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foundation texture ; thus, instead of being looped under and
held by only one warp end, as in previous examples and as
illustrated in Fig. 343, each tuft of pile is secured by interlacing
with three consecutive warp ends, as shown in Figs. 344 and
345. Although the binding of pile picks in Figs. 341 and 342 is

A B




Fig. 344. — (A) I'ransverse Sectiou of Velveteen, woven from Design Fig. 341,
with Fast or Lashed Pile.

of a different arrangement in each, they will produce no material
difference in their ultimate results, as seen by comparison of
Figs. 344 A, and 345 A, which represent transverse sections of
cloth produced from designs Figs. 341 and 342 respectively. In
both examples, warp ends are raised over two out of the five pile
picks between two ground picks, so that the five pile picks will

A B




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Fig. 345. — (A) Transverse Section of Velveteen, woven from Design Fig. 342,
with Fast or Lashed Pile.

occupy the space of tiuo picks in cloth (as seen in end views of
sections at B). Hence, five tufts of pile will be formed over an
interval of ten warp ends, from what virtually constitutes two
picks of weft (whereas, by the method of binding shown in Fig.
343, five tufts of pile would be formed in the same interval, and
from the same number of picks, which would virtually constitute
only one pick of weft (as seen in end view of section at B) and



142



GEAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



which would result, for example, from the design Fig. 339. It
is evident, therefore, that a " fast " pile can only be obtained in
fabrics of similar quality by sacrificing the density of tufts of pile.
§ 70. It may be observed at this juncture that the relative
density of pile in fabrics of similar quality may only be in-




FiG. 346.



Fig. 34;



Fig. 348.



creased |by additional rows of tufts between ground picks. Thus,
instead of warp ends binding over only one pile pick between
two ground picks to produce only one row of tufts (as in all
previous examples), they may bind over two or three pile picks
to produce a corresponding number of rows of tufts between two




Fig. 349.



Fig. 350.



Fig. 351.



ground picks, as exemplified in Figs. 346 and 347. Also, each
binding warp end should preferably contain the same number of
tufts between ground picks to ensure a more perfect distribution
of pile ; though this precept is not always observed in practice,
as will be seen presently. Density of pile is sometimes slightly
increased by causing additional tufts of pile to occur in certain



FUSTIANS.



143



places only, between two ground picks. Conversely, density of
pile may be slightly diminished by omitting tufts of pile in a
similar order. In either case, care should be taken to dispose
the additional tufts (or the spaces where they are omitted) so
that they will not tend to develop lines in any direction in the
finished fabric. Any such tendency is avoided in an ingenious
manner in Figs. 348 and 350, which are designed to increase
and diminish the density of pile respectively. In Fig. 348
the successive binding points on pile picks are produced in an
opposite direction at intervals of two ground picks, thereby dis-
posing the additional tufts of pile in the four-end satin order (as
indicated by bracketed squares). Had the successive binding

A A




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7


6


6


5


b


4


4


S


-3


2
1


2
1




points been produced in the same direction throughout, as in
Fig. 349, the regular occurrence of the extra tufts would tend
to develop a series of lines running obliquely across the fabric.
In Fig. 350, which will give a less dense pile, the same practice
has been observed of reversing the direction in which binding
points are produced at intervals of two ground picks, so as to
dispose the gaps (caused by missing tufts, as indicated by
bracketed squares) in a four-end satin order, for reasons just
explained. Had the binding points in that design been pro-
duced in the same direction throughout (as indicated in Fig.
351), the vacant places would, in consequence of their regular
succession, tend to develop oblique lines across the fabric.



144



GRAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



§ 71. Figs. 352 to 358 are designs for velveteens of a little
heavier texture than the tabby-backed variety. Their founda-
tion texture is based on the three-end twill weave, which permits of
a greater number of picks per inch being inserted to produce a
more compact fabric. In other respects their construction is
similar to the previous examples. Apart from the object of
increasing weight, a greater degree of compactness in twill-
backed velveteens is essential to hold the pile firmly ; otherwise
the freer character of the weave would produce a more open
texture, and thereby permit of the easier withdrawal of tufts of
pile. It is sometimes advocated that, when constructing twill-
backed velveteens, warp bindings on pile picks that immediately
either precede or succeed a ground pick should be placed counter
to a weft binding on that pick, so that such warp and weft



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Fig. 354.



Fig. 355.



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Fig. 358.



binding points will lock or check each other, and thus give
additional firmness to the fabric. A little reflection, however,
will show that whilst such precaution would conduce to better
results if the weft were not to be subsequently cut to form pile,
it is unnecessary to observe it in the construction of velveteen
in which the several picks between two ground picks virtually
occupy the space of only one pick, or sometimes two picks, in the
finished fabric. It may also be pointed out that, w^hether the
warp and weft bindings are or are not placed counter to each
other in the design, they automatically become so in the finished
fabric ; so that precisely similar results accrue whichever practice
is adopted. This is clearly demonstrated by means of diagrams-
Figs. 352b and 353b, representing transverse sections of cloth
(after cutting) woven from designs Figs. 352a and 353a respec-
tively, which designs are identical, excepting that warp bindings
on every second pile pick in Fig. 352a are placed counter to



FUSTIANS.



145



weft bindings of the contiguous ground pick ; whereas the
binding points are not so placed in Fig. 353a, yet their trans-
verse sections are virtually alike. (It will be observed that these
two designs are identical with the moleskin designs, Figs. 326
and 327, respectively.) Figs. 354 to 358 are other examples of
designs for velveteens with three-end twill backs, showing various
modifications ; whilst Figs. 359 to 364 are for velveteens having



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Fig. 359.



Fig. 360.



Fig. 361.



a foundation texture based on the two-and-two twill, and other
weaves, to produce still heavier textures.

Weft plushes are simply velveteens in which pile weft is
allowed to float over a considerable number of warp ends to
produce a longer pile, the tufts of which are more firmly inter-
laced by interweaving them under and over three or five con-




FiG. 362.



Fig. 363.



Fig. 364.



secutive warp ends, as described in § 69. In other respects
their construction is similar to that of ordinary velveteen having
short pile.



Ribbed or Corded Velveteen.

§ 72. Velveteen is sometimes made to assume a ribbed or
corded formation, resembling that of corduroys, with the ribs
or cords produced lengthwise or parallel with warp. There are

10



146 GRAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.

so-called " velvet cords " that are not velveteens, but simply




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light textures of corduroy, which will be described under that
head. So-called " ribbed velvet " or ribbed velveteen (also known



FUSTIANS. 147

as " hollow-cut " velveteen), however, is woven as ordinary plain
velveteen, and afterwards made to assume a corded appearance
by a special mode of fustian cutting, in which a cutter first passes
:a knife along certain " races " in each cord, with the blade
vertical, as in ordinary cutting, and then along intermediate
*' races," with the knife blade held at different angles, to sever
floats of weft out of the centre, and so form longer and shorter
tufts which develop rounded ribs of pile. For some " races "
the knife is inclined towards the cutter, and for others away
from the cutter; hence the terms " towart" and '\frowart " used
amongst that class of fustian cutters, whose work is regarded as
specially skilful. An example of ribbed velveteen under present
notice is produced from the design shown in Fig. 339, contain-
ing five pile picks to one ground pick, and with pile weft floating
over nine warp ends. A transverse section of this cloth (before
and after cutting) is represented in Fig, 365, in which arrows
indicate the various angles at which the knife blade is held as
it is passed along the different " races ". The width of cords is
not regulated by the number of warp ends on which the woven
design repeats, but is arbitrarily decided by the fustian cutter,
who may produce various widths of cords from exactly similar
fabrics. In the present example the ribs occur at intervals of
sixteen warp ends, although the w^oven design repeats on only
ten warp ends. The same fabric could have been cut to produce
broader or narrower ribs, as desired.



Figured Velveteen.

§ 73. The embellishment of velveteens is not confined to that
created by a simple ribbed or corded formation. They are fre-
quently rendered of a more or less ornate character by means of
designs printed in various colours, embossed designs, and de-
signs produced by Jacquard machines. Many woven designs
are of a somewhat elaborate character, as exemplified in the
specimen reproduced in Fig. 366.

The construction of Jacquard-figured velveteen is governed
by the same principles as those regulating the construction of
simple velveteen, so far as the development of pile in the figure



148 GEAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.

portion is concerned ; but in the ground portion of the pattern^
which is without pile, some method must be adopted to effectu-
ally obscure pile weft from the face of the fabric. Various
methods are employed to achieve that object. By one — perhaps
the most generally satisfactory — when pile picks are not required
on the face for the development of figure, they are placed at the
back in the ground portion, and interwoven with binding warp

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Fig. 366. —Velveteen figured hy means of a Jacquard Machine.

ends in an exactly opposite manner to that which obtains in the
figure portion. By another method (of which the specimen
illustrated is an example), surplus pile weft is allowed to float
quite freely beneath the ground portion, and after the operation
of cutting, it is brushed off as waste material. A third practice is
to employ an extra fine warp to loosely interweave with surplus
pile weft at the back of cloth for the purpose of producing a
light gauzy and imperfect tissue, which, after the operation of



FUSTIANS.



149



cutting, is drawn bodily away from the principal texture, thereby
removing all surplus pile weft. This precaution, however, is
only necessary for designs containing comparatively large areas
of ground filHng, in which case the resulting masses of floating
weft at the back would be liable to be caught and pulled both
during and subsequent to weaving, thereby involving risk of
injury to the fabric and impeding the operation of cutting.

§ 74. When preparing an applied or working design for a
figured velveteen fabric, it must be first drawn to the required
dimensions on the proper counts of squared or point paper, and
painted in en bloc, as in Fig. 367. It may then be transposed




Fig. .367. — Block Sketch-design for Figured Velveteen.

to any other counts of point paper to be read off by the card
cutter. The proper counts of design paper for the block design
is determined according to the number of rows of tufts to be
contained in one inch, both horizontally and vertically, because
the margin of figure steps in intervals of tufts of pile each way ;
thus each small square of the block design corresponds to one
tuft. If, therefore, a design is to be prepared for a fabric con-
taining 88 warp ends and 420 picks per inch, with pile weft
bound by alternate warp ends, and having three pile picks
{which constitute only one row of tufts) to one ground pick (as
in the present example) the proper counts of point paper for the



150



GEAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



block design is in the ratio of (88 -^ 2 = 44) to (420 -^ 4 = 105) ;
or (assuming a Jacquard machine has eight long rows of hooks)
the point paper should contain eight squares by nineteen squares
in each bar. If a fabric contains four pile picks, constituting
only one row of tufts, between two ground picks, the number
of horizontal rows of tufts per inch will be one-fifth of the actual
number of picks inserted. Again, if a fabric contains six pile
picks constituting tivo rows of tuffcs between two ground picks,
the number of horizontal rows of tufts per inch will be two-
sevenths of the actual number of picks inserted, and so on.

It is necessary to prepare the pattern eit bloc on the proper
counts of design paper in order to ensure that the correct forms




Fig.



368. — Part of Sketch, Fig. 367, prepared as an Applied Design for
Figured Velveteen.



and shapes of its component parts will be preserved when re-
produced in cloth ; but the counts of paper employed for the
working design, and from which pattern cards are read off by the
card-cutter, is quite immaterial. When preparing an applied
design from a block pattern, it must be remembered that all warp
ends are controlled by a Jacquard machine, and that a pattern
card is required for each pick of weft inserted. Therefore, since
each small square of the block pattern corresponds to one tuft of
pile, each vertical space on the former represents two, three or
four spaces on the working design (according as tufts of pile are



FUSTIANS. 151

contained on alternate warp ends, or on every third or fourth
warp end), and each horizontal space in the block pattern repre-
sents the number of pile picks inserted for each ground pick,
plus one ground pick. For these reasons, when setting out the
pattern for the working design, the margin where figure and
ground meet must change or step at intervals of two or more
warp ends in a horizontal direction, and at intervals of two,
three or more picks in a vertical direction, according to the
weave selected.

Fig. 367 is a portion of the pattern, en bloc, of the cloth repre-
sented in Fig. 366. A small portion of the block pattern (brack-
eted) is shown transposed in Fig. 368, and is developed for a
tabby-back velveteen containing four pile picks to one ground
pick, with pile weft bound by alternate warp ends, and in accord-
ance with the first-named method as described in § 73. By this
method pile picks are placed at the back in the ground portion
and interwoven with binding warp ends in an opposite manner
to that of the figure portion. The margin of figure in a vertical
direction in velveteens constructed in accordance with this method
is always formed with a half -tuft, i.e., one-half of a complete loop,
thus J. For this reason it is advisable to continue some short
marginal floats of weft to their full extent, and to stop others
that are very short (as indicated by white and black crosses re-
spectively), and thus jjrevent short marginal tufts of pile. This
object will be more easily achieved by forming the margin of
ground (in a vertical direction) with the binding warp ends only,
as observed in Fig. 368.

Fig. 369 is a portion of the same block pattern showing the
development of a working design for figured velveteen, in accord-
ance with the second method as described in § 73, by which
surplus pile weft floats loosely beneath the ground portion of the
fabric, to enable it to be readily brushed away after the operation
of cutting, and is a reproduction of a portion of the fabric repre-
sented in Fig. 366, which is a tabby-back velveteen containing
three pile picks to one ground pick, with alternate warp ends
employed for binding pile weft. The scheme of binding pile
picks in this example is the same as that given in Fig. 350, in
which tufts of pile are omitted in a certain order, for the twofold



152



GEAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN



purpose of increasing the length, but reducing the density, of
pile. It should be observed that in velveteens constructed in ac-
cordance with this method the margin of figure in a vertical
direction is formed with entire tufts, as any half-tufts that may
be formed during the operation of cutting are withdrawn on re-




JFlG. 369. — An Alternative Method of developing an Applied Design for Figured

Velveteen.



moving surplus pile weft from the back. For this reason,
greater care is required on the part of a designer in order to
preserve a good margin of figure and ground. This may be
accomplished by extending certain marginal floats into the
ground portion, of sufficient length to enable the fustian knife
to pass underneath and cut them, and also by filling in the



FUSTIANS. 153

spaces to stop all floats of weft that are too short to be cut, as
indicated on the working design by white and black crosses re-
spectively. By carefully studying this design, the method of
preparing designs on this principle will become manifest.

As observed in § 73 velveteens are sometimes ornamented by
an operation of stamping, whereby plain velveteens are furnished
with embossed designs which closely simulate those produced
by Jacquard machines. The fabrics to be ornamented in this
way are subjected to considerable pressure against a roller matrix
of the required pattern, which depresses the pile to form the
ground portion, and leaves the pile erect in the figure portion,
which stands out in sharp relief as an embossed design. When
put into use, the pattern of an embossed velveteen becomes in-
distinct and finally obliterated, in consequence of the depressed
tufts of pile in the ground portion being disturbed by friction,
and thereby becoming partially erect. Thus, the difference be-
tween woven and stamped figured velveteen may be easily
detected by scratching the ground portion with a pointed instru-
ment, which will raise the depressed pile in that part of the
counterfeit fabric.

Corduroy.

§ 75. Corduroy fabrics are constructed on similar principles to
those governing the construction of velveteens, and, like those,
are submitted to an operation of fustian cutting for the develop-
ment of a pile surface. They are, however, produced in much
heavier and more durable textures than velveteens, in view of
the greater wearing properties required of them. They consist of
a foundation texture, usually based upon a three -end or four-end
twill or other simple weave, containing tufts of pile disposed at
regular intervals on from two to six contiguous warp ends (ac-
cording to the width and character of cord required) in such
manner as to develop a series of rounded pile ribs or cords in
the same direction as warp ends. The ribs are usually of uni-
form width in the same fabric, but sometimes they are variegated.
Most corduroy fabrics have pile and ground picks in the ratio of
two to one respectively, with a twill foundation weave ; but
some varieties known as " velvet cords " are produced in com-



154



GKAMMAR OF TEXTILE DESIGN.



paratively light textures based on the plain or tabby weave, and
containing three, four and five pile picks to each ground pick, to
produce a denser pile. Fabrics of this description are usually
employed in the production of boys' and ladies' clothing. Figs.
370 and 371 are two designs for " velvet cords," each having a
foundation texture of plain cloth, and containing three and four
pile picks to each ground pick respectively. A transverse section




Fig. 370. — Design for Corduroy.

of cloth (before and after cutting) produced from design Fig. 371
is represented in a graphic manner in Fig. 372. As a fustian
knife is thrust along each successive "race," the floats of weft
are severed at or near the centre, thereby producing tufts of pile,
which rise on each side of binding warp ends and form the
characteristic rounded ribs of pile.




Fig. 371. — Design for Corduroy.

The rounded or convex formation of cords in corduroys i&
entirely due to floating weft being cut at unequal distances on
each side of binding points, thereby causing each complete tuft
to be formed with a long and short tuft (thus — J). This will be-
easily understood on examining Figs. 370 and 371, in which are
indicated the points at which floats of weft are severed by the
fustian knife. In Fig. 370 the binding points of pile picks occur
in the same order for each rib, thereby producing all floats of



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FUSTIANS.



155



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Online LibraryHarry NisbetGrammar of textile design (Volume c.2) → online text (page 9 of 19)