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in which the twill is reversed, i.e., produced to the right and left




Fig. 166.

alternately, or otherwise. The simplest example of this variety
is that shown in Fig. 167, based on the simple four-end weft
twill, and well known as the four-end satin or satinette weave.
It is produced by breaking and reversing either warp ends or
picks at intervals of two threads. Figs. 168 and 169, known



TWILL AND KINDRED WEAVES.



71



as " rice " weaves, are produced in a similar manner by break-
ing and reversing simple six-end and eight-end weft twills at
intervals of three and four threads respectively.

The next and last variety of weaves to be described under
this division comprises those in which the twill is broken and



h



Fig. 167.



Fio. 168.



Fig. 169.



reversed in counterchange — a plan largely adopted by designers
in the construction of garment and other fabrics requiring good
wearing properties, and capable of resisting tensile strain in all
directions.



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Fig. 170.



Fk;. i;



Fig. 172.



One of the simplest examples of this variety is that shown
in Fig. 170, produced by breaking and reversing, in counter-
change, the four-end two-and-two (also known as the " Har-
vard ") twill, at intervals of two warp ends. This weave is
extensively employed in all classes of fabrics, as it produces a
comparatively firm and compact texture. As a neutral ground
filling of a subdued character, for light or medium brocade



72



GRAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



fabrics figured by a Jacquard machine, it cannot be excelled. If
the twill of this or similar twill weaves is continued for a num-
ber of threads and then reversed, as in Fig. 171, it produces the
well-known *' herring-bone " effect, repeating, in this case, on




Fig. 173.



Fig. 174.



Fig. i;



sixteen warp ends and four picks. Other examples of this class
of weaves are given in Figs. 172 to 176, which are sufficient to
indicate the general lines on which they are constructed, and




the immense scope which this plan offers in the development of
new^ weaves of great variety and utility.



6. Figured or Ornamented Twills.

§ 39. This division of twills comprises that variety of weaves
produced by combining simple figuring, with a twill weave, as



TWILL AND KINDRED WEAVES.



78



.-a means' of embellishment. The amount of embellishment may-
vary from the least departure from a normal twill, to a degree
when there is little to identify it as a twill weave, beyond its
diagonal formation. It must not be assumed from this that all
patterns having a diagonal formation may be classed as figured
twills ; but only such as conform, in some measure, to the
^general principles governing the construction of twill weaves.




Fig. i;



Fig. 178.



Fig. 179.



The term " figured twills " is here used to signify only such
weaves of that class as may be produced by the aid of tappets
•and dobbies. The present examples will, therefore, be confined
to such as will require not more than twenty healds to weave
them. Notwithstanding this limitation, the construction of
figured twills virtually affords illimitable scope to a designer,




Fig. 180.



Fig. 181.



Fig. 182.



•since he is no longer restricted to twilled effects pure and
•simple, but may call to his aid all the elements of fabric
structure.

The additional scope which this class of designs offers to a
designer demands both greater technical and artistic ability
than is required for the simpler varieties of twill weaves. In the
latter, the perfect regularity of weave causes uniform tension
upon all warp ends, thereby producing a general evenness of
texture throughout ; whereas, in the former class, care must be
taken to ensure sufficient and uniform interlacement of threads ;



74



GRAMMAE OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



otherwise some portions of the fabric will be flimsy and weak,,
and some threads will be subjected to greater strain than others,
thereby causing a crimped or wrinkled appearance in cloth.
These precautions must be taken when producing designs for
any class of fabric whose warp ends, during weaving, are
delivered from one warp beam only.




Fig. 183.



Fig. 184.



The present examples are illustrative of figured twill weaves,,
repeating on eight, twelve, sixteen, and twenty warp ends and
picks. Little can be said regarding their construction, as they
are not conformable to any definite rules, but depend wholly
upon the imagination and technical ability of the designer. It.




Fig. 185.



Fig. 186.



should be observed, however, that whatever is introduced or com-
bined with a twill weave, as a recurring element, it must recur
on such number of threads (counting diagonally) as constitutes
a measure of the total number of threads on w^hich the pattern
is required to repeat, otherwise the continuity of the pattern
will be broken. For example, if a pattern is required to repeat



TWILL AND KINDRED WEAVES.



75



on twenty warp ends and picks, figuring elements may recm- at
intervals of two, four, five, or ten threads diagonally. This wiU
be better understood by reference to the accompanying designs.






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Fig. 187.



Fig. 188.



Fig. 189.



Figs. 177 to 182 are various forms of twill weaves, repeating on
eight warp ends and picks, to which are added simple figuring
devices, disposed at intervals of two threads diagonally, in Figs.



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Fig. 191.



Fig. 192.



177, 178, 180 and 182 ; whilst in Figs. 179 and 181 the devices
are four threads apart, counting from and to corresponding-
points.




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a



Fig. 193.



Fig. 194.



Figs. 183 to 186 are designs repeating on twelve warp ends
and picks, with the figuring devices recurring at intervals of
two, three, four, and six threads respectively.



76



GRAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



Figs. 187 to 192 are designs repeating on sixteen threads each
way. In Fig. 188 the figuring units recur at intervals of two
threads ; in Figs. 187 and 189, at intervals of four ; in Fig. 191,






Fig. 195.



Fig. 196.



at intervals of eight ; whilst in Figs. 190 and 192, some devices

recur at intervals of two, and others at intervals of four threads.

Figs. 193 to 197 are designs repeating on twenty threads

•each way, with the figuring devices recurring at intervals of




Fig. 197.

five threads in Figs. 193, 194 and 195, and at intervals of two
threads in Figs. 196 and 197.

Although examples of figured twills could be multiplied ad
lihitum, the foregoing are sufficient to indicate the immense
scope they offer for the production of varied effects suitable for
all classes of fabrics.



CHAPTER IV.
DIAMOND AND KINDRED WEAVES.

§ 40. Diamond weaves comprise all such weaves as ar&
characterised by a diamond or a lozenge general formation.
They may be produced in infinite variety, and constitute one of
the most valuable classes of weaves for almost any type of
fabric. They may be constructed with either warp or weft
preponderating on the face of the fabric, or with each developed
in equal quantities as required, and may be made to yield either
a comparatively smooth or else a very rough and open texture,
as exemplified in honeycomb and similar weaves. Their diamond
or lozenge formation may be more or less pronounced, or even
entirely obscured, as in honeycomb and similar weaves, which
are characterised by a more or less distinct rectangular cellular
formation.

The simplest example of a diamond weave is that contained
on four warp ends and picks, as shown in Fig. 198, formed by
producing a four-end w^eft twill to both the right and left. Larger
weft diamond weaves of a simple character are formed by cross-
ing larger twill weaves in a similar manner ; thus Figs. 199 and
200 are produced from six-end and eight-end weft twill weaves
respectively.

Although diamond weaves may be made on any number of
threads, those contained on an even number may be produced
with sharper definition than those based on an odd number, pro-
viding the opposing twills cross on a single warp end and pick^
as in Figs. 198 to 200, and not on two contiguous threads, as in
Figs. 201 to 203, which are contained on five, seven, and nine
threads respectively.

Figs. 204 to 213 are a few examples of diamond weaves-
repeating on twelve warp ends and picks uniformly, and are

(77)



78



GKAMMAE OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



given merely as suggestions indicating general methods of pro-
cedure in their development. In all cases their diamond for-
mation is apparent, although they are not all actually based
upon twill weaves produced in opposite directions. A careful
examination will reveal the means by which the different results
are achieved, and students are urged to make original designs of




III-.':'.;.



kn ran i 1 1 m rw



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Fig. 198.



Fig. 199.



Fig. 200.



a similar character and so develop the faculty of invention in
constructive textile design.



Honeycomb and Kindred Weaves.

§ 41. One of the most interesting varieties of weaves based, with
few exceptions, on the diamond, are what are technically termed
*' honeycomb " weaves, from their partial resemblance to the hexa-
gonal honeycomb cells of wax in which bees store their honey.




Fig. 201.



Fig. 202.



Fig. 203.



As previously stated, these weaves are characterised by a more
or less distinct cellular formation, which imparts to cloth a
somewhat rough and rugged appearance, as seen in Figs. 214
and 215, which are photographs of actual examples of cloth,
representing two of the best-known varieties of this class of
weaves, namely, " honeycomb " proper, and " Brighton " weaves,
respectively. The pecuHar character of texture resulting from
honeycomb weaves in general, and particularly from those just



DIAMOND AND KINDRED WEAVES.



79



named, renders them eminently suited for use as bathroom
towels, which require to be soft and absorbent, and for which
use they are extensively employed. They are also very largely




Fig. 204.



Fig. 205.



used ill the production of heavy cotton and woollen textures for
ladies' winter garments for both under and outer wear, and for



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li'ii



Fig. 206.



Fig. 207.



many domestic purposes. The well-known honeycomb counter-
panes and toilet covers are so named from the almost exclusive



s.^s-.s.-8sss.^s\:.-a8s




Fig. 208.



adoption of honeycomb weaves, as elements with which is
developed the ornamentation peculiar to those fabrics, which



80



GRAMMAK OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



ornamentation is usually of an angular and linear geometrical
character.

Although the peculiar effects of honeycomb weaves are




Fig. 210.



primarily due to the particular methods of interlacement of
warp and weft, those effects are relatively more pronounced in



iiliiiill^HI



Fig. 211.



Fig. 212.



compact textures produced from coarse and folded yarns, than in
loose textures produced from fine and single yarns. For this




Fig. 213.



reason it is usual to weave them from folded yarn for warp, and
frequently for both warp and weft, iwith a high number of



DIAMOND AND KINDEED WEAVES. 81

threads per inch. The samples of cloth illustrated by Figs.
214 and 215 are very heavy textures made from threefold 8's
(equal to 8-^3 = 2|'s single) cotton yarn for both warp and
weft. The honeycomb sample contains 32 warp ends and 36
picks per inch, and the "Brighton" sample 11 threads of each
series per inch.

Whilst conformable to the same general conditions, true
honeycomb weaves may vary in detail of construction, but all




Fig. 214. — Cloth of Coarse Texture exemplifying a simple Houeycomb Weave



must repeat on an even number of both warp ends and picks.
Sometimes they are made to repeat on the same number of
threads each way, and sometimes on a less number one way
than the other, according to the ratio of warp ends and picks
required in the fabric. If w^arp and weft are to be in equal
quantities, the weave selected should repeat on the same num-
ber of threads of each series ; but if one series of threads is in
excess of the other, the pattern should repeat on such number of
threads each way as most nearly corresponds to the ratio of

6



82 GRAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.

warp ends and picks per inch, otherwise the honeycomb cells
would not be square in cloth.

Fig. 216 is the simplest example of a true honeycomb
weave. The pattern repeats on six warp ends and four picks,
with warp and weft on the face, and therefore at the back, in
equal quantities, thereby causing both sides of cloth to be
exactly alike — a feature not attainable in honeycomb weaves
repeating on the same number of threads each way, in which
either warp or weft must slightly preponderate. In the larger
weaves, however, the difference is scarcely, if at all, perceptible.




Fig. 215. — Cloth of Coarse Texture exemplifying a Honeycomb Weave of the
variety termed " Brighton " Weaves.

Figs. 217a and 217b are designs showing the obverse and
reverse sides, respectively, of the six-end honeycomb weave.
As seen at 217a it appears as a simple six-end diamond weave,
with alternate divisions, diagonally, filled in with a small
warp diamond. The pattern is contained on 6 x 6 = 36 small
squares, fifteen of which represent warp, and twenty-one repre-
sent weft. At 217b, however, which is the reverse of 217a, the
ratio of visible warp and weft is also reversed. This variation will
cause the cellular formation to be more pronounced, and there-
fore superior, on one side, according to the respective counts of
warp and weft and the ratio of warp ends and picks per inch.



DIAMOND AND KINDRED WEAVES.



83



which data should be known to a designer to enable him to
decide how to display the weave to the best advantage. For
example, if a fabric were to be made with the same number of
w^arp ends and picks per inch, from warp of slightly finer counts



t»«j KTtii afeaB




Fig. 216.



Fig. 217a.



Fig. 217b.



than that of weft, the best results would obtain from the weave
shown at 217b, by reason of the longer float of finer warp com-
pensating for the shorter float of coarser weft. If, on the other



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Fig. 219.



hand, weft is to be a little finer than warp, the weave as given
at 217a would give the best results, for similar reasons.

All other varieties of simple honeycomb weaves are constructed





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Fig. 221.



in a similar manner to those given in Figs. 216, 217a and 217b,
the difference being one of magnitude only. For example, Figs.
218 to 223 are honeycomb weaves of all sizes, from that con-
tained on eight by six, to that contained on twelve by twelve



84



GRAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



threads. It is rarely that the latter size of honeycomb weave is-
exceeded, excepting in fine textures containing a comparatively
high number of warp ends and picks per inch. As the weaves-
increase in size, the threads are proportionately less frequently
interlaced, thereby producing a weaker texture. It is advisable,
therefore, to construct the larger weaves on the basis of what is-




Fig. 222.



Fig. 223.



termed a double-stitch diamond, as shown in Fig. 224, which
forms the basis of the sixteen-end honeycomb weave given in
Fig. 225. By thus increasing the degree of interlacement of
threads, a fabric of firmer texture is produced without destroy-
ing the salient features of the honeycomb weave.

At the outset of these observations on the construction of
diamond weaves, it was stated that their diamond formation.




Fig. 224



may be more or less pronounced, or even entirely obscured, as-
in honeycomb and similar weaves, which are characterised by a
more or less distinct cellular formation. This is easily observed in
Figs. 214 and 215. In the former, which is a twelve-end honey-
comb weave proper, the rectangles are of uniform size, whilst ia
the latter, which is a twelve-end " Brighton " weave, the rectangles-
are of two sizes, a large and small one alternately, both longi-



DIAMOND AND KINDEED WEAVES.



85



tudiually and transversely. In neither case is their diamond
origin apparent, nor is there any I'esemblance between the
woven effects and their respective designs (as represented on
design paper), as is usual with most weaves. The cause of this
phenomenon will be understood on reflecting that warp and
weft cross at right angles to each other, and that threads are
more or less conspicuous according as they are interlaced in a
lesser or greater degree respectively. Thus it comes about that
the ridges of honeycomb cells are formed by the longer floats of
warp and weft, which lie uppermost, whilst the recesses are
caused by threads interlacing to a greater degree in those parts.



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Tig. 226.



-To demonstrate the Cellular Formation developed by Honeycomb

Weaves.



By reference to the eight-end honeycomb weave, Fig. 226, it will
be seen that the ridges of the cells are formed by the first warp
•end and first pick of weft — in each repeat of the pattern — which
are least interlaced, and therefore lie in a higher plane than the
threads on each side of them. The threads lie in a lower plane,
.^s their length of float diminishes, up to the fifth warp end and
pick, which lie in the lowest plane and form the recesses of the
cells.



"Brighton" Weaves.

Brighton" weaves are also constructed on a diamond
basis, yet they are quite different from simple honeycombs, and
more complex in structure. They are characterised by a cellular



§42.



86



GRAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



formation comprising two sizes of cells, as seen in Fig. 215.
Unlike simple honeycomb weaves, " Brighton " weaves are not
reversible, but have a totally different appearance on each side of
the fabric. Instead of clearly defined cells, as on the face of th&
fabric, the reverse side presents a rough, indefinite appearance,
the caMse of which will be presently explained. This circumstance
requires to be carefully borne in mind by designers when employ-
ing " Brighton " weaves as elements in the development of orna-
mental designs, otherwise the designs are liable to be spoiled.
Examples of "Brighton" weaves are given in Figs. 228, 229'
and 230. It is noteworthy that they may only be constructed on
a multiple of four threads of warp and weft (the least size being
contained on eight warp ends and eight picks, as shown in Fig..



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Fig. 227. Fig. 228. Fig. 229.

Showing the construction of " Brighton " Weaves.

228). They are constructed on a diamond formed by producing:
a simple weft twill to the right or left (for such number of
threads as the weave is required to repeat on, say eight), and
then crossing it by a double-stitch weft twill, as in Fig. 227.
The next step is to put in a warp diamond spot inithe right and
left corners of each diamond, so as to form a weft diamond
spot in the upper and lower corners. The longer floats of warp
at the sides, and the longer floats of weft at the top and bottomi
of each diamond, form the ridges of the cells as explained in the
last paragraph of § 41. The two sizes of cells are caused by
the intervals between the ridges being greater and less, thereby
enclosing larger and smaller areas alternately. If the relative
positions of the w^arp and weft diamond spots are reversed, the
weave will be the wrong side up by reason of the longer floats.



DIAMOND AND KINDKED WEAVES.



87



forming a cross, instead of a square, within the diamonds. A par-
allel reference to Figs. 230 and 231 will enable this to be easily
understood. Fig. 230 is a perfect sixteen-end " Brighton " weave
with the warp and weft spots in their proper relative positions,




Fig. 230.— Showing the Correct
Method of constructing
"Brighton" Weaves.



Fig. 231. — Showing the Incorrect
Method of constructing
" Brighton " Weaves.



showing the squares formed by their longer floats. Fig. 231 has
the same diamond foundation, but the warp and weft diamond
spots are placed in the wrong relative positions, thereby causing
their longer floats to form a cross within each diamond, as shown.

" Sponge " Weaves.

§ 43. In addition to the true honeycomb and '' Brighton "
weaves there is a great variety of weaves termed * ' honeycomb




Fig. 232. — To demonstrate the Cellular Formation developed by " Sponge ' ' Weaves.

effects," that are closely allied to those weaves, and which pos-
sess, in varying degrees, many of their characteristics. They
are extensively employed as constructive elements in the de-



88



GRAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN,



velopment of Jacquard designs for honeycomb counterpanes,
toilet covers and fancy woollen shawls, as well as in the produc-
tion of piece-goods of comparatively heavy and thick textures,
for use as ladies' winter underclothing, towels, and many other
domestic purposes. They are usually characterised by a cellular





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