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Fio. 233.



Fig. 234.



formation, but of a less pronounced character than that of a
perfect honeycomb. This chiefly arises from adopting a less
restricted basis than that of a diamond on which to construct
them, as, for example, a satin-weave basis, which gives a free
distribution ; broken diamonds ; and irregular bases that cannot
be exactlv defined.




Fjg. 235. Fig. 236.

One of the commonest examples of these honeycomb effects
is that known as the " sponge " weave (Fig. 232), contained on
ten warp ends and ten picks. It is produced by disposing a
small diamond figure or spot on a ten-end satin basis, as indi-
cated by the shaded squares in the portion lettered A. This



DIAMOND AND KINDKED WEAVES.



89



-causes the woven fabric to assume a very neat cellular formation
consisting of minute cells, the ridges of which are formed by
floats of warp and weft, whilst the recesses are formed where
the threads are most interlaced. This effect is illustrated in the



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Fig. 238



Fig. 239.



portion lettered B, where the warp and weft ridges are repre-
:sented by white and black lines respectively, and the recesses
.by the enclosed spaces.




Fig. 240.



Fig. 241.



Fig. 242.



Figs. 233 and 234 are other varieties of sponge weaves on a
larger scale than the previous one. They are produced by arranging
larger diamond spots on the basis of a twenty-six shaft, and a



Fig. 243.



Fig. 24 J.



thirty-four shaft satin weave, respectively, as indicated by the
.shaded squares. Their effect in cloth is similar to that of Fig.
:232, but with a more pronounced cellular formation, resulting



90



GRAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



from longer floats and less frequent interlacing of yarn, which
enable heavier and thicker fabrics to be made by them. Figs.
235 to 244 are other examples of sponge and honeycomb effects,
and are but a few of many varieties of similar character to indi-



cate the general principles governing
class of weaves.



the construction of that.



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Fig. 245. — " Huck-a-back "
Weave.




Fig. 246.



" Huck-a-Back " and Kindred Weaves.

§ 44. There are many other varieties of weaves which, whilst
not bearing even the slightest resemblance to true honeycomb-
weaves, are generally associated with honeycomb fabrics, and.




Fig. 247.— Design for " Huek-a-back " Cloth represented by Fig. 248.

are, therefore, classed as honeycomb effects. Of this variety
that known as the " huck-a-back " weave, shown in Fig. 245,
and contained on ten warp ends and picks, is an example. This
familiar weave is also very largely employed in the manufacture-
of both linen and cotton towels for bathrooms, and also lineni



DIAMOND AND KINDRED WEAVES.



91



towels for use as glass-cloths. The principle of fabric structure
embodied in the huck-a-back weave forms the nucleus of a wide
range of interesting weaves capable of producing extremely thick
and heavy textures. For this reason, such weaves are generally
employed as constructive elements in the manufacture of the
class of heavy counterpanes commercially known as ** Grecians,"
usually woven from bleached twofold and threefold yarn of
coarse counts for both warp and weft, and ornamented with




Fig. 248. — "Huck-a-back" Fabric ul Cuar.se Texture, woven from Design Fig. 247,

designs of a strictly geometrical diaper character. Figs. 246 to
249 are three examples of weaves showing developments of the
"huck-a-back" principle to form plain, striped, and chequered
effects respectively. In a fabric produced from Fig. 246, which
repeats on twelve warp ends and picks, weft preponderates on
the face and warp at the back. On examining this weave it
will be seen that on the third and following odd-numbered picks-



92



GEAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



to the eleventh, only the first warp end in each repeat of the
pattern is raised ; also that the third and following odd-numbered
warp ends to the eleventh, are raised for the first pick only in each
repeat of the pattern. This has the peculiar effect of causing
warp and w^eft threads (excepting the first of each series) to occupy




Fig. -249.

four distinct planes or strata without any interlacement what-
ever, after the manner indicated in the accompanying diagrams,
which show transverse and longitudinal sections of the weave
at A, A, and B, B, respectively. It is in consequence of causing
such disposition of warp and weft that weaves of this class pro-




ahhahhahh abbah hahhahb abb
Fig. 250. — Design for " Huck-a-back " Cloth represented by Fig. 251.

«duce bulky fabrics of great weight and warmth. Fig. 247 is a
design contained on twenty-four warp ends and twelve picks,
produced by counterchanging the warp and weft effects of Fig.
246 to form stripes ; whilst Fig. 248 is a photograph of a woven
example of the same weave produced from 3/12's warp and
weft, and containing thirty-two threads of each series per inch.



DIAMOND AND KINDRED WEAVES.



98



Fig. 249 is a design produced by counterchanging warp and weft
effects of the same weave to produce a check pattern repeating
on twenty -four warp ends and picks. The diagrams accompany-
ing Fig. 249 show transverse and longitudinal sections at A, A,
and B, B, of that design as it would appear in cloth. Fig. 250
is another good example of the huck-a-back variety of designs,.



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Fig. 251. — A second example of " Huck-a-l»ack " Cloth, woven from Design Fig. 250..



repeating on twenty-four warp ends and twelve picks. The photo-
graph, Fig. 251, showing the woven effect of that design, is
taken from cloth containing forty warp ends of 3/12's, and
twenty of 2/14's cotton, and forty picks of 18's single cotton
weft per inch. The different counts of warp are contained on
separate warp beams, with the 2/14' s (lettered a on the design)
held at greater tension, during weaving, than the 3/12's (lettered
b). Taut warp ends interweave with weft in plain or tabby



94



GKAMMAE OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



order throughout ; whilst slack warp ends are more loosely
interwoven to form the figured effect.

"Grecian " Weaves.

§ 45. Another useful variety of weaves that are frequently
associated with honeycomb and ''Grecian" counterpanes, and




Fig. 252. Fig. 253. Fig. 254.

also largely employed in the manufacture of piece-goods, are
exemplified in Figs. 252 to 265. The most suitable designs for




Fig. 255. Fig. 256.

such fabrics are those based on the diaper or counterchange
principle, to produce chequered effects in which both warp and




Fig. 257.



Fic;. 25S.



Fig. 259.



weft are freely displayed on the face side of cloth. The con-
struction of weaves of this variety affords considerable scope for



DIAMOND AND KINDRED WEAVES.



95



the exercise of a student's ability ia fabric structure, which he
should put into practical effect, and carefully note the results.






Fig. 260. Fig. 261.

Little can be said respecting their construction, since they are




Fig. 262. Fig. 263.

conformable to no special conditions of fabric structure ; but, by



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Fig. 264.



Fig. 265.



carefully analysing them, the' means by which they are obtained
will become manifest. For the general guidance of students,



96



GKAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



however, it should be observed that these effects are chiefly
dependent upon either a suitable combination of extreme
degrees of interlacement of threads, or else by causing warp
ends to float over a comparatively large number of picks ; and
picks of weft over a large number- of warp ends ; otherwise,
unsatisfactory results would obtain. If, for example, the pre-
sent weaves (excepting Fig. 255) were counterchanged, their
effects would be lost by reason of an insufficiency of floating



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Fig. 266. — A Fabric of Light Texture, exemplifying a "Linear Zigzag" effect
produced by Design Fig. 267.

threads. Fig. 255 is an exception to this condition, as that
weave would be equally effective whether counterchanged or
not, and would, therefore, appear the same on both sides of
cloth.

Linear Zigzag Weaves.

§ 46. An interesting variety of weaves of a totally different
character from any previously described under " honeycomb
effects," but closely related to them, are those in which some
threads, usually of weft, are pulled in opposite directions at



DIAMOND AND KINDKED WEAVES.



97



different points, thereby causing them to deviate from their
original straight line, and to assume sinuous Hues of a more or
less wavy or zigzag character, not unlike that of a '' net " leno
effect, produced by means of a " doup " or " leno " harness. The
threads required to perform that peculiar function may be waved
in the same direction uniformly, to produce a series of parallel
waves, or they may be waved in opposite directions to produce
diamond, lozenge, ogee, and other simple linear effects, as seen
in Figs. 266 and 274, which are reproduced from actual examples
of cloth. This phenomenon of fabric structure occurs in obedi-




FiG. 267. — The Design for the " Linear Zigzag " effect represented by Fig. 266.

ence to the law of bodies yielding in the direction of least re-
sistance, and forms an interesting and instructive study of the
behaviour of threads in textile fabrics. By taking advantage of
the opportunities it affords, a great variety of very pleasing
decorative effects may be developed in cloth, the character of
which effects is chiefly dependent upon the relative density or
compactness of different parts of a weave, and upon the par-
ticular manner of interlacing threads. Thus, by so developing a
weave that warp and weft are more thoroughly interwoven, and
therefore more compacted, in some parts than in others (and
by observing such other conditions as to the manner of inter-

7



98 GEAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.

weaving as will contribute to the desired effect), it will cause
some threads to pass from the denser towards the less compact
portions, and so become more or less diverted from a straight line.



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irrm T i i m i i-mtf n h i r i i i i i i i fm i i-h+ w i ! ii i ru i mi



Fig. 268.



Fig. 269.



Fig. 270.



in proportion to the relative density of threads in those parts.
These remarks will be easily comprehended after carefully study-




FiG. 271.



Fig. 272.



ing the present examples of these weaves, in conjunction with
their accompanying diagrams illustrating their effects in cloth.
Weaves of this character (which, as a means of identification,



DIAMOND AND KINDRED WEAVES.



99



the present writer ventures to suggest the name of "linear
zigzag" weaves) are sometimes produced on a small scale in
light cotton and silk textures for ladies' summer attire. They
assume a more vigorous character, however, when developed
with coarser material to produce heavier textures (as honeycomb
and ** Grecian" counterpane, and similar fabrics), and by
densely crowding that series of threads which are required to
perform the bending. Thus, if weft threads are required to




Fig. 273.— Design lor Fabric represented by Fig. 274.



assume a zigzag course, a more pronounced effect will result
from a high ratio of picks per inch, and from a high degree of
tension upon warp ends during weaving. If, on the contrary,
warp ends are required to bend out of a straight course, they
should be more numerous than picks, and held at less tension ;
whilst the tension of weft, as it leaves the shuttle, should be
increased. It should be observed, however, that better zigzag
effects are produced with weft than with warp, as warp ends



100 GRAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.

may be held at greater tension during weaving, which enables
a relatively greater number of picks to be inserted in cloth.

Figs. 266 to 276 are examples of " linear zigzag " weaves,
with diagrams showing their woven effects placed immediately
above them to facilitate comparison. Fig. 266 is a full-scale
photograph of a sample of light zephyr cotton dress fabric of
the plain or calico weave, on which are developed a series of



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Fig. 274. — A Fabric of Coarse Texture, exemplifying a "Linear Zigzag" effect
produced by Design Fig. 273.

linear figures of hexagonal formation similar to that above Fig.
268. The cloth is woven from the design Fig. 267, contained on
fourteen warp ends and sixteen picks, and has ninety warp
ends and seventy-six picks per inch. The floating warp threads,
numbered one and eight on the design, which pull at opposite
sides of the floating picks numbered four, five, twelve, and thirteen,
are of stronger yarn than the other warp ends ; the counts being



DIAMOND AND KINDRED WEAVES.



101



'2/60's and 40's T., respectively; whilst the weft is dO's counts
throughout. There is little or no resemblance between the
design and its woven effect ; but a little consideration will enable
those previously unacquainted with this class of weaves to
understand the cause of that difference. It will be observed
that picks numbered four, five, twelve, and thirteen never inter-
weave with warp ends, but simply lie above them all, excepting
those numbered one and eight, which always overlap those picks




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Fig. 275.



Fig. 276.



from opposite sides. The floating picks, therefore, form no in-
tegral part of the fabric ; for during weaving, the adjacent picks
close in, so that warp ends which appear to float over ten picks
in the design, float over only six picks in cloth. Thus, in conse-
quence of being overlapped by those warp ends, the floating
picks are pulled in opposite directions out of their previous
;straight line, and produce the linear zigzag effect seen in
cloth.

Figs. 268 to 276 are examples of hnear zigzag weaves based



102 GEAMMAE OF TEXTILE DESIGN.

on this principle of weaving, and are sufficient to indicate the
variety of effects which it affords. Fig. 274 is, a full-scale photo-
graph of cloth woven from the design, Fig. 273, which repeats
on twenty-four warp ends and picks. The cloth contains thirty-
six warp ends and picks per inch of 3/16's yarn throughout,.
which produces a somewhat bold effect.



CHAPTER V.
BEDFORD CORDS.

§ 47. Bedford cords are a variety of fabrics characterised by
a series of more or less pronounced plain or twilled ribs or
cords, lying in the same direction as warp ends, with weft float-
ing somewhat freely at the back of the ribs, and usually with
one, two or more wadding threads (according to width of ribs)
lying loosely between. They are developed by causing either
alternate picks of weft, or alternate pairs of jjicks, to inter-
weave with the warp ends of one rib and then pass underneath
those of the next rib, alternately ; whilst the intermediate picks
or pairs of picks pass under the first rib, and interweave with
the second rib, alternately. Consequently, odd-numbered picks
or pairs of picks always interweave with warp ends of the same
(say odd) series of cords throughout, whilst the other picks
always interweave with the even series of cords. This circum-
stance is helpful for the purpose of producing stripes of solid
colours by picking with corresponding colours of weft in such
manner that they only interweave with warp ends of the same
colour, and float underneath those of the other colour. These
features are clearly discernible in the photograph (Fig. 277) which
shows the fac3 and back of the same cloth.

Bedford cords are produced in a variety of both cotton and
worsted textures, varying from light to relatively heavy cloths,
according to the particular use for which they are intended. The
lighter and medium fabrics are chiefly used as ladies' dress
materials ; whilst the heavier and coarser fabrics are generally
made up into men's clothing of a special character, as fancy
vests, breeches, sporting and riding suits, and such like. The
lighter cotton textures are usually bleached, or else dyed in tints

(103)



104



GRAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



of some light and bright hue, for ladies' light summer and holi-
day clothing. Generally speaking, Bedford cords afford little
scope for variation of structure. This, however, is compensated
for by the fair scope they offer to simple decorative effects, either
by means of variegated cords, coloured threads of warp, or
Jacquard weft figuring of an elementary and bold character, and
consisting preferably of small detached sprigs or simple geome-




FlG. 277. — Bedford Cord Fabric, woven from Design Fig. 282.

trical forms evenly distributed in such manner as to ensure that
all warp ends shall bear the same degree of tension. Coloured
threads may be introduced either as extra or crammed warp
ends for figuring purposes, or in substitution for ordinary warp
ends for coloured effects only. When Jacquard figuring is
adopted in Bedford cords, it is virtually a system of brocade
weft figuring with a Bedford cord for a ground filling.



BEDFOKD CORDS. 105

For the purpose of giving the ribs or cords greater prominence
and also to increase the weight, bulk and strength of the fabric,
one, two or more extra warp ends are sometimes introduced in
each cord to serve as wadding. These extra threads never
interlace with weft, but lie perfectly straight between the ridges
of their respective cords and the floating weft at the back. In
addition to wadding threads, some of the heavier fabrics for
men's clothing contain backing warp ends that interweave with
weft at the back of the cloth only, thus forming a series of tubes
along which wadding threads lie straight, and which consider-
ably increase the stability and warmth of the fabric. With few
exceptions wadding threads are of considerably coarser counts
of yarn than the principal or face warp ends, and since they
never interlace with weft, but remain straight, their contraction
during weaving is nil. This circumstance necessitates their
being wound upon a separate warp beam, and held at greater
tension than face warp ends during weaving.

It may be observed, at this juncture, that Bedford cords of
low quality and somewhat open texture are usually woven face
downwards, so that fewer healds require to be raised ; thereby
requiring less motive power to drive the loom, and reducing the
wear and tear of healds and shedding mechanism. These con-
siderations, however, are sacrificed in the production of superior
qualities which are woven face side upward to permit of the
readier detection of broken warp ends, and other faults liable to
occur during weaving.

The present examples of Bedford cord weaves are of fabrics
selected as typical specimens of their class from those of
ordinary commerce. In all cases, both heald and reed drafting
are indicated above their respective designs, with such other
information as will be helpful to students ; and the present
chapter will conclude with an instructive table giving complete
data of the manufacture of each example.

§ 48. Fig. 278 is a design of a light Bedford cord of the most
elementary character devoid of wadding threads. Each rib con-
tains eight warp ends, which interweave on the plain or calico
principle with one-half of the picks of weft, thereby causing the
complete design (consisting of two cords) to repeat on sixteen



106 GRAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.

warp ends and four picks. The first and last warp ends of each
cord, termed "cutting" threads, interweave on the cahco
principle with all picks of weft, thereby forming a furrow or
"cutting," which sharply divides the cords; whilst the inter-
vening warp ends, termed "face" threads, interweave on the
calico principle with alternate pairs of picks only, and lie com-




FiG. 278,



Fig. 281.



pletely above the intermediate pairs of picks, as clearly indicated
in the diagram. Fig. 279, showing a transverse' section of cloth
woven from the design, Fig. 278. The production of this
cloth involves the employment of six heald shafts, namely, four
in the rear for face threads, and two at the front for cutting



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Fig. 282.— Design for Bedford Cord Fabric Fig. 283.

represented by Fig. 277.

threads. Warp ends are drafted in the manner indicated above

the design, with four threads in each dent of the reed, and a

reed wire separating the cutting threads. Each cord, therefore,

occupies two dents of jthe reed.

Fig. 280 differs in construction from Fig. 278 chiefly by the-

introduction of a wadding thread (indicated by white dots) in

each cord. Wadding threads are drawn through two healds-



BEDFORD CORDS.



107



placed immediately in front of those
governing cutting and face threads re-
spectively, in accordance with usual
practice. Sometimes the healds govern-
ing cutting threads are placed in front,
followed by^ those governing wadding
and face threads respectively ; but this
is quite optional. It will be seen that
wadding threads are always raised along
with all face threads of the same cords
when it is required to place weft at the
back ; but they remain down when weft
interweaves with face threads, to form
the ridge of a cord, whereby they lie be-
tween the face of a cord and the floating
weft.

Fig. 281 is similar to Fig. 280, with
two additional face threads per cord, and
each cord occupying two dents of the
reed. Figs. 282 and 283 have two and
four wadding threads in each cord, and
occupy four and three dents per cord re-
spectively. Fig. 284 is a Bedford cord
occupying twenty warp ends, including
eight wadding and two cutting threads
drawn through five dents of the reed.
Fig. 285 is a variegated cord with one
broad and two narrow cords alternately.
The broad cord occupies twenty-six warp
ends, including four of wadding, drawn
through seven dents ; whilst the narrow
cords each occupy eleven warp ends, in-
cluding one of wadding, drawn through
three dents, making a total of forty-eight
warp ends for the series. Since three
cords constitute an odd series, the draft-
ing of warp ends for this design requires
to be extended to include two series of



108



GRAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



■cords to make an even number, and so conform to the practice,
common to Bedford cords, of causing weft to interweave with
the warp ends of alternate cords, and float under those of
intermediate cords.

§ 49. Figs. 286 and 288 are slight deviations from the previous
examples, in that alternate picks of weft interweave with face
warp ends of alternate cords, and float behind the intermediate
cords ; whereas, in the former examples, two contiguous jjicks
either interweave or float at the same time. There is little
difference between the two systems, but slightly superior results
obtain with the alternate arrangement of picks, as they are more
perfectly distributed in cloth. It is also capable of producing a


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Online LibraryHarry NisbetGrammar of textile design (Volume c.2) → online text (page 6 of 19)