Hastings Fraser.

Our faithful ally, the Nizam : being an historical sketch of events, showing the value of the Nizam's alliance to the British government in India, and his services during the mutinies online

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[ The right of Translation is reserved.']


THOUGH quite aware of the general indisposition in
England to engage in the study of Indian politics, I
have ventured to employ my leisure in preparing a
continuous narrative of our connection with his
highness the Sovereign of Hyderabad, from a convic-
tion that such a work will at least he found useful
for reference, and may possibly assist to excite some
additional interest in the subject. This hope is not
altogether an unreasonable one, for not only have
Hyderabad politics been more frequently discussed
of late years, both officially and by the press, than
formerly, but through the rapidly increasing import-
ance of the Valley of Berar as a cotton -producing
district, our relations with the Nizam are seen to be
fraught with consequences which the most practical of
Englishmen may be expected to regard with interest.
I have brought my history down to the period of the
late Resident Colonel Davidson's death.

a 2


An author who has no professional object in view
needs some encouragement to persevere with his self-
imposed task, however humble it may be. It will not,
therefore, be unbecoming in me to confess that a sense
of justice to the Nizam's Government seemed to
demand at the present time some such recognition
of the faithfulness of his highness to the British

In recalling to mind the chain of events since we
first sent a deputation to the Hyderabad Durbar, I
could not but recognize the important advantages we
have derived from time to time, through our relations
with his highness. When the war broke out with Tippoo
Sultan, brought about at the instigation of Meer Allum, 1
the Nizam not only assisted us by sending a consider-
able force to co-operate with the British army, but he
forwarded immense quantities of supplies for the use
of the British force. When we were engaged in
hostilities with the Mahrattas, he was again at our
side, and after the campaign against Tippoo he c.eded
to us nearly the whole of the country which had fallen
to his share for the payment of the subsidiary force
stationed near his capital. At other periods, too,
during our long residence in India, when at war with
the neighbouring states, the Nizam continued faithful

1 Meer Allum was the first of Salar Jung's family who v:as Dewan
or Minister.


to his engagements ; but, above all, at a period when
the least show of vacillation on his part would have
sufficed to set the whole of Southern India in a blaze,
he remained true to the alliance, not in a merely
negative or doubtful manner, but in a spirit which
deserves our warmest acknowledgment.

Within the limitations which I imposed on myself,
it was impossible to enter into full 'details of all the
occurrences alluded to. It will be seen, however, that
some endeavour has been made to proportion the
narrative to the relative importance of events. Thus,
the period ending with the treaty of September 1st,
1798, is treated with considerable minuteness, as
showing the successive steps by which we obtained a
permanent footing at the Nizam's capital, though
opposed by French intrigue in addition to native
mistrust, and even menaced by the large forces which
had been organized under French influence. Of
subsequent events up to 1838, a brief recapitulation
was deemed sufficient, but with my father's, General
Fraser's, administration, extending to the critical period
of Lord Dalhousie's advent in India, the necessity
for a more detailed treatment of the subject again
presented itself.

It will be seen that General Fraser exhibited
remarkable foresight in urging upon the Government
the removal of the foreign mercenaries, either
employed by the Nizam or the warlike Zemindars


of his dominions, and had his advice been fully acted
upon, the numerous predatory bands who helped to
swell the forces opposed to us in Central India in
1857, would have been dispersed years previously. It
is a proof of the soundness of his policy, that Salar
Jung, the present enlightened minister of the Nizam,
has silently carried it out, and the Rohillas are no
longer admitted into the Nizam's service, while the
Government Arabs, who stood by Salar Jung in 1857,
still form a portion of the Nizam's own forces.

Many instances of wise foresight and judicious
promptitude on the part of General Fraser, in his
character of Political Resident at Hyderabad, might be
cited ; as when, in 1847, by a timely demonstration of
military force, he protected the Nizam against his own
turbulent soldiery. His endeavours to secure the
appointment of a responsible minister were as untiring
as his advice for the amelioration of the abuses and
other troubles of the Nizam's Government. Though
his recommendations were not attended to by Lord
Dalhousie, they were in fact adopted by Lord Canning's
Government, who restored to the Nizam a considerable
portion of the country which had been made over to
our management by the treaty of 1853.

A fortunate star again ruled our relations with the
Nizam in the memorable year of the great mutiny,
which found Colonel Davidson, an officer of long
political experience of the Nizam's Court, in the


position of Resident at Hyderabad, and Salar Jung in
the office of Dewan or Minister. 1 At Hyderabad the
wise measures that were rendered possible by the
mutual good understanding between the Resident and
minister, added to the firmness of his highness the
Nizam, prevented a rising in the city of Hyderabad,
and threw the Nizam's contingent troops into the
balance of our fortunes in Central India. Without
relating in minute detail the incidents of the campaign,
I have given such particulars as may enable the reader
to appreciate the important services rendered by this
force, especially in the capture of arms and ammunition
at Rawul, with which the rebels before Neemuch would
otherwise have been reinforced. Details of the honours
and rewards afterwards conferred on the Nizam and the
officers of his court are added, as being justly entitled
to prominence in a narrative which has for one of its
objects the demonstration of the steadfastness with
which his highness has always adhered to his engage-

The remission of the Nizam's debt, chiefly made up
of interest on sums advanced from the British Treasury
for the payment of the contingent, which had been

1 Colonel Davidson was one of the four military officers who mainly
stayed the rebellion in the South of India. They were, Davidson at
Hyderabad, Durand at Indore, Elliot at Nagpore, and Wallace at
Baroda. Prevention was better than cure.


retained on a war footing during a long course of years,
requires little comment. Every Englishman must
feel that Lord Canning took a most comprehensive
view of the question, and in insisting on the entire
remission it was declared that the Nizam had a fair
claim on us for nearly the same amount, we having
exceeded the sum which, according to the original
understanding, was to be applied to the civil manage-
ment of the Assigned Districts. This should have been
restricted to the eighth, or two annas in every rupee
collected, while the sum actually expended amounted
to a quarter or four annas. The Nizam's debt there-
fore was accepted by Lord Canning as a set-off against
the claim Colonel Davidson advocated on the Nizam's

Our administration of the districts assigned by the
late Nizam for the regular payment of the Hyderabad
Force is another subject on which I have deemed it
necessary to enter into some detail. While the reader
is gratified by observing the general improvement
which has taken place in those portions of the Nizam's
dominions under the management of British officers,
he will also not fail to admire Sir Charles Wood's
honesty of purpose in restoring to the Nizam a portion
of his country, when he was informed by Lord
Canning's Government that the Northern part of
Berar was sufficient for the objects stipulated by


Finally, the details which I have been able to give
concerning the cultivation of cotton in the Valley of
Berar speak for themselves, and hardly need to be
commended to the attention of persons who are
interested in that important staple. I may here
remark, however, that those parts of the Nizam's
dominions only await the advent of enterprising
capitalists, to convert what is still in some places a
mere jungle and the abode of wild beasts, to fields
yielding every description of grain and cotton, and
otherwise developing the latent resources of one of the
most fertile districts of the Peninsula.

Settlers in Berar, however, should distinctly under-
stand that we have not the power to grant lands in
perpetuity, but only on tenure for a limited number of
years. The Nizam has not relinguished his sovereign
rights. He has only assigned Berar to us for a
special purpose, namely, as a national guarantee to
ensure the regular payment of the contingent, and
in the event of that purpose no longer existing, his
highness would at once be entitled to claim his
country, or that material guarantee might at any time
be furnished by a deposit f of cash in the British

The opening up of the country by a railroad now
in course of construction, and running through the
entire length of Berar, will no doubt tend to increase
the revenues considerably, and enable the British


Government yet to pay into the Nizam's coffers large
sums now collected by our officials in excess of the
amount required by us to meet treaty engagements,
which surplus the treaty expressly provides shall be
paid to his highness.

I cannot let this opportunity pass without bearing
testimony to the just and equitable views entertained
by the late Marquis of Dalhousie as regards our
obligations to the Nizam, and at some future date I
shall probably place on public record the views of
his lordship. This I am not at liberty to do at




'<L C'(AJ~


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JO y /r-*^~ ^^^^ - ' ^

/^T^ _ a^^^r/'

< j2x^ t-XU-u^-^ . /


1. Kumroodeen Khan Asuph Jah Nizam-ool-Moolk ascended

the Musnud, 1713, died in the vicinity of Berhampore 1748

2. Nizam Ally Khan, died at Hyderabad 1803

3. Secunder Jah ditto 1829

4. Nasir-oo-Dowfah ditto May, 1857

5. Afzul-oo-Dowlah, ascended the Musnud in May, 1857


From To
Mr. Grant resigned in 1784.

Mr. R. Johnson Feh. 1784 1785

Captain Kennaway (subsequently Sir J.

Kennaway) 1788 1794

Captain W. Kirkpatrick 1794 1798

Captain J. A. Kirkpatrick 1798 1805

Mr. H. Eussell (acting) Oct. 1805 Dec. 1805

Captain Sydenham 1805 1810

Lieut. C. Russell (acting) June 1810 March 1811

Mr. H. Russell 1811 Dec. 1820

Mr. Metcalfe * Dec. 1820 Aug. 1825

Mr. Martin Sep. 1825 1830

Mr. Ravenshaw (officiating) Aug. 1830 1830

Col. Stewart Nov. 1830 Jany. 1838

Major Cameron (officiating) Jan. 1838 May 1838

Col. Fraser Sep. 1838 Jany. 1853

Col. Low Mar. 1853 Sep. 1853

Mr. Bushby Dec. 1853 Dec. 1856

Col. Davidson, C.B. 1857


1. Azim-ool-oomrah.

2. Meer Allum.

3. Mooneer-ool-Moolk.

4. Chundoo Lall.

5. Seraj-ool-Moolk.

6. Shumsh-ool-oomrah.

7. Salar Jung.



Warren Hastings 13th April, 1772

Sir J. Macpherson 1st Febry., 1785

Lord Cornwallis 12th Sept., 1786

Sir John Shore 28th Octhr., 1793

Sir Alured Clarke 6th April, 1798

Lord Mornington 17th May, 1798

Marquis Cornwallis 30th July, 1805

Sir G. H. Barlow 10th Octbr., 1805

LordMinto 81st July, 1807

EarlofMoira 4th Octbr., 1813

Hon. J. Adam 13th Jany., 1823

Lord Amherst 1st August, 1823

Hon. W. B. Bayley 13th March, 1828

Lord W. Bentinck 4th July, 1828

Sir C. Metcalfe 20th March, 1835

Lord Auckland 4th March, 1836

Lord Ellenborough 28th Feby., 1842

W. Wilberforce Bird 15th June, 1844

LordHardinge 28rd July, 1844

Lord Dalhousie 12th Janry., 1848

Lord Canning July, - 1855

Proclaimed Viceroy 1st Novmb., 1858

Lord Elgin August, - 1861



Geography of the Deccan The Great Rivers of India The Nizam's
Capital Hindoo Principalities Invasion of the Deccan by the Mo-
hammedan Kings of Delhi Complete Success of Mohammed Toghlak
Rebellion at Dowlatabad Foundation of the Bahmani Dynasty
Change of the Seat of Government The last King of the Deccan
The Independent Kingdoms of Berar, Beejapore, AhniednugguT, Ahme-
dabad, and Golconda Second Conquest of the Deccan by the Mogul
Empire Rise of the Mahratta Power under Sevaji Career and Death
of the Popular Chief Page I



Disorganized Condition of the Mahratta Power under the Son and
Successor of Sevaji Death of Aurungzebe, and Contention for the
Rule of Delhi Ghazeer-oo-deen, the Father of the First Nizam
Prudence of Asof Jah in the renewed Contest for Empire on the
Death of Bahadoor Shah Appointed Viceroy of the Deccan by Farok-
shir Conciliation of the Mahrattas Is recalled to Delhi and appointed
Vizier Resigns Office and retires to his Government at Hyderabad
The Independence of the Mahratta Power secured by Balaji, the
Founder of the Peishwa Dynasty Asof Jah, virtually Independent,
founds the Asuphea Dynasty Hostilities with the Mahrattas Inva-
sion of India by Nadir Shah Activity of Asof Jah in his own Govern-
ment Encroachments of the French on British Rights at Madras
Appeal to Asof Jah He orders an Expedition against the French
His advanced Age and Death Page 14




Sons and Grandsons of the Nizam Nasir Jung usurps the Soubad-
aree of the Deccan He is opposed by Mozuffur Jung, who forms an
Alliance with the French Death of both the Competitors Salabat
Jung, with the aid of the French Forces, assumes the Viceroyalty
Influence of M. Bussy Ghazeer-oo-deen forms an Alliance with the
Mahrattas, and takes the Field against Salabat Sudden Death of
Ghazeer-oo-deen Struggle between the French and English at
Pondicherry Masulipatam and the surrounding Territory ceded to
the English by Salabat Usurpation of Nizam Ally Ghazeer-oo-deen
the younger Page 26



The French and English in the Carnatic The Northern Circars
seized by Clive The Nizam invades the Carnatic Peace negotiated
by the Government of Madras Treaty of 1766 Bazalut Jung and the
Circar of Guntoor Alliance of the Nizam Avith Hyder Naik Successes
of the British Troops Renewal of the Nizam's Alliance Treaty of
Madras, 1768 Arrangement of the Madras Government with Bazalut
Jung Death of Bazalut Jung and Retention of the Guntoor Circar by
the Nizam Mr. Johnson succeeds Mr. Grant as Resident Instructions
to press the Durbar for a Restitution of the Circar Proposals made
by the Nizam for the Surrender of the Circars and of the Carnatic
Censure and Recall of Mr. Johnson Captain Kennaway deputed to
press the British Claims Military Preparations of the Governor
General Final Surrender of the Circars to the Company Terms of
the Settlement Page 31



Tippoo Sultan invades Travancore Treaty Offensive and Defensive
with the Nizam Inefficiency of the Company's Troops Procrastination
of the Nizam Mismanagement at Paungul Advantage obtained by
Tippoo Despatch of the Nizam's Cavalry under Rajah Tegewunt
Encampment of the Rajah and Delay of Operations Object of the
Nizam in preferring the Company's Alliance Delicacy of Captain


Kennaway's Mission His Anxiety for the Advance of the British
Troops Capture of Bangalore by Lord Comwallis Junction of the
Nizam's Troops, and Advance upon Seringapatam Battle and Defeat
of Tippoo Sultan Behaviour of the Nizam's Cavalry Lord Cornwallis
retires towards Bangalore, and is joined by the Mahratta Troops
Overtures of Peace from Tippoo Meer Allum and Hurry Punt Tantia
deputed to confer with Lord Comwallis Continuation of the War, and
Arrival of Reinforcements from the Nizam under Secunder Jah
Investment of Seringapatam Tippoo Sultan sues for Peace Terms
of Pacification Guarantee Treaty proposed by the Confederates
Affairs of Kumool intervene Page 39



Peshcush payable by the Nawab of Kumool to Tippoo Sultan The
Nawab of Kumool appeals to his Highness the Nizam Correspondence
with Sir J. Kennaway and Lord Comwallis Claims of the Nizam as
Lord-paramount of Kurnool Death of the Nawab Interference of the
Nizam in the Succession Adherence of Lord Cornwallis and the Resi-
dent to the Policy of Non-intervention Failing Health of the Nizam
Apprehensions respecting the Succession Page 52


Scindiah at the Court of Poonah His Intimacy with the Chief
Minister of the Nizam, Azim-ool-oomrah Intrigues against Balaji
Pundit Statement of Azirn-ool-oomrah Grievances of long standing
Choute due for Bidur, &c. The Nizam proposes going to Poonah
His Desire to be accompanied by the Detachment of the Company's
Troops The Request refused Balaji's Suspicion of Azim-ool-oomrah's
Enmity Desire of Lord Comwallis to prevent any Rupture between the
Courts of Poonah and Hyderabad Demand on the Nizam supported
by Scindiah Azim-ool-oomrah proposes to move the Nizam's Troops
towards Berar Conversation of Sir J. Kennaway with Meer Allum
Scindiah supposed to be the Bearer of Demands from the King of Delhi
The Nizam contemplates Resistance Our Government decline to
interfere Retirement of Sir J. Kennaway His Report on the State of
our Relations with the Nizam Page 60




Captain Kirkpatrick succeeds Sir J. Kennaway at Hyderabad
Question renewed concerning the Employment of the Company's Troops
The Nizam threatens to dismiss them Project to use them in
Kurnool opposed by the Resident The Governor General's View of
the Use to be made of the Detachment Question renewed as to the
probable Action of our Government in the event of a War with the
Mahrattas An explicit Answer demanded to three Propositions
The real Difficulty one of personal Animosity between the Ministers
Artfulness of Azim-ool-ooinrah Reply of the Resident His Report
to Sir John Shore Detailed Reply of Sir John Shore Interview of
the Resident with Meer AUum The Correspondence between the
Courts of Poonah and Hyderabad The contemplated Mission of Meer
Allum to Poonah Invitation from Balaji Pundit Bombast of the
Nizam's Minister Character of the two Governments contrasted Little
Hope of a Reconciliation Page 71



Importance of deciding upon the Journey of Meer Allum to Pooiiah
Interview between Captain Kirkpatrick and the Minister Azim-ool-
oomrah Despatch of Sir J. Shore communicated to the latter His
Statements and Complaints against the Mahrattas in Reply His Pro-
posal for the conditional Support of the Company in the Event of War
Rejoinder of Captain Kirkpatrick Letters from Poonah read by the
Minister Opinion of the Resident Faithfulness of the Nizam to his
Minister The Departure of Meer Allum becomes more probable
Observations on some of the Points in dispute The proposed Cession
of Raichore The Minister's Criticism of the Letters from Poonah
Report of the Resident, and Reply of Sir J. Shore Departure of Meer
Allum for Poonah, with full Powers to negotiate Page 85



Retrospective Notice of the Restoration of Tippoo's Sons Also of
the Settlement of the Boundaries of the Ceded Territories And of
Border Disputes Ulterior Motives of the British Government sus-


pccted Death of Scindiah Arrival of Meer Allum at Poonah
Declaration of his plenary Powers to negotiate required by the Peishwa
Affairs of Jusviat and Kulliat distinguished Reservation of the
Hyderabad Durbar Personal Feeling of the two Ministers Advice of
Sir J. Shore Instructions to the Resident Domestic Embarrassments
of the Peishwa Scindiah and Northern Hindustan Commander of
the Forces of Scindiah and Meer Allum M. De Boigne Policy of
Appa Sahib and Dowlat Rao The Nizam misses his Opportunity
Concentration of Troops at Bidur The Nawab of Kurnool sends his
Quota Advance of the Mahratta Army Counter Demonstration by a
Detachment of the Nizam's Army Application for the Company's
Troops refused Application for the Loan of French Prisoners and for
Leave to recruit refused Composition of the Nizam's Advance The
two Armies draw near each other Their respective Strength Page 98


The real Causes of the Hostilities now impending not known to
the English Government Peculiar Character of Indian Diplomacy
generally Character of the Mahrattas Strict Neutrality preserved by
the English Government Minute of Sir John Shore on our Relations
with the Nizam Retrospective Summary of Events preceding the
Treaty Circumstances subsequent to it The Nizam's Claim to our
Assistance on the Ground of Treaty Obligations, considered The
Nizam's Arguments stated, and the Reply to them The Question
argued on the Ground of Expediency Sir. J. Shore's Reflections on the
Situation generally The Alliances that present themselves viewed with
regard to British Interests Meer Allum fears for his Safety at Poonah
Movements of the Nizam's Army Troops under the Command of M.
Raymond The Nizam and his Minister appeal to the Resident for
Advice The Nizam reviews his Troops in the Presence of the
Mahratta Vakeel Singular Proposal Further Attempts to compromise
Sudden Advance of the Nizam's Army The Battle, of Kurdlah
Retreat of the Nizam and his Army Compelled to treat for Peace, and
accept the Conditions imposed by the Mahrattas Azim-ool-oomrah sent
to Poonah as a Hostage Return of the Nizam to Hyderabad Page 116



Efficiency of the Troops under French Officers Prospect of the
French becoming Arbitrators of the Deccan The Nizam induced to
employ them by our Refusal to co-operate against the Mahrattas



Plausibility of the French Commander-in-chief, M. Raymond His
Projects are mistrusted by the Resident Designs upon Kurpah, and
probable Co-operation of the French on the Coromandel Coast The
Resident objects to the Employment of his Corps in Kurpah Modified
Plans of the Nizam, and continued Remonstrances of the Resident
Indications of M. Raymond's ulterior Designs French Officers from
Pondicherry arrive at Hyderabad Submission of the Talookdar of
Kurpah Renewed Remonstrances of the Resident Proposal to em-
ploy English Troops in Kurpah Compromise of the Points in dispute
The Resident appoints a Newswriter in the French Camp Page 141


Special Reasons of the Resident for appointing an Agent in M.
Baptiste's Camp Suspicion of an Intrigue with Tippoo Sultan Re-
markable Expression of Meer Allum Probable Implication of the
French Address of the Resident at the Hyderabad Durbar Remarks
of the Nizam and the Oomrahs on the French Reformers Struggles at
the Nizam's Court for Political Power The Mahratta Party and the
Roy Royan Sincerity and Tact of Meer Allum Prospect of other
Troubles from the Payments stipulated to be made to the Peishwa
Application to the Mahratta Court for Jewels in the possession of Azim-
ool-oomrah The Peishwa' s Officers retain possession of the Districts
captured by them Flight of the Nizam's Sou from Hyderabad Sup-
posed Complicity of the Mahratta Vakeel The Nizam requires the
Services of the British Contingent in Kurpah Question of the Occupa-
tion of this District by M. Raymond's Corps revived Remonstrance
of Sir J. Shore News received of the Revolution in Holland The
Nizam begins to mistrust the French Page 154



The Disgrace in which Prince Ally Jah lived at Hyderabad His
Flight probably encouraged by Gobind Kishen for Political Reasons
He proceeds to Bidur, and is pursued by M. Raymond Defeat of the
Latter in an Attack on the Fortress M. Baptiste ordered to reinforce

Online LibraryHastings FraserOur faithful ally, the Nizam : being an historical sketch of events, showing the value of the Nizam's alliance to the British government in India, and his services during the mutinies → online text (page 1 of 33)