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Face Healds


u H



Fig. 314. Fig. 315.

Design for Warp-backed Fabric.

results in a consequent lesser rate of contraction than "face "
threads during weaving, thereby requiring each series of warp
€nds to be contained on separate warp beams to permit of their
independent regulation for tension. " Back " warp ends should
be drawn through a set of healds apart from those governing
•''face'' threads, and should preferably be placed in the rear of



face healds, as indicated in the drafts above Figs. 315 and 317.
Also, " back " warp ends should pass from the warp beam to
healds in a slightly loioer plane than " face " threads, and should
not be raised quite so high as the latter during shedding. By
observing these precautions, unnecessary abrasive friction and
chafing of warp ends will be avoided, and any tendency of
binding points to show on the face is thereby reduced.

§ 57. Another variety of backed fabrics, constructed on
exactly the same principles as the previous examples, are known
also as reversibles or double-faced fabrics, from the fact that it

Back Heald

Fig. 316. Fig. 317.

Design for Warp-backed Fabric.

is quite optional which side is exposed to wear. Eeversible
fabrics are exemplified in some ribbons (which usually have
both sides equally exposed when in wear), shawls, travelling
rugs, mantle cloths, coatings, and some fustians, which may be
made to present a similar appearance on both sides ; or each side
may be different both in respect of weave and colouring. This
opportunity is often seized upon to provide mantle cloths and
coatings with self-linings of quite a different character in both
colouring and texture to the face or outer texture, albeit the
lining forms an integral part of the fabric, which is thereby
rendered heavier, thicker and warmer.



§ 58. Fustians are a well-known type of cotton fabrics com-
prising several varieties, the chief of which are known as
"imperial," " swansdown,'' " cantoon " or ''diagonal," "mole-
skin," " beaverteen," " velveteen " or cotton velvet formed with
a weft pile, and " corduroy ". With the exception of velveteens,
which simulate the real silk velvet formed with a warp pile,
they are comparatively firm, heavy and compact textures of
gi-eat strength and durability, chiefly employed in the produc-
tion of clothing. The first three varieties embody no special
constructive feature in their design, as they are based on some
simple weave that permits of an abnormally high rate of picks
being inserted so as to produce a compact fabric. Each of the
remaining varieties, however, is characterised by some peculiar
constructive element that distinguishes it from all other fabrics.
These are virtually " backed " fabrics, since they are constructed
with one series of warp ends and two series of weft, namely,
face and back, although both series of picks are of the same
kind of weft, thereby requiring a loom with only one shuttle-
box at each end of the sley, to produce them.

Unlike all other varieties of fustians, velveteens and corduroys
are characterised by a short and soft fur, closely resembling that
of silk velvet. This fur-like effect is obtained subsequent to weav-
ing by a process known as " fustian cutting," in which certain
floating picks of weft are cut or severed by specially constructed
knives, either manually or mechanically, thereby causing those
picks to become more or less vertical to their foundation, and to



expose their transverse sections to the surface, which gradually
assumes the character of true velvet. In plain velveteens, a pile
of uniform length is uniformly distributed over the fabric,
thereby forming a perfectly level surface ; but in corduroys, the
pile is caused to develop a ribbed or corded formation, with the
cords produced lengthwise or parallel with warp ends. These
characteristics are clearly illustrated by Figs. 318 and 319, which

Fig. 318. — Velveteen (Cotton Velvet), before and after the operation of
Fustian Cutting.

are reproduced from actual examples of velveteen and corduroy
respectively. Each example shows a portion of cloth both
before and after the operation of cutting. It should be observed,
however, that velveteens are sometimes made to assume a
corded appearance resembling that of corduroys ; but their
different texture and construction enable them to be easily dis-
tinguished from the latter when the characteristics of each are




§ 59. The variety of fustians known to the trade as " im-
perials " comprises several modifications of what is perhaps
better known as " swansdown " cloth, so called from the soft
nap or downy surface produced, after weaving, by scratching up
or raising the fibres composing the threads of weft by an

Fig. 319. — Corduroy, before and after the operation of Fustian Cutting.

operation termed '' perching ". The nap thus formed resembles
the soft down of swans (hence its name) and greatly increases
the warming properties of the fabric. For this reason it is
largely employed as ladies' underclothing. Fig. 320 is a design
for swansdown repeating on five warp ends and five picks.
From the design, it would appear that weft preponderates on the
face in the ratio of three of weft to two of warp ; but, virtually,
it gives an all-weft surface by reason of the much greater



density of picks, as compared with warp ends, which latter are
entirely obscured on the face. Also, to facilitate the develop-
ment of a nap by perching, a fairly soft weft of good quality is
used. A good quality of swansdown contains 60 warp ends of
18's T., and 120 picks of 20's soft weft per inch.

A heavier make of swansdown, known as " imperial sateen,"
is produced from the design Fig. 321, repeating on eight warp
ends and picks, and based on an eight-end satin weave, but with
two contiguous warp ends always raised together. This weave
produces relatively longer floats of weft, which latter preponder-
ates over warp in the ratio of six to two respectively. Imperial
sateens are sometimes dyed and finished to imitate light mole-
skins, with a short nap raised on the back ; but when imperials

Fig. 320.— Design for
' ' Swansdown ' ' Cloth.

Fig. 321.— Design lor
"Imperial Sateen "
and "Lambskin"

Fig. 322. — Design for
Reversible Sateen

are perched on the face they are named " lambskins," from their
long soft woolly nap. A medium quality of dyed imperial
sateen contains sixty-eight warp ends of 16's T. and 150 picks
of 16's weft per inch; whilst a good quality of "lambskin"
contains forty-six warp ends of 2/20's warp, and 450 picks of 20's
weft per inch. A design for what is termed a reversible " im-
perial " contained on eight warp ends and picks is given in Fig.
322. By densely crowding picks of weft, this weave produces a
very compact texture, with only weft visible on both surfaces
of cloth. A good quality of this cloth contains sixty-two warp
ends of 14's T. and 330 picks of 30's weft per inch.

" Cantoons " or " Diagonals ".

§ 60. Cantoon is a variety of fustian largely employed in the
production of men's riding and sporting suits, and occasionally




of ladies' jackets. As with the previous examples of fustians,
its construction embodies no special feature of design, but merely
consists of a pick-and-pick combination of the two regular six-end
twill weaves, Figs. 323 and 324, to produce the design Fig. 325,
which repeats on six warp ends and twelve picks. A good ex-
ample of this cloth under present notice contains fifty-four warp
ends of 2/20's warp, and 400 picks of 20's weft per inch. This
abnormal density of picks produces a very strong and compact
fabric having a fine corded appearance, with the cords or wales
running obliquely at an angle of IS"" to the picks of weft. These
fabrics are usually dyed either a fawn or drab hue, and perched
on the back.

Fig. 323.

Fig. 324. Fig. 325.

Design for ' ' Cantoon ''
or "Diagonal" Cloth.


§ 61. Moleskin is a smooth but thick leathery variety of
fustian of greater strength and weight than other varieties, and
is largely employed in the production of strong suits of clothing
for iron and brass-moulders, navvies and other workmen engaged
in rough occupations. Its thickness and compactness of texture,
combined with its smooth and even surface, make it well adapted
for moulders, as it is impervious to sand, and not so easily
penetrated as other fabrics by splashes of molten metal. Mole-
skins are produced from one series of warp ends and two
series of picks (of the same kind of weft), namely, face and
back picks, inserted in the proportion of two face picks to one
back pick. Face picks combine with alternate warp ends
only, to produce a modified satin weave repeating on six warp
ends and three picks ; whilst back picks interweave with all



•warp ends to produce a three-end weft twill at the back, as indi-
■cated in design Fig. 326, which repeats on six warp ends and
nine picks. By causing only alternate warp ends to bind over
face picks, in addition to combining with back picks, there is a
slight tendency to impart a little more strain upon those threads
than upon intermediate threads which combine with back picks
vonly. The additional strain upon those warp ends tends to
develop a faint stripy formation in cloth, which is, however,
considered to be a point of excellence.

Moleskins permit of little or no structural modification with-
•out departing from their true character. The moleskin design
given in Fig. 327 shows a slight departure from the previous
.example, but one that would manifest no appreciable difference

Fig. 326.

Fig. 327.
Designs for Moleskin Fabrics.

Fig. 328.

in cloth, excepting to an experienced person. In Fig. 326 it will
be seen that at certain points alternate warp ends pass abruptly
from above a face pick and underneath a back pick, whereas in
Fig. 327 there is always an interval of one pick between the
bindings of a face and a back pick by the same warp end. For
•example, in Fig. 326 the third warp end is over the second face
pick and under the following, which is a back pick. The pas-
sage of warp ends over a face pick and then immediately under a
back pick increases their tension and thereby tends to slightly
•emphasise the stripy appearance just mentioned.

Moleskins are not well adapted to decorative treatment of a
structural character, but they, as well as heavy imperials, are
sometimes printed with simple decorative effects to imitate
worsted suitings, and employed in the production of men's

back picks interweave under and over consecutive warp ends, as
in the plain calico weave ; but alternate warp ends are raised for
two out of three back picks, and intermediate warp ends weave
in an opposite manner to those, namely, down for two picks and
up for one. Fig. 330 is another design for beaverteen, contained
on six warp ends and nine picks. It has the same face weave as
the previous example, but is backed with three-end weft twill
and contains only tw^o face picks to one back pick. A good
quality of beaverteen contains thirty-two warp ends of 2/18's
warp and 280 picks of 18' s weft per inch.


§ 63. Velveteens constitute an important variety of fustians,
generally of much lighter texture than other varieties. As pre-


yiously stated in § 58, their characteristic velvet appearance is
produced subsequent to v^eaving, by an operation of fustian cut-
ting (performed sometimes by machinery for low qualities only,
but more frequently by hand) which is usually conducted indepen-
dently as a kindred branch of fustian manufacturing. Previous
to being cut, a velveteen presents no unusual structural appear-
ance, but has a smooth level surface with weft floating abundantly
on the face, as if it were constructed on a simple satin basis.

Velveteens are produced from one kind of weft inserted so as
to constitute two series of picks, namely " pile " and " ground "
picks, corresponding to face and back picks respectively. Pile
picks are floated somewhat loosely on the surface, to be after-
wards cut to form pile ; whilst ground picks interweave more
frequently with warp, to build up a firm foundation texture to
sustain the pile. Indeed, the simplest definition of a velveteen
fabric is : A simple texture of calico, twill or other simple weave,
embodying a vast number of short tufts of w^eft (thus — U) evenly
distributed to produce a soft velvet-pile surface. Thus, if all the
tufts of pile were entirely withdrawn, there would still remain a
perfect foundation texture of a plain, twill or other simple weave
according to the basis adopted. For light and medium textures,
the latter is usually based on either the tabby or three-end twill
weave ; and for heavier textures, on the four-end (-=-^) twill weave.

It is important that pile picks should be securely attached to
the foundation texture to prevent the tufts of pile being accident-
ally withdrawn either during fustian cutting or when the fabric
is in use. This may be accomplished in two ways, namely (a)
by compression, caused by densely crowding picks of weft ; and
{b) by interweaving pile picks with several warp ends in succes-
sion, to produce what is termed a " fast "or *' lashed " pile ; or
by adopting both of these methods. Most velveteens, however,
are constructed on the former plan, in which pile picks are bound
into the foundation texture by only one warp end at regular inter-
vals of six, eight or ten threads according to length of pile required.
The second plan is usually adopted when it is required to float
pile picks for a greater distance, for the purpose of producing
longer pile, the tufts of which would be more liable to accidental
withdrawal. Whether pile picks are bound by only one or



more than one warp end in each repeat of the pattern, it is im-
perative that the binding should occur at regular intervals on
each pick, to give uniform lengths of floats, and therefore, a uni-
form length of pile after cutting.

§ 64. Fig. 331a is a simple design, repeating on six warp ends-
and six picks, for a tabby back velveteen containing two pile

123456 I 23456 123 456



Mf W



f \


w m

W w


Fig. 331.— (A) Design for Velveteen Fabric, of which B is a graphic representa-
tion of a Transverse Section, showing some Picks of Weft standing erect,
after being severed by the Fustian Knife to form tiifts of Pile.

picks to one ground pick, with pile picks bound at intervals of
six, to cause them to float over five, warp ends. In this example,
every third warp end only is utihsed for binding pile picks tO'
the ground texture, namely, the first and fourth in each repeat
of the pattern ; whilst all warp ends interweave with ground





picks to produce the foundation texture.
threads causes the floats of pile
picks to develop a series of courses
or passages running lengthwise,
termed "races," which lie above
the ground cloth and along each
of which a fustian cutter passes
the fustian knife, so that the cut-
ting edge of the latter passes
under all floats of weft forming
a ** race," thereby severing them
in the centre and causing them
to become erect on each side of
a binding thread to produce the
characteristic short tufts of pile.
This is clearly illustrated in Fig.
331b, which represents a trans-
verse section of cloth (produced
from the design above it), both
before and after cutting. The
paths along which the fustian
knife takes its course, and also
the points at which pile picks are
severed, occur at intervals of
three warp ends, as indicated by

§ 65. A fustian knife for cut-
ting by hand is illustrated in Fig.
332. It consists of a square steel
rod A, beaten out at one end to
form an extremely thin keen-
edged blade B, and is provided
with a handle C at the other end.
The knife blade is inserted in a
shaped and pointed sheath D, of
sheet iron or steel, which serves
the threefold purpose of (a) giving
firmness to the slender blade :

This combination of


- V


(b) guiding the blade along its true course under the proper
floats ; and (c) tautening the floats of weft as it passes under
and brings them up to the exposed edge of the knife, to be
severed. Fustian knives are made in various lengths from
about 12 in. to 30 in. from steel rods varying from i in. to i in.
square, and each is provided with a sheath or guide specially
shaped and pointed to suit the particular kind of cloth for
which it is intended (as velveteen or corduroy), and also the
width of "race". A fustian knife handle is sometimes fur-
nished with a piece of wood E, to serve as a rest for the knife,
and maintain it at the proper angle as it traverses a "race ".
The rest E is fixed at the rear end of the haft when cutting
velveteen on a " short-run " frame (of two yards in length),
and in the centre of the haft (as indicated by dotted lines) when
cutting corduroy.

§ 66. Before being submitted to the operation of fustian
cutting, velveteens are first subjected to a process of liming, in
which a thin coating of lime paste is applied to the face side of
cloth by passing it over a roller revolving in slaked lime. From
the lime trough the cloth is immediately passed over a number
of steam-heated cylinders to be dried ; after which it is coated
on the back with flour paste and again dried for the purpose of
stiffening it and to prevent the withdrawal of tufts of pile during
cutting. After this preparation, the cloth is made taut by stretch-
ing in a suitable frame of either two or about ten yards in
length, when the cutter passes a knife smartly along successive
" races," taking each in turn from one selvedge to the other.
Subsequent lengths of cloth are then stretched and cut in a
similar manner until the whole piece is completed, after which
it is submitted to various finishing processes. The operation of
cutting velveteen by hand on short frames is illustrated in Fig.
333/ in which fustian cutters are shown standing at the side of
their frames ; but when cutting corduroy on a short frame the
cutter stands at one end.

The foregoing description of a simple example of velveteen,
and of fustian cutting, will enable a student to intelligently

^ The author is indebted to Messrs. Henry Bannerman & Sons, Limited,
for their kind permission to use this illustration.



comprehend some of the circumstances affecting the production
of velveteens and corduroys, and thereby to better conform to
the conditions which their construction imposes upon a designer,
namely, the proper security of pile to the foundation texture,
and the distribution of binding places in such manner as to pro-
vide suitable "races" or passages at regular intervals for the
reception of the fustian knife.

§ 67. Fig. 334 is a design in extensive use for a tabby-back
velveteen repeating on six warp ends and eight picks, having
three pile picks to one ground pick, with consecutive pile picks
bound by alternate warp ends at intervals of six threads. It

1234561 23456

Fig. 334. — Design for Velveteen Fabric.

will be observed that pile picks are bound by the same alternate
warp ends that are raised for the first ground pick in each repeat
of the pattern ; whilst the intermediate threads are only raised
for the second ground pick, thereby causing the three pile picks
between each ground pick to become equivalent to, and sub-
sequently occupy the space of, only one pick of weft. Hence,
the eight picks constituting one repeat of the design are equivalent
to only four picks when in cloth.

The employment of alternate instead of consecutive warp ends
for the purpose of binding pile picks is a practice which, for
several reasons, is adopted in the construction of velveteens. In
the first place, it reduces the number of "races" by one-half,
by creating them along alternate warp ends only, instead of



along all warp ends, thereby requiring less time for cutting and
reducing the cost of that operation. In the second place it
facilitates the operation of cutting by developing more clearly
defined " races " for the reception of a fustian knife. And, finally,
by causing tufts of pile to lie along alternate warp ends, instead
of being distributed on all warp ends, a more perfect simulation
of real velvet is produced, and one that makes the difference
between velvet and velveteen sometimes very difficult to detect.




Fig. 335.

Fig. 336.

Fig. 337.

The use of alternate threads of the same warp to bind over face-
picks as well as under back picks tends (as explained under the
heads of backed fabrics and moleskins, in §§ 56 and 61) to im-
part a little greater strain upon those threads ; but in con-
sequence of the sparseness of warp ends, and the considerable
degree of tension at which they are held during the weaving of
fustians, the difference in tension between binding and non-
binding threads is so small as to develop only the faintest

Fig. 338.

2 4 6 8 10
Fig. 339.

stripiness in the uncut cloth, which entirely disappears after
cutting ; nor is the difference in tension such as to necessitate-
the binding and non-binding warp ends being wound upon
separate warp beams. This is explained by the circumstance
of warp ends being held so taut during weaving that the softer,
finer and more supple weft exerts little or no influence upon
them, and so they remain perfectly straight.

§ 68. Figs. 335 to 364 are examples of designs showing
various modifications in the construction of velveteen fabrics-



A cursory examination will show that the essential points of
•difference in them are in respect of their foundation weaves,
and the method of securing pile picks thereto. Other points of
difference, not of a structural character, are the ratio of pile
picks to ground picks, and the length of float between the bind-
ing points of pile picks. Fig. ^335 is a design for a tabby- back
velveteen containing two pile picks to one ground pick, with pile

Fig. 340. Fig. 341.— Represented

in Transverse Section
by Fig. 344.

Fig. 342.— Represented
in Transverse Section
by Fig. 345.

weft floating over only three warp ends between each inter-
section, which would produce an exceedingly short and poor
pile. Figs. 336, 337 and 338 are three designs for tabby-back
velveteens, each containing four pile picks to one ground pick,
with pile weft floating over seven warp ends. Although pile
picks are bound in a different order in each design, they would


Fig. 343.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 in

-(A) Transverse Section showing Ordinary Method of securing Tufts of
Pile to the Foundation Texture, in Velveteen Fabrics.

produce absolutely identical results in the finished fabric ; as the
four pile picks between two ground picks in each design would
constitute only one row of tufts disposed on alternate warp ends.
Fig. 339 is a design for a tabby-back velveteen containing five
pile picks to ong grouod pick, with pile picks floating over nine
warp ends to produce longer pile.

§ 69. Figs. 340, 341 and 342 are three examples of designs
for tabby-back velveteens with a "fast" or "lashed" pile, so



called because the tufts of pile are more securely attached to the

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