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Grammar of textile design (Volume c.2) online

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closer texture, and forms a clearer cutting between the cords,
which appear more distinct. Fig. 286 is an uncommon variety



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Fig. 284.



of Bedford cord, inasmuch as there are no cutting warp ends.
The development of the ribs is, therefore, entirely dependent
upon each pick of weft interweaving with and floating under
alternate groups of warp ends. In the present example there
are eight face and two wadding threads per cord drawn through
three dents of the reed. Fig. 287 is a transverse section of cloth
woven from the design Fig. 286. Fig. 288 is a cord similar to
the previous one, but having cutting threads and a greater
number of face threads in each cord, which occupies sixteen
warp ends drawn through four dents of the reed.

§ 50. Figs. 289 to 292 are examples of Bedford cord weaves in
which the ribs or cords are developed with a three-end (^y) twill,
with alternate picks of weft interweaving with alternate cords,
and then floating beneath intermediate cords ; whilst the inter-



BEDFOKD CORDS.



109



mediate picks interweave with and then float beneath the
mediate series of cords. This alternate
disposition of picks appears to be uni-
formly observed in the production
of twilled Bedford cords, whereas it
obtains in a lesser degree than the
two-and-two disposition of picks in
the production of Bedford cords
having the ribs developed with the
plain or calico weave, as exemplified
in Figs. 278 to 284. It is in respect
of the twill weave and the uniform
alternate disposition of picks that
the present examples of Bedford
cords differ from those previously
described. These, like those, may
or may not be devoid of wadding
warp ends, according to the weight
and character of texture required.
As a rule, twilled Bedford cords are
more compact and comparatively
softer and more supple than the
calico - ribbed variety, consequent
upon a lesser degree of interlace-
ment of warp and weft.

Fig. 289 is an example of a twilled
Bedford cord devoid of wadding warp
ends. Each cord occupies nine
warp ends, including two cutting
threads, drafted on eight healds and
drawn through three dents of the
reed, as indicated above the design.
Fig. 290 is a twilled cord occupying
six face, two wadding and two cut-
ting warp ends per cord, drafted on
twelve healds and drawn through
three dents of the reed. Fig. 291
is a twilled cord occupying eighteen



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110 GRAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.

face, five wadding and two cutting
warp ends drawn through six dents
of the reed. The fabric from which
this design was obtained contained
six cords per inch (when in the loom),
equal to 120 warp ends (excluding
wadding threads) per inch. This
comparatively high number of threads
produces somewhat flattened ribs re-
sembling tucks, which slightly over-
lap each other.

§ 51. All the foregoing examples
of Bedford cords are of light and




Fig. 286.— Design for Bedford Cord Fabric, of
which a Transverse Section is represented
by Fig. 287.

medium textures suitable for ladies'
dress material. The two following
examples. Figs. 292 and 293, are of
heavy textures such as are employed
for men's sporting suits. Fig. 292
occupies thirteen face, seven wadding
and two cutting warp ends drawn
through five dents of the reed. Fig.
293 is a full-scale photograph of an
interesting variety of Bedford cord of
a specially heavy and strong texture,
and with wide prominent ribs. Its
construction is very different in many
respects to any of the previous ex-



o



BEDFOED COEDS.



Ill



amples. In addition to wadding threads, it contains " backing "
warp ends ; also picks of weft comprise two distinct series,
namely {a) face, and {h) back picks, inserted in the proportion
of one face and two back picks alternately. Face picks inter-
weave with face warp ends of sticcessive cords, whilst back
picks interweave with back warp ends of successive cords, thus




Fig. 288.

forming a series of tubes along which wadding threads lie
straight. As indicated in the design, Fig. 294, each cord occu-
pies a total of twenty-nine warp ends, of which eighteen are
*' face," three " cutting," four *' wadding " and four ** backing "
warp ends. Only two warp beams are necessary to con-




FiG. 289.



Fig. 290.



tain the four series of warp ends, namely, one for face and
cutting threads (whose rate of contraction during weaving is
equal), and one for wadding and back warp ends, which are held
at greater tension than face and cutting threads. Two counts
of yarn are employed in the production of this example, namely,
2/60's for cutting, and 2/16's for face, wadding and back warp



112



GEAMMAE OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



ends (the latter being sized) ; also 2/16's weft of similar yarn
to the warp ends for both face and back picks. Cutting threads
(represented by shaded squares) interweave in the plain or calico
order with successive picks of weft. Face warp ends (filled




Fig. 291.



squares) interweave with face picks only (every third pick) to
produce a three-end (^y) twill, and are raised when back picks are
inserted. Back warp ends (round black dots) interweave with
back picks (two out of three) on the calico principle, but with




INtiiiii-iHii-Ml-i



Fig. 292.



Fig. 294. — Design for
Bedford Cord Fabric
represented by Fig.
293.

the picks running together in pairs instead of separately.
Wadding threads (round white dots) never interweave with weft,
but are simply raised when back picks are inserted, and depressed
when face picks are inserted, to cause them to lie loosely between
the face and back of the fabric.



BEDFOED CORDS. 113

§ 52. All the examples of Bedford cords described above are
of a strictly plain or unfigured character. It now only remains,
to make their description more complete, to describe the usual
methods adopted for their embellishment. At the outset of these
observations, it was stated that Bedford cords were capable of
decorative treatment by means of coloured threads and by
simple Jacquard figuring. If coloured threads are merely sub-




FiG. 293.— Heavy Texture of Bedford Cord, woven from Design Fig. 294.

stituted for undyed threads, other conditions remain unchanged ;
but if they are additional threads for figuring purposes, they
require to be governed by extra healds. Coloured threads are
sometimes substituted for wadding threads in certain cords at
required intervals, and employed for the development of simple
figured effects. In such instances, figuring threads do duty for
wadding threads when not required on the face for figuring
purposes, with the result that they tend to impart a tinge of
colour to those cords containing them. A more satisfactory

8



114



GRAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



method of introducing coloured threads is exempHfied in Figs.
295 and 296. In Fig. 295 a neat wave stripe is developed at
intervals by means of four coloured additional v^arp ends,
represented in the design (Fig. 296) by crosses. One unit of
the pattern comprises five cords, namely, a broad one contain-
ing the extra figuring warp ends, and four narrow plain ones,
thereby requiring two units of the pattern to complete one
repeat of the design, which must occupy an even number of




Flfi. 29r». — J^>.Mltor.l (_:or(l in wliicli C()l<



-ends are introduced for



eiubellisliiueut, as iiidit^ated by Design Fig. 29d.

cords. This circumstance does not prevent figuring threads in
each cord from being governed by the same healds. In the
present example, the extra figuring threads are governed by
four healds, making a total of twelve healds disposed as follows :
Four at the front governing extra figuring threads, followed by
two governing wadding, two governing cutting, and four in
the rear governing face threads. By drawing figuring threads
through healds placed in front, they are subjected to less strain
due to shedding, since each successive heald from the front



BEDFOED CORDS.



115



requires to be moved through a greater distance in order to
maintain the proper angle of warp shed. Warp ends are con-
tained on three separate warp beams containing figuring, face
and wadding threads respectively, with figuring threads lightly
tensioned to permit of their being easily withdrawn during
weaving. Another example of simple figuring by the employ-
ment of extra warp ends is illustrated in Fig. 297, showing the
face and back of the same cloth. The extra threads are em-
ployed at intervals of eight cords for the development of small
spots arranged alternately. To prevent figuring threads from
floating too far at the back of cloth, between any two spots, they




Twice Twice

Fig. 296.— Design for Bedford Cord Fabric represented by Fig. 295.

are raised over every twelfth floating pick as indicated in the
portion of design (Fig. 298).

Instead of lying at the back of cloth, as in the last two
examples, figuring threads may, as an alternative method, lie
with wadding threads, between the face of cloth and floating
picks at the back ; but if face and figuring threads are of con-
trasting colour, the latter will tend to impart a tinge of their
colour to the whole of the cord, as previously stated.

§ 53. Fig. 299 is an example of figured Bedford cord having
a simple floating weft figure developed by means of a Jacquard
machine. Surrounding the figures is a ground fiUing of an
ordinary plain-ribbed Bedford cord, each rib of which comprises
four face, two cutting and two wadding warp ends drawn



116 GEAMMAE OF TEXTILE DESIGN.

through two dents of the reed. All warp ends are controlled



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Fig. 297. — Bedford Cord embellished by the introduction of Coloured Warp-ends,
as indicated by Design Fig. 298.




Fig. 298.— Design for Bedford Cord represented by Fig. 297.
by a Jacquard machine, but only face and cutting warp ends are



BEDFOKD COEDS. 117

utilised for the purpose of binding weft floats in the figure
portions ; whilst wadding threads are kept entirely at the back
in those parts. This necessitates an applied design being pre-
pared in two stages as follows : The design is first set out on
design paper of the proper counts (according to the ratio of face
and cutting threads and picks per inch) without regard to
wadding threads, and afterwards transferred to another sheet of
design paper on which wadding threads are indicated at their

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Online LibraryHarry NisbetGrammar of textile design (Volume c.2) → online text (page 7 of 19)