rearrangement in the creation of new designs.
Fig. 129, a twill weave contained on fifteen warp ends and picks,
is selected as the base weave. By placing alternate warp ends
of the base weave in consecutive rotation until the pattern is
complete, a new design repeating on fifteen warp ends and picks,
as indicated in Fig. 130, is obtained. In like manner, if alter-
nate picks of weft of the base weave are placed in consecutive
rotation, the weave indicated in Fig. 131 is obtained. The only
difference between the two new designs is in respect of the
angle of twill, as just explained.

Figs. 133 and 134 are produced by rearranging, in a similar
manner, warp ends and picks of weft, respectively, of a base
weave (Fig. 132) contained on an even number of threads^



60



GRAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



namely, sixteen. Since only one half the number of warp ends
in the base weave are required to produce Fig. 133, the latter is
complete on eight warp ends and sixteen picks. Also, for a
similar reason, but in respect of picks, Fig. 134 is complete on
sixtssn warp ends and eight picks, as indicated in both cases by
shaded squares.

4. Combined Twills.

§ 37. Combined twills are those produced by arranging the
threads of two continuous twill weaves alternately with each
other. Either warp ends or picks of weft of the two base weaves
may be alternated. If warp ends are combined, the angle of
twill in the resultant weave will be less than forty-five degrees ;




Fig. 133.



Fig. 134.



but if picks are combined the angle of twill will be greater than
forty-five degrees, to picks of weft. If it is desired to produce a
low-angle twill by this method, the best results will be achieved
by selecting two base weaves in which weft preponderates over
warp. For high-angle twills, the base weaves should have warp
preponderating over weft.

By this system of combination, there is practically no limita-
tion to the production of new weaves of great variety and
interest, and of great value to the textile designer. It obtains
almost exclusively in the worsted industry in the production of
garment fabrics, as it is capable of producing compact and firm
textures.

Any two weaves may be combined in the manner described,
irrespective of their relative sizes. The size of the resultant



TWILL AND KINDEED WEAVES.



61



weave, however, depends upon the number of 'threads occupied
by the respective base weaves employed. Thus, if two base
weaves, each occupying the same number of threads, are com-





■"


"


-


IT


1 1 1


■"


1
























■ fi\


■ ■ ■


hJ







S.l^


S8.V


Mi


b.


"^


■ ■■ ■

8. "1.




jim^fi^umm^xitriwmm



Fig. 135.



Fig. 136.



bined end and end {i.e., a warp end from one weave, and a warp
end from the other alternately), one repeat of the combined




uftiKVAhTnnummm



Fig. 137. ^Design evolved by
End-and-eiid combination
of Figs. 135 and 136.



Fig. 138.— Design evolved by
Pick-and-pick combination
of Figs. 135 and 136.



twill weave will occupy twice as many warp ends, and the same
number of picks, as those of the respective base weaves. If, on
the other hand, the base weaves are combined pick and pick, the



62



GEAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



combined twill would occupy twice as many picks, and the same
number of w^arp ends, as either of the base weaves. For ex-
ample, Figs. 135 and 136 are two continuous twill weaves, each
repeating on six w^arp ends and picks. By combining them
end and end a new design is produced, repeating on 6 x 2 = 12
warp ends and six picks, as shown in Fig. 137. If picks instead
of warp ends of the same base weaves are alternated, a new
weave is produced, repeating on six warp ends, and 6 x 2 := 12
picks, as shown in Fig. 138.




Fig. 139.



Fig. 140.



Fig. 141. — Design evolved by End-and-end
combination of Fiars. 139 and 140.



If two weaves, each repeating on a different number of
threads, are combined end and end, the resultant weave will
repeat on such number of warp ends as equals the least com-
mon multiple of those numbers, multiplied by 2 ; and on such
number of picks as equals the least common multiple only of
those numbers. This rule also applies in a corresponding
manner if picks of weft are combined. Example : tw^o weaves.
Figs. 139 and 140, repeat on four and six warp ends and picks
respectively. If combined end and end, the resultant w^eave,



TWILL AND KINDEED WEAVES.



63



Pig. 141, will repeat on twenty-four warp ends and twelve picks,
because twelve is the least common multiple of the numbers
four and six. By combining the same base weaves pick and
pick, a design is produced, repeating on twelve warp ends and
twenty-four picks, as shown in Fig. 142. If two weaves repeat-




FiG. 142.— Design evolved by Pick-and-pick combination of Figs. 139 and 140.

ing on eight and five threads respectively are combined, the
resultant weave will occupy forty threads in one direction, and
eighty in the other direction, according to which series of
threads are combined. This is exemplified by Fig. 145, which
is produced by combining end and end the base weaves. Figs.
143 and 144, repeating on eight and five threads respectively.



64



GEAMMAE OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



^mk



SiiEs:ss!ss"ss»"s ss . ss r»i :%£'- »' ■"- ■ - "s ..i



\VA ■■■a 8S



» r» rjTm .8%% .%n ..



".r;i • :rs:- r*



"o



«ras5i














_^^


i


E


^ 1 r M 1 1






Ji;


1


:




il


J






-




-


-




-




£f


i


:j


^


m


J


^


±


:



Fig. 165



Fig. 164.



€ven-sided twills being broken in the manner indicated, they are
counterchanged in respect of the weave only, and not in respect
of the direction of twill, which remains the same throughout.

Figs. 163 and 164 are based on the uneven-sided five-end two-
and-three twill, broken at intervals of three and five threads
respectively ; whilst Fig. ^ 165 is based on the same weave,



70



GKAMMAK OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



broken and counterchanged at irregular intervals of ten, two^
four, and two warp ends.

Fig. 166 is based on the six-end four-and-two twill, broken
and counterchanged at intervals of eight, four, two, four, two,,
and four warp ends.




Fig. 165.



Although the foregoing examples illustrate the development-
of broken twill weaves having the twill in one direction only^
they serve equally well to demonstrate the formation of those


1 2 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Online LibraryHarry NisbetGrammar of textile design (Volume c.2) → online text (page 4 of 19)