Harvey Washington Wiley.

Foods and their adulteration; origin, manufacture, and composition of food products; description of common adulterations, food standards, and national food laws and regulations online

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Online LibraryHarvey Washington WileyFoods and their adulteration; origin, manufacture, and composition of food products; description of common adulterations, food standards, and national food laws and regulations → online text (page 1 of 70)
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I. Spring, well, and other potable waters.
II. Potable mineral waters.

III. Contamination of waters and how to avoid them.

IV. Coffee, Tea, Cocoa, Chocolate, etc.
V. Soda Waters, Pops, Seltzers, etc.

VI. Fermented Beverages — Growth of Raw Materials, Manufacture,
and Storage:
(a) Beers, (b) Wines, (r) Ciders, Perrys, Meads, etc.
VII. Distilled Liquors:

(a) Whiskey, (b) Brandy, (c) Rum. (d) Gin and other flav-
ored compounds, (e) Imitation and compound liquors.
(/) Blends, (g) Cordials, denatured alcohol, etc.
VIII. So-called temperance drinks.
IX. Beverages of a miscellaneous character.

Octavo. Illustrated. In Preparatioiv.

P. BLAKISTON'S SON & CO.. Publishers, Philadelphia.







I0I2 Walnut Street

Two Copies Received
MAV 17 190?
, jynsrM Entry

' CUSS CC XXc, No.



Copyright, 1907, by P. Blakiston's Son & Co.






This manual is descriptive in character and aims to give, within its scope,
as thoroughly and intelligibly as possible, an account of the various food-
products in common use in their natural and manufactured conditions, with
the usual adulterations which have been found therein.

It includes information regarding Methods of Preparation and IManufac-
ture. Food Values, Standards of Purity, Regulations for Inspection, Simple
Tests for Adulterations, Effects of Storage, and similar matters pertaining to
the subject.

It has been designed to interest the consumer, as well as the manufacturer,
the scientific, as well as the general reader, all of whom it is hoped will find in
it something useful. The consumer is entitled to know the nature of the
product offered, the manufacturer and dealer the best methods of prepara-
tion. It will give the physician and sanitarian knowledge of the value of
foods, their proper use and inspection, and, while not analytical m purpose,
will provide the chemist with information which will guide him in his work of
detecting impurities.

It has been thought advisable to give in the appendices extracts from the
national laws relating to the subject, as well as the rules and regulations
for their enforcement and official standards of purity, as these are now of
general interest to all classes. In revising the manuscript and in reading the
proofs, especial recognition is made of the valuable aid of Dr. W. D. Bigelow,
Chief of the Division of Foods of the Department of Agriculture; Dr. F. V.
Coville, Botanist of the Department of Agriculture, and Dr. B. W. Evermann,
of the Bureau of Fisheries. Acknowledgement is also made of the favors of
the Bureaus of Plant Industry, Animal Industry, and Forestry. Many helpful
suggestions from other sources can only be acknowledged in this general way.
All opinions respecting adulterations, misbranding, nutritive value, and whole-
someness are the individual expressions of the author and are not to be con-
sidered in any other manner. Honest and truthful practices of manufacture
and labeling are to be promoted in every possible manner. In the end the
true, the ethical, and the just in these practices will prevail.

Harvey W. Wiley.

Washington, D. C, May i, 1907.


Introduction i-io

Proper Ration, 3; Social Function of Food, 5; Detinition and Composition of
Foods, 6; Classitication of Foods, 7; Explanation of Chemical Terms, 8.

Part I. — Meats and Meat Products 11-94

Definition, 11; Edible Animals, 11; Classification of Meat Foods, 1 2 ; Prepar-
ation of Animals, 12; Inspection, 13; Tuberculosis, 13; Consumers' Rights,
14; Slaughter and Preparation of Carcasses, 14; Names of Parts, 15-20; De-
livery of Fresh Meat, 21; Storage, 23; Disposition of Fragments, 23; Detec-
tion of Different Kinds of Meat, 24; Dried and Pickled Meat, 25; Composi-
tion of Pig's Flesh, 26-33; Preserved Meats, 34-3S; Argument of Small
Quantities, 38-40; Preparation for Canning, 41; Parboiling, 41; Sterilization,
42; Special Studies of Canning, 43-48; Relation of Canned to Fresh Beef, 48;
Canned Ham and Bacon, 48-50; Canned Tongue, 50; Fat as a Test for
Adulteration, 51; Potted Meats, 51-56; Canned Poultry, 56; Canned Horse-
meat, 57; Canned Cured Meats, 59-60; Magnitude of Industry, 61; Gen-
eral Observations, 62; Lard, 63-77; Soups, 77-78; Beef I^xtract, 79., 80;
Beef Juice, 82; Soluble Meats, 83; Preparations of Blood, 83; Beef-tea, 84;
Dried and Powdered Meats, 85; Active Principles in Meat Extracts, 86; Re-
lation between Juice and Nutritive Value, 87; Nitrogenous Bases, 88-90;
Gelatine, 90-92; Terrestrial Animal Oils, 93.

Part II. — Poultry and Eggs and Game Birds 95-116

Application of Name, 94; Domesticated Fowls, 95-116; Chicken, 05-104;
Duck, 104; Goose, 105; Pigeon, 107; Turkey, 107; Forced Fattening, 109;
Slaughtering and Preparing for Market, in; Poisonous Principles in Eggs,
116; Parasites in Eggs, 116.

Part III. — Fish Foods 11 7-166

Classification, 117; Edible Portion, 119; Principal Constituents, 119; Ale-
wives, 121; Anchovy, 122; Black Bass, 122; Bluefish, 122; Carp, 123;
Catfish, 123; Codfish, 124; Eels, 126; Flounder, 127; Graylings, 128; Had-
dock, 128; Hake, 128; Halibut, 128; Herring, 129; Horse Mackerel, 130;
Hog-fish, 130; Mackerel, 131; Menhaden, 132; Mullet, 132; Muskal-
lunge, 133; Pickerel or Pike, 133; Pompano, 134; Red Snapper, 134; Rock
Bass, 135: Salmon, 135-138; Sardines, 139-140; Scup, 141; Shad, 141-142;
Sheepshead, 143; Smelt, 144; Spanish Mackerel, 144; Sturgeon, 144;
Caviar, 145; Striped Bass, 146; Sole, 146; Tautog, 147; Tilefish, 147;
Trout, 147-148; Turbot, 149; Weakfish, 149; Whitefish, 150; Fluorids in
Fish, 151; Marketing, 151; Cold Storage, 151; Canning, Drying, and Adul-
teration, 152; Value as Food, 153; Shellfish, 153; Clams, 153; Lobster, 155;
Crabs, 155; Crawfish, 156; Shrimp, 157; Aquatic Reptiles, 157; Turtle,
157; Terrapin, 158; Mussel, 158; Oysters, 158-164; Animal Oils, 165;
Alarine Animal Oils, 165-166.

Part IV. — Milk and Milk Products and Oleomargarine 169-216

Milk, Limitation of Name, 169; Composition, 169; Method of Production,
169-174; Cream, 175; Curd Test for Purity, 176-178; Whey and Kou-
miss, 179; Buttermilk and Bonnyclabber, 181; Butter, 182-187; Oleomar-
garine, 187-189; Cheese, 190; Kinds, 191; Adulteration and Misbranding,
192; Coloring, 193; Cottage Cheese, 195; American Cheese Manufacture,



196-200; Grading Cheese, 200; Cream Cheese, 201; Foreign Types, 201-
202; Sage Cheese, 203; English Cheese, 203-205; French Cheese, 206-208;
Limburger, 208; Edam, 210; Bacterial Activity, 211; Chemical Changes in
Ripening, 212-214; Digestibility, 214; Effect of Cold Storage, 215; Prepara-
tions of Casein, 215.

Part V. — Cereal Foods 217-273

Barley, 217-218; Buckwheat, 219-221; Indian Corn (Maize), 222-232;
Oats, 232-236; Rice, 236; Rye, 237-239; Wheat, 259-242; Wheat Flour,
243-245; Gluten, 245-247; Bleaching, 247;. Adulterations, 248; Standard
Age and Substitutes, 248; Bread, 249; Yeast, 250; Ferments, 250; Chemical
Aerating Agents, 251 ; Baking Powders, 251-254; Composition of Bread, 254-
255; Comparative Nutritive Properties, 256-257; Biscuit, 258; Sugar Lost
in Fermentation, 259; Texture of Loaves, 259; Macaroni, 260-264; Cakes,
265-267; Breakfast Foods, 267-271.

Part VI. — Vegetables, Condiments, Fruits 273-388

Succulent Vegetables, 273; Artichoke, 274; Asparagus, 275; Bean, 275-
276; Beets, 277; Brussels Sprouts, 278; Cabbage, 278; Carrot, 279; Cauli-
flower, 279; Celery, 280; Chicory, 280; Cranberry, 281; Cress, 281; Cucum-
bers, 281; Egg-plant, Garlic, and Gourds, 282; Horseradish, Jerusalem Arti-
choke, and Kale, 282; Leek, Lettuce, Melons, and Cantaloupe, 284-286;
Okra and Onion, 286; Parsnip, 287; Peas, 287; Potatoes, 288-298; Potato
Starch, 296-299; Rhubarb, 299; Squash, 299; Sweet Potato, 299-304;
Turnip, 304; Yam, 304; Canned Vegetables, 305-315; Ketchup, 316;
Use of Refuse in Ketchup, 317; Starches as Foods, 317-321; Condiments,
321-326; Fruits, 326-329; Apples, 330-335; Cherries, 336; Grapes, 337-338;
Peaches, 339-341; Plums, 341; Quince, 342; Small Fruits, 342-343; Tropi-
cal and Subtropical P'ruits, 343-348; Citrus Fruits, 348-369; Composition
of Pineapple, 363-364; Ash of Tropical Fruits, 367; Sugar and Acid in
Fruit, 369; Canned Fruits, 370-372; Fruit Sirups, 373-374; Jams, Jellies,
and Preserves, 375-381; Manufacture of Jellies, 381-382; Compound
Jams and Jellies, 383; Preserves, 384; Fruit Butter, 385; Brandied Fruit,
386; Importance of Preserving Industry, 386-388.

Part VII. — Vegetable Oils and Fats, and Nuts 389-428

Definition, 389; Chemical Characteristics, 390; Drying and Non-drying Oils,
391; Physical Characters, 392-393; Edible A^egetable Oils, 394-413; Cot-
tonseed Oil, 397-401; Olive Oil, 402-405.; Peanut Oil, 406; Rape Oil, 407;
Sesame Oil, 408; Sunflower Oil, 409; Cacao-butter, 410; Coconut Oil, 411;
Palm Oil, 412; Nuts, 413-428; Acorn, 414; Beechnuts, Brazil-nut, 415;
Butternut, Chestnut, 416; Chinese Nut, 417; Coconut, Filbert, 418; Hazel-
nut, Hickory-nut, 419; Peanuts, 420-424; Pecan, 424-425; Pistachio, 426;
Walnut, 426-428.

Part VIII. — Fungi as Foods 429-454

Mushrooms, Production, 429-430; Varieties, 430; Food Value, 430; Distinc-
tion between Edible and Poisonous, 433-439; Types of Edible Mush-
rooms, 440; Horse Mushroom, 441; Shaggy Mushroom, 443; Fairy Ring
Mushroom, 443; Puff-ball, 444; Cepe, 445; Fly Amanita, 446; Poisoning
by Mushrooms, 448; Canned Mushrooms, 449; TrufiSes, 450-453; Food
Value of Fungi, 454.

Part IX. — Sugar, Sirup, Confectionery, and Honey 455-494

Sugar, Origin of Sugar, 455; Beet Sugar, 456-465; Cane Sugar, 466; Maple
Sugar, 467-468; Sugar Refining, 468-470; Sugar Production, 471; Adultera-
tion of Sugar, 471; Sugar as Food, 472; Sirup, Maple, 472-473; Cane, 475;
Sorghum, 476; Molasses, 477-478; Mixed Sirups, 479; Adulteration of
Sirups, 480; Confectionery, 482; Materials, 482; Manufacture, 483; Crystal-
lized Fruits and Flowers,' 483; Food Value of Candy, 483; Adulteration
of Confections, 483-486; Honey, Definition, Historical, 486; Preparation
of Honey, 487; Beehives, 488; 'Distribution of Honey Industry, 489; Comb



Honey, 489; Extracted Honey, 490; Properties of Honey, 491-492; Adulter-
ation of Honey, 493-494.

Miscellaneous 494-496

Mince Meat, 494; Pie Fillers, 496.

Part X. — Infants' and Invalids' Foods 497-500

Modified Milk, 497; Solid Infants' Food, 498; Invalids' Food, 498-499;
Composition Infants' and Invalids' Foods, 500.


Appendix A 501-521

Food Standards, 5 10-5 17; Law Relating to Filled Cheese, 517-521.

Appendix B S22-537

Rules and Regulations for the Enforcement of the Food and Drugs Act, 522-
533. The Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, 533-537.

Appendix C 538-561

Regulations Governing the Meat Inspection of the United States Department
of Agriculture, 538-556; Meat Inspection Law, 556-561.

Appendix D 562-615

Food Inspection Decisions under the Food and Drugs Act, 562-615. Food
Inspections Decisions under the Imported Foods Act F. I. D.'s 1-39, 562-584.
Food and Drugs Inspections and Decisions under the Food and Drugs Act
F. I. D.'s 40-64, 5S4-615.

Index, 616-625


Colored Plates. Page.

Beef Tenderloin, : Facing 15

Beef Sirloin,.

Beef Ribs — Regular Cut,

Beef Ribs — Sjjencer Cut,

Sirloin Butts,

Beef Rib,

Beef Loin,

Drjdng Figs: Smyrna, Smyrna Section, .\driatic, Adriatic Section,.

Olives: Mission, Sevillano,

Jordan Almond,

Peanut (Arichide),




1. Cuts of Beef, 16

2. Commercial Cuts of Beef, 17

3. Diagram of Cuts of Veal, 18

4. Diagram of Cuts of Lamb and Mutton, ig

5. Diagram of Cuts of Pork, ig

6. Commercial Cuts of Pork, 20

7. Graphic Chart Representing the Comparative Influences of Foods and Preserva-

tives, 39

8. Lard Crystals, 67

9. Beef Fat Crystals, 67

10. Kettle for Rendering Lard, 72

11. Apparatus for Test of Adulteration of Lard, 74

12. Chicken House, Rhode Island Experiment Station, 96

13. Cow Stables, Mapletown Farm, Sumner, Washington 170

14. Apparatus for Cooling Milk, 172

15. Imjjrovised Wisconsin Curd Test, 177

16. Milk; Broken Curd in Whey; Matted Curd, 177

1 7. Curd from a Good Milk, 178

18. Curd from a Tainted Milk, 178

19. Curd from Foul Milk, 178

20. Power Churn, Ready for Use, 1 83

2 1 . Power Churn, Open, 1 84

22. Barley Starch, 218

23. Buckwheat Starch, 222

24. Section of Raw Popcorn, 224

25. Section of Popcorn in First Stage of Popping, Showing Partially Expanded Starch

Grains and Ruptured Cell Walls, 225

26. Section of Fully Popped Popcorn 226

27. Indian Corn Starch, 229

28. Starch Grains of Indian Corn, under Polarized Light, 230

29. Oat Starch, 235

30. Rice Starch, 237

31. Rye Starch, 23S

32. Wheat Starch, 242

7,7,. Wheat Starch under Polarized Light, 243

34. Kcdzie's Farinometer Showing the Parts, 246

35. Kedzie's Farinometer in Use, 247


F'«- Page.

36. Comparative Appearance of Breads of Different Kinds, 259

37. A Field of Durum Wheat, 261

38. Drought-resistant Macaroni Wheats (Heads and Grains), 262

39. Potato Starch, 291

40. Potato Starch under Polarized Light, 291

41. Rasping Cylinder for Making Starch, 297

42. Shaking Table for Separating the Starch from the Pulped Potato, 297

43. The Potato Rasping Cylinder Arranged for Work, 298

44. View of Indian Corn Canning Factory, Showing Accumulation of Husks and Cobs, 308

45. Maranta (Arrowroot) Starch, 318

46. A Cassava Field in Georgia, 319

47. Cassava Starch, 321

48. Scuppernong Grape Vine, Roanoke Island, 338

49. Vineyard Near Fresno, California, 339

50. Avocado Tree, 346

51. Fig Tree Thirty Feet High Near Yuba, California, 350

52. Jamaica Mango Tree, 356

53. An Edge of a California Orange Grove, 358

4. The Original Seedless Orange Tree, 359

55. A Group of the Washington Navel Orange on the Tree, 360

56. Covered Pineapple,. 361

57. Removing the Oil Cakes from a Cottonseed Press, ' 400

58. Pecan Tree, 30 Years Old, Morgan City, La., 422

59. Five Forms of Choice, Thin-shelled Pecans. Also Wild Nut Showing Difference

in Size, 423

60. Full Grown Pecan Tree, 425

61. Common Mushroom, Agaricus campestris, 440

62. Edible Mushrooms (Agaricus arvensis Schaeft'.), 441

63. Shaggv Mushroom, Coprinus comatus, 442

64. Fairy Ring Formed by Marasmiiis oreades, an Edible Mushroom, 444

65. Puff-ball, Lycoperdon cyathi forme, Top View, 445

66. Amanita (Full Grown), , . . . 446

67. Fly Amanita Buttons (Amanita muscaria) , 447

68. Correct Position of a Mature Beet in the Soil, 458

69. Map Showing Temperature Zone in Wliich the Sugar Beet Attains Its Greatest

Perfection, 459

70. A Field of Beets Ready for Harvesting, 460

71. Beets Ready for Transportation to Factory, 461

72. Diffusion Battery, 462

73. Multiple-effect Evaporating Apparatus, 463

74. Vacuum Strike Pan, 464

75. Sugar Cane Field Ready for Harvest, 465

76. Cane Field Partly Harvested, 466

77. Tapping the Maple Trees, 468

78. Transporting the Sap to the Sugar House, 468

79. Boiling the Alaple Sap, 469

80. Small Primitive Mill for P'xtracting Juice from Sugar Cane for Sirup Making, 473

81. Mill and Evaporating Apparatus for Sirup Making in Georgia, 474

82. Relative Length of Canes Used for Sirup Making, 475

83. Swarm of Bees on Bough of Tree, 487

84. Artificial Bee Hives under Shade of Grape Vine, 488

85. A Frame Containing 24 Boxes of Honey, 489

86. Showing Box of Honey Partially Capped, 490


The growing importance to manufacturers, dealers, and consumers of a
knowledge of food products has led to the preparation of the following manual.

Unfortunately, many misleading statements respecting the composition of
foods, their nutritive value, and their relation to health and digestion have
been published and received with more or less credence by the public. Claims
of superior excellence, which are entirely baseless, are constantly made for
certain food products in order to call the attention of the public more directly
to their value and, unfortunately, at times to mislead the public with respect
to their true worth.

It is not uncommon to see foods advertised as of exceptional quality, either
as a whole or for certain purposes. Many of the preparations of this kind are
of undoubted excellence, but fail to reach the superior standard or perform
the particular function which is attributed to them. Particularly has it been
noticed that foods are offered for specific purposes or the nourishment of
certain parts of the body, especially of the brain and nerves. We are all
familiar with the advertisements of foods to feed the brain, or feed the nerves,
or feed the skin. It is hardly necessary to call attention to the absurdity of
claims of this kind. One part of the body cannot be nourished if the other
parts are neglected, and the true principle of nutrition requires a uniform and
equal development and nourishment of all the tissues. It is true that many
of the tissues have predominant constituents. For instance in the bones are
found large quantities of phosphate of calcium and in the muscles nitrogenous
tissues dominate. In the brain and nerves there are considerable quantities
of organic phosphorus. All of these bodies, however, are contained in normal
food properly balanced.

It would be contrary to the principles of physiology to attempt to feed the
bones by consuming a large excess of phosphorus in the food or the musrles
by confining the food to a purely nitrogenous component. Such attempts,
instead of nourishing the tissues indicated, will so unbalance the rations as
to disarrange the whole metabolic process, and thus injure and weaken the
very tissues they are designed to support.

It seems, therefore, advisable to prepare a manual which may be used in
conjunction with works on dietetics and on physiology and hygiene and yet
of a character not especially designed for the expert.


The American public is now so well educated that any average citizen is
fully capable of understanding scientific problems if presented to him in a
non-technical garb.

It is, therefore, not diiJ&cult to see that the great army of manufacturers and
dealers in food products, as well as the still greater army of consumers, are
able to receive and to utilize information concerning food products which is
of common interest to all. A dissemination of knowledge of this kind will
guide the manufacturer in his legitimate business and protect the public against
deceptions such as those mentioned above.

In the evolution of society, economy and efficiency indicate that specializa-
tions should be made as completely as possible. For this reason it is advisable
that foods of a certain character be manufactured and prepared for consump-
tion on a large scale, so that due economy and purity may be secured. On
the other hand there are many other kinds of foods which, by reason of their
properties, cannot be prepared on a large scale but must be produced near or
at the place of consumption. Milk is a type of this class of foods. It is alto-
gether probable, therefore, that the consumption of manufactured foods will
not decrease but increase even more rapidly than the number of our population.

In order that the people may be able to judge of the quality and character
of products of this kind, information readily available appears to be highly

In the other case of the utilization of raw materials, it is equally important
that the people of this country understand their nature and their functions
in the digestive process. The great nutritive value of our food is found in the
cereals, the meats, the fruits, and vegetables which we consume. A descrip-
tion of foods of this class, the places of their growth, the conditions under
which they are matured and marketed, the problems which relate to their
storage and transportation, their composition in respect of nutrition and
digestibility, the dangers which may accrue from their decay, and the adultera-
tions or sophistications to which they may be subjected are matters of the
greatest public importance.

A treatise of this kind in order to be of its full value for which it is intended
must be concise, expressed in simple language, in a form easily consulted, and
yet be of a character which will be reliable and which will give full informa-
tion on the subject.

It is a common habit of speech to divide foods into two great classes,
namely, foods and beverages. This is not a scientific division, but is one which
has been so well established by custom as to render it advisable to divide this
work into two portions, one devoted to food in the sense just used and the
other to beverages. The first volume of this work devoted to foods will treat
of those bodies commonly known under the term "foods," — namely, cereals,
meats of all kinds, milk, vegetables, nuts, and fruits. The second volume


will embrace the study of beverages, namely, natural and artificial mineral
waters, soda waters, soft drinks, coffee, tea, cocoa, wines, cider, beer and
other fermented beverages, distilled beverages of all kinds, and mixtures
or compounds thereof.

In connection with the description of the origin of foods and their general
characteristics will be given a statement of their chemical composition, especi-
ally in relation to nutritive properties. The principal adulterations or sophis-
tications to which the food products are obnoxious will be briefly described,
and where simple methods of detecting adulterations are known, of a character
to be applied without special chemical knowledge or skill, they will be given.

An attempt is thus made to lay before those interested, in as compact a
form as possible, the chief points connected with the production of food, its
manipulation, and its use for the nourishment of the body.

It is not the intention of this manual to enter at all into the subject of cooking
or the physiology of foods and nutrition. That is a distinct and separate part of
this problem and has already been treated in many manuals. In this connection,
however, attention may be called to the great importance of proper cooking
in the use of food. Raw materials of the best character, prepared and trans-
ported in the most approved manner, may be so injured in the kitchen in the
process of cooking as to be rendered both unpalatable and difficult of digestion.
On the contrary, food materials of an inferior quality, provided they contain
no injurious substances, may be so treated by the skilled cook as to be both
palatable and nutritious. The desirability of the dissemination of correct
principles of cooking is no less than that of giving information respecting the
materials on which the art of cookery is exercised. It may be added that the
art of cookery at the present time should not be confined to the mere technical
manipulation, the application of heat and of condimental substances, but
should also have some reference to the actual process of nutrition.

Online LibraryHarvey Washington WileyFoods and their adulteration; origin, manufacture, and composition of food products; description of common adulterations, food standards, and national food laws and regulations → online text (page 1 of 70)