Heinrich August Ottokar Reichard.

The American phrenological journal and life illustrated, Volumes 43-44 online

. (page 41 of 150)
Online LibraryHeinrich August Ottokar ReichardThe American phrenological journal and life illustrated, Volumes 43-44 → online text (page 41 of 150)
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it reminds one of a child in giant's armor, and a
closer inspection does not entirely dissipate first
impressions.. The hotels, are outwardly only
fourth or fifth rate, the churches are of moderate
dimensions and architectural pretensions ; and the
Presidential Mansion and the houses of the vari-
ous heads of departments are indifferent structures
for the chief officials of a great, wealthy, and
liberal nation ; private taste and ambition have
reared in other cities habitations that far outshine
the modest edifices of Washington. The Capitol,
the focus of forensic wisdom — the all of Washing-
ton, with its expansive front, its lofty columns, and
towering dome — is pronounced by connoisseurs
one of the finest legislative buildings in the
world. The Patent Office, whose contents are
expressive of the wonderful inventive genius of
our people, and^he Smithsonian Institute, are also
objects of special admiration. We regret that as
much can not be said of the unfinished, uncouth
pile known as the Washington Monument.

Before finally quitting the capital, we should
visit Manassas or Bull Run, the scene of the first
battle of the war, and also of another important
engagement ; Antietam, a spot that will ever be
memorable in the nation's history; Harper's
Ferry, formerly our principal armory in the
South, the seat of the famous John Brown ridd,
and a place that more than almost any other fre-
quently changed occupants during the rebellion.
It is delightfully situated in the valley of the Poto-
mac, was once the home of prosperity and thrift,
but is now torn and shattered by the iron hail of
war. From Washington we can also drive to
Monticello, the former home of Jefferson. A few
miles below, overlooking the Potomac, Is Mount
Vernon, the Mecca of American pilgrims. Here
rest the ashc-^ of the chief of the founders of our
republic. All nations, all creeds bow reverently
over his simple tomb, remembering that
" Only tho actions of the Jnst
Smell sweet and blossom In the dast.**

If we wish to become better acquainted with
the South, we next proceed to Richmond, calling
en route at Fredericksburg, a place not unknown
to fame in the contest between Great Britain and
the revolting colonies, and the scene of several
important engagements during the late struggle.
The entire journey thence is historic ground, the

possession of every rood having frequently been
contested by hostile armies. A little to the east
of Richmond is the locality of the seven days'
fight, a week of disaster to the national forces,
which filled the land with mourning and closed
the Peninsular campaign with disgrace. The
whole region around Richmond is historic ground.
The city Itself was the center of the '* ephemeral
** Confederacy," the chief seat of treason ; the
great rebel camp and forum, the possession of
which was vitality, and the loss of which was
annihilation. From its battlements issued great
armies, and within a day's march of its environs
its despairing hosts bowed to inexorable fate.

From Richmond one should visit Jamestown,
tho cradle of the infant colony of Virginia, and
Fortress Monroe, one of the most formidable and
best preserved bastions on the American oon-

The old city of Petersburg should also receive
more than a passing notice ; and the Natural
Bridge and Blue Sulphur Springs ought to be
visited before we leave this vicinity. Should it
then be considered desirable to.see more of the
South we can proceed to Knoxville via Burke-
ville, Lynchburg, Bristol, etc., etc. Thence we
journey to Nashville, the capital of Tennessee, a
city which acted an important rfile in Uie recent
bloody drama.

From Louisville the tonrist may proceed South-
ward and visit cities which possess many features
of interest, and which are now fast recovering
fh>m the prostration induced by the tide of war.
Atlanta, the great storehouse of the Confederacy,
lies on the route. Macon and Milledgeville may
be glanced at with profit, or the traveler may

Eroceed direct by rail to Charleston, that " hot-
ed of secession." Savannah, the fairest city of
the South, may then be visited. From SavannaJi
we can proceed by steamer round into the Gulf
of Mexico to New Orleans, or taking the Georgia
Central Railroad may proceed to Macon, thence
to Montgomery, the capital of Alabama, thence
down the Alabama River to Mobile, and then to
New Orleans. Leaving the Creole City he will
now ascend the great *' father of waters," with its
islands, bayous, inlets, and marshes, with its ever-
varying scenery and notorious circuits. Baton
Roage, Natchez, Vicksburg, and Memphis, many
miles above, will claim his attention, each having
their special natural, artistic, and historical
attractions. From Memphis he can return to
Nashville, stopping awhile at Kingston Spa to
refresh himself with the sparkling waters.

From here we go Northward to Louisville,
making a detour on the left if we choose, to visit
Forts Donelson and Henrv; and on the right,
to pay our respects to the Mammoth Cave, one of
the great natural wonders of the Western World.
Kentucky, like all the other border slave States,
was a terrible sufferer during the rebellion ; the
position of '* neutralitv" which she assumed at
the commencement of hostilities, inspired both
armies to fight with great pertinacity for her
possession. Her sons were pretty equally divided
in the contest, and in the end shared proportion-
ately in^he victory of the Union troops and the
overthrow of faction.

A few days may be pleasantly spent in Louis-
ville. It is an enterprising and prosperous city.
Ascending the Ohio by steamboat, we pause at
Cincinnati, Ohio, one of the great commercial
centers of the West This dty is grotesquely
called " Porkopolis," in consequence of the great
quantity of packing done here for (he Southern,
Eastern, and foreign markets. No other place in
the Union cures so many hams or ships -so many
barrels of pork per annum. Its prosperity is not,
however, altogether of a swinish nature. Its
citizens are largely interested in vine-growing,
and produce annually many thousand gallons of
wines Cincinnati boasts a number of first-class

Thence we may proceed to Columbus, the
capital of Ohio. It contains one of the finest
State Houses in the Union. Thence we take the
train to Cleveland, a city of about fifty thousand

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iohabltantB, delightftillT dtnated on the soutbern
shore of Lake Erie. Toe streets are overarched
by rows of ornamental trees, aod the residences
or its opulent citizens are surroonded by choice
shmbs and flowers — the liberal supply of leaf
and blossom being agreeably suggestive of rus

For variety's sake, if not from positive choice,
we take the steamer in lieu of the rails for Toledo,
ealliog at Sandusky on the way. At Toledo we
take the Air Line Michigan Southern Railway
for Chicago— the metropolis of half a dozen of
States. Its present condition may well excite our
wonder when we remember that only about a
quarter of a century ago this bustling, thriving
town, with its two hundred thousand inhabitants,
was only a hamlet of a score or so of rough
cabins on the edge of a pestilential swamp. So
rapidly has it grown, and to such an extent has
its prosperity augmented, that it now looks
patronizingly, almost pityingly, upon the elow-
coach progress of New York, Boston, Philadelphia,
and other Eastern cities. It is certain that no
place In the Union does more in proportion to its
numbers aod wealth, to found schools, colleges,
and churches, or to encourage the fine arts—
which can only flonrish under the tutelage of
refioemeot aod liberality.

On quitting Chicago, we must make the ac-
quaintance of some of those vast savannahs of the
West With this intent we take the Illinois Cen-
tral Railway and spend ao entire day in traveling
through a country whose surface is almost as
smooth as

" A rammer lake, whose latest swell has died
Along the shore aod left a wavelees tide.''
The broad fields of grain glisten like the surface
of peaceful waters, and the white farm-houses
and villages remind us of solitary barks at an-
chor, or canvas-carrying fleets waiting for a pros-
perous breeze.

On reaching Mattoon we may take the Terre
Haute, Alton and St. liouis Railway for St liouis,
pausiog for a few days* rest and observation at
that great centrepot of the upper Valley of the
Mississippi. The city is rapidly recoveriog from
the heavy blows ioflicted upon its prosperity by
the late strife ; a few mooths more will see it as
thriving as before, and with brighter hopes, now
that the commonwealth upon whose industry its
greatness so much depends, has shaken off the
incubus of serfdom.

Before leaving Missouri, we must not neglect to
Tisit Iron Mountain, one of the great mineral curi-
osities of the age. From St Louis we ascend the
river bv steamboat, and« if we have time, go to
St Paul, the cat)ital of Minnesota, a city that has
a large trade with the Northwest, the enterprise
of its citizens ezteodiog its commerce to the val-
leys of the Saskatchawao and Red rivers. If we
are limited as to time, we leave the steamer at
Rook Island and cross the prairie country to Mil-
waukee, the chief city of Wisconsin, a prominent
rival of Chicago.

At this point we oao^either take a steamer for
a trip through the lakes -a delightful summer
excursion, — or cross Lake Michigan to Grand
Haven, and journey thence to Detroit by railway.
The latter city is pleasantly situated on St. Clair
River, about midway between Lake St Cbir and
Lake Erie. It boasts many handsome public and
private edifices. It is the home of General Cass,
one of the few of the remaining old- school Amer-
ican politicians.

Crossing the river to Windsor— a small town
on the Canadian shore,— then taking the Great
Western Railway for Niagara Falls, we pass
through London, Paris, and Hamilton. The latr
ter is a place of considerable commercial activ-
ity, contains a number of substantial public
buildings, and is delightfully situated at the head
of Burlington Bay, Lake Ontario.

Ooce at Niagara, we shall feel ioclined to re-
main long enough to make the acquaintance of
everything of importance belongiog to the giant
cataract The first impression of the Falls is one
of disappointment, but each succeeding view in-

creases our wonder and admiration. While here,
we should visit Lundy's Lane, Chippewa, and
Queenston Heights— scenes of important contests
duriog the war of 1812-15. At the latter place
Geoeral Brock was killed, and a handsome obe-
lisk marks the spot where he fell gallantly fight-
ing for his king and country.

From the Falls we proceed to Bnflklo, a weal-
thy city at the foot of Lake Erie, containing
about one hundred thousand Inhabitants. Its
principal streets and avenues are broad, carefully
laid out, and shaded by ornamental trees. At
this point we again take the Eastward-bound
train, pass through several pleasant and prosper-
onr towns, and arrive at Rochester after a two
hours' ride. This Is a city of considerable pre-
tensions, is the center of one of the finest grain-
growing sections in America, and turns out more
flour than any city in the world, except Oswego.
Rochester is a much finer place than the old ca-
thedral city of the same name in England. Its
streets end avenues are lined with handsome
stores and residences, many of the latter being
surrounded by extensive fiower gardens and
groves of well-selected trees. From the Gene-
see Falls, at this point the notorious Sam Patch
made his last and fatal leap. Rochester also
contains one of the most pictnresqne cemeteries
on the continent — Mt Hope.

Continuing Eastward, our journey lies through
many large and substantial towns. By taking
what is known as the " old road" at Rochester,
we should have a longer but pleasanter journey,
passing through Canandaigua. Geneva, and Au-
burn/ The latter place, which is a wealthy and
handsome city, contains the oldest of our State
penitentiaries ; but it offers more agreeable asso-
ciations in being the home of our accomplished
Secretary of State, Hon. William H. Seward.

The next place of importance is Syracuse, a
city famous for its extensive salt springs. An-
other short journey bi^gs us to Utica, where we^
should rest long enough to visit one of the most
extensive lunatic asylums in the Union.

Returning to Rome, we proceed thence to
Sackett's Harbor, where we cross the lake to
Kingston, the former capital of Upper Canada.
Here we take the steamer for one of the most de-
lightful experiences that any country can offer —
a journey among the " Thousand Islands.'' The
scenery is endless in variety, changing instanta-
neously from the most rugged and sublime to the
most deliciously serene and soothing. Some of
the islands embrace many acres of well-cultiva-
ted ground ; some are still covered with forest-
trees of primeval growth ; some present a bold
and threatening front of granite, as if they had
thrown themselves directly across our path and
were confident of our swift destruction; while oth-
ers, spread with rich carpets of grwB and fiowers.
slope gently to the cool, clear waters of the river,

Pau«:ing at Prescott, we take the train for Otta-
wa City^formerly Bytown — the new capital of
the two Canadas. This place was selected by
Queen Victoria, after a leog aod fhiiUees effort
of the Canadian Ministers and Parliament to de-
cide upon a permanent seat of gOTemment The
perambulating system having been in operation
since the union of the two Provinces, neither sec-
tion would consent to forego the doubtfiil privi-
lege of guarding the colonial trappings of state.
Her Majesty's selection displayed considerable
wisdom, as Ottawa City stands on the line which
marks the boundary of the Eastern and Western
Provinces, and is sufBciently distant from the
American frontier to be tolerably safe from an
invading army in the event of a rupture between
the United States and Great Britain.

We return to Prescott, and a^ain take the
steamer in order that we may enjoy the excite-
ment of " shooting the rapids.'' Our knowledge
of the river St Lawrence would be incomplete
if we failed to become acquainted with the rough
as well as the smooth In the passage through
the rapids there is an appearance of great danger,
but accidents of any importance seldom occur.
We should remain two or three days at Montreal.

It is one of the most substantially built cities in
North America. Its blocks are of granite, aod
its quays, of the same material, are uoequaled for
exteot and solidity by the similar structures of
any other city, except the docks in Liverpool.
They were built by the Goveroment at the ex-
pense of several millions. The cathedral of
Notre Dame, saving a similar edifice in the city
of Mexico, is the most extensive ecclesiastical
buildiog 00 the Westoro Cootioeot Mootreal
also cootaios an extensive market a merchant's
exchange, and other fine public buildings, also
many handsome private residences.

From Montreal to Quebec is only a few hours'
journey. The latter city is a place of great in-
terest, not only on acconnt of the features which
it now presents, but also for its associations with
the early history of the centinent. 1 1 is the ol dest

Elace of any account in Canada, and few localities
1 America can look back to so early introduction
to European civilization. Nature and art have
made such ample provisions for its security, that
a small armv behind its battlements could hold
the city against the most formidable fleet in the
world. A few miles below Quebec are the
famous falls of Montmorencl — a favorite resort for
the Canadians at all seasons, and for cosmo-
politans in summer. An excursion up the Sa-
guenay River would also handsomely compensate
for the time and money required for the purpose.
J^ is the main tributary of the lower St Lawrence,
and a stream of g^eat breadth and depth. Its
banks in some places rise perpendicularly to a
height of more than five hundred feet Return-
ing to Montreal, we next visit the cool atmos-
phere of the White Mountains, in Northern Ver-
mont, and then proceed through a rugged and
picturesque country to Portland, the chief city of
Maine, the winter harbor for the Canadian line of
transatlantic steamers. Portland stands on a
high bluff overlooking the commodious and well-
sheltered Casco bay. The city contains many fine
residences, and counts among its cherished citizens
General Neal Dow, the framer of the fumous
*< Maine liquor law."

From this point we can go on to Boston by
steamer or railway. If we elect the former route,
we go direct; if the latter, we pass through
Portsmouth, Newburyport, and Salem, the latter
being the place where so many witches were burned
by our uncompromising and somewhat bigoted
ancestors. Several days may be profitably and
agreeably spent in Boston and vicinity. It con
tains much that is historically interesting and
valuable — among which are Faneuil Hall, the
State House, the Common, and Bunker Hill. In
the vicinity are Lexington, Chariestown, Concord-
names written high on the scroll of fame. Boston
and the neighboring towns contain many of the
choicest names known to American letters — Dana,
Emerson, Whittier, Lowell. Longfellow, Prescott,
all resided in or near '* Modern Athens." Haw-
thorne, Ticknor, Thoreau, Channing, Parker,
thinned that charmed circle when they ** went
from earth among the stars to be ;" aod Webstor
aod Everett stepped from their orumbliog tene-
ments of clay into *'the house not made with
hands," offering their final benediolioos to the same
sceoes and remembrances.

From Boston we journey to Springfield, where
we should tarry long enough to visit the armorv,
proceeding thence to Hartford, one of the capiteJs
of Connecticut This city, in proportion to Its
population, is one of the wealthiest in the UnioD.
Among the points worthy of attention is the im-
mense establishment erected by Colonel Samuel
Colt for the construction of his famous revolvers.
Here a short drive to Talcott Mountain affords
one of the most beautiful views in the State.
From Hartford we go to New Haven, a city whose
ample streets are shaded by centurv-old elm
trees, from the great multitude of which It is
known as the •* Elm City." Tale College, one of
the oldest institutions of learning in the land, is a
feature of much importance to New Haven.

In order to get a fine view of Long Island
Sound, and to finish becomingly the circle of our


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105 jl

trarels, we advise makiog the restof our jonrnej
by water. The shoree of Long Island and Coo-
neoticut present many agreeable views. Hand-
some villas, surrounded by a profusion of sloping
green lawn and flower beds, pleasant valleys, and
carefully preserved groves, pass rapidly before
the vision like the ever-shifting pictures of a

After a little quiet and rest on our return to
New York, we take the boat for a tour up the
Hudson. No river in the world presents a more
generous variety of charms. The Palisades, the
Highlands, Tappan Zee, Stony Point, Old Cro'
Nest, Anthony's Nose, the Oatskills, are only
different names for the sublime and beautiful.
They pass across the vision like a wonderful
panorama, leaving their tracings of light and
shade, of gold and somber, for memory to recall in
after years. We should pause for a season at
Tarrytown to visit Sunnyslde, the home of Wash-
ington Irving. His pen-arm has ceased its labors,
his brain to conceive, his heart to love, but the
fruits of his genius are coexistent with our lan-
guage and literature. At West Point we again
pause to visit the National Military Academy— an
institution that needs no- words of commendaUon
beyond that it supplied the military instrucUons
for Grant, 8herman, AlcHEtde, Sheridan, and a host
of others upon whom the country relied in the
days of its darkest peril.

On reaching Albany we visit the State House,
spend a few hours in looking tiirough the other
public buildings, and proceed thence to Saratoga
—the scene of an important victory to the Ameri-
can army under Gates during the Revolutionary
struggle, and of scores of victories of a more
tender nature since that period. It is the most
famous watering place In the country, and is
thronged by the wealthy and fashionable during
the "dog days,'' a season when no lady can be
seen in town without seriously endangering her
position among the Kaut ton.

Having seen the show and tasted the waters,,
we step across the country to eojov the quiet
scenery of Lake George— a sheet or water that
claims to be a successiful rival of Oomo. If the
latter is more sparkling or presents a more pic-
turesque setting, it must be as lovely as Eden
before the fall. We look upon its charms with
subdued breath, and turn to leave it with a thou-
sand tender longings and regrets.

Returning affain to the metropolis, if we have
exhausted the time allotted for our wanderings we
take our departure, believing that we have made
a more liberal acquaintance with the physical fea-
tures of the American Union than the majority of
those who draw their nutrition from its soil and
dwell under the protecting egis of its govern-


noPBs, fondly cherished, came with me to dwelL

What dainty flowers now decked the halls of thought 1

With rainbow haes the fhtore life was fraogfat—

And on my heart-strings like sweet music fell

The dreams no worldly prudence coold dispel.

Cool, sparkUng rain-drepe thirsty earth has sought,

And into living forms of beauty wrought.

That blossoms fkir might gem the wood and dell ;

60 my glad spirit drank each glowing dream.

And forth like tender buds and emerald spray

Sprang dierished hopes, thoughts, and the radiant i^eam

Uj spirit cangfat of the Btemal Day.

Be hushed, O grief I Heaven surely wiU redeem

Those rose-tinged thonghto so rudely swept awaj.


Phrbiqlooioal Journai.. — ^Iliis magazine is full
of variety, full of interest, and, if possible, fuller
of practical instruction. No exchange comes to
my table which is so uniformly read through, by
myself and family. It is publkhed monthly at
$2 00 per annum. Addreas Fowler and Wells,
New York.— JfM&ma 8ehoU Journal.


TttE Bbv. Dr J. P. Newman, now of New
Orleans, portrays a scene which must interest the
reader. After describing, through the Methodixt,
a visit to the plantation of the notorious Braxton
Bragg, situated sixty miles northeast of New
Orleans, he proceeds to describe the


" The visit to the Bragg colony impressed me
more than ever with the religious degradation of
Southern negroes. Only a few of them seem to
have a correct conception of truth, honesty, and
the obligation of promises. I do not care to
inquire into the cause of the appalling foot, but
rather to consider the work to be accomplished
for them. Their moral and religious education
has been sadly neglected, and the preachers to
whom their salvation was intrusted were content
with preaching obedience to masters and the
consequent joys of heaven. I was saddened
beyond degree to learn from their own lips how
little they appreciated the nature, obligations,
and sanctity of marriage. The first great work —
and that which underlies society, whether in
Church or State— is the proper formation^ of the
family ; and not until this is done, wiUi its purity,
guards, and mutual obligations, can we hope to
benefit the freedmen of the South Here is the
starting-point ; this is the foundation ; neglect it,
and the goal will never be reached ; omit it, and
the beautiM structure (^purity and freedom will
never rise. The fbeedman must be taught the
moraUty of the GospeL Better than many white
men— better than many preachers — ^he can find
his way to the cross ; but his ignorance of moral
obligations will lead bim into many vices.

" At the present time the Baptists have f\i11
sweep through all this section of Louisiana. The
freedmen are delighted with the display incident
to immersion, and they look forward ir> a * bap-
Using time' as to a festive day.


** The Sabbath I spent on the Bragg plantation
aflforded me the opportunity to witness such a
scene. The previous night, from nine in the
evening till four the next morning, had been
spent in the usual examination. Each candidate

Online LibraryHeinrich August Ottokar ReichardThe American phrenological journal and life illustrated, Volumes 43-44 → online text (page 41 of 150)