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Him, He retired farther into the garden, taking with Him noue
(xvii. 1) but the three most intimate disciples. tfpZaro']
indicating the first symptoms of the condition in question.

CHAP. XXVL 39. 219

\VTre1a-Oai K. aSijfioveiv] Climax. Suidas explains a
as meaning : \tav \\nretcr6ai. See Buttmann, Lexilog. II.
p. 135 f. ; Ael. V. H. xiii. 3 ; Phil. ii. 26. 7repi\vTro<i] very
sorrowful, Ps. xliii. 5; 3 Esdr. viii. 71 f . ; Isocr. p. 11 B;
Aristot. Eth. iv. 3 ; Diog. L. vii. 9 7. The opposite of this is
vreptxaprfc. 77 ^rv^rf pov~\ Comp. John xii. 27 ; Xen. Hell.
iv. 4. 3 : a8r]fiovT]a-ai ra<? i/rt^a's. The soul, the intermediate
element through which the spirit (TO Trvevfia, ver. 41) is con-
nected with the body in the unity of the individual (see
Beck, Bibl. Seelenl. p. 11), is the seat of pleasure and pain.
Comp. Stirm in the Tub. Zeitschr. 1834, 3, p. 25 ff. eo>?
6avaTov\ defining the extent of the irepikmros : unto death,
so as almost to cause death, so that I am nearly dead from
very grief ; Jonah iv. 9 ; Isa. xxxviii. 1 ; and see on
Phil. ii. 27. The idea of the mors infernalis (Calovius), as
though Christ had been experiencing the pains of hell, is here
exegetically unwarrantable. Euthymius Zigabenus correctly
observes : (fraveptbrepov egayopevet, rrjv atrOeveiav TT}? </>ucreo>?
to? avdpwTTos. fieivare . . . eyu-oi)] "In magnis tentationi-
bus juvat solitudo, sed tamen, ut in propinquo sint amici,"

Ver. 39. M export] belongs to irpoe\0(av : after He had gone
Jonoard a short distance. For fjiiKpov comp. Xen. Cyrop. iv.
2. 6 (jjuicpbv TTopevdivres} ; Hist. Gr. vii. 2. 13 (fiiicpbv
8' avToi><! 7T/307re/i-v/ravT65). eVl TT poaw-jrov avrov] The
article was not necessary before Trpoa-wjr. (in opposition to
Fritzsche, who takes avrov as meaning there). Comp. xi. 10,
xvii. 6, and elsewhere. Winer, p. 116 [E. T. 152], Bengel
appropriately observes : " in faciem, non modo in genua ;
summa demissio." el Swarov ea-rt] ethical possibility
according to the divine purpose. Similarly the popular ex-
pression Traz/ra Sward crot is to be understood, according to
the sense in which Jesus uses it, as implying the necessary
condition of harmony with the divine will. TO "Tror^piov
TOUTO] i.e. this suffering and death immediately before me.
Comp. xx. 22. -jrXrjv ov%, K.T.\.] The wish, to which in His
human dread of suffering He gave utterance, that, if possible,
He should not be called upon to endure it (e8ae TO a


Chrysostom), at once gives place to absolute submission, John
v. 30, vi 38. The word to be understood after crv (fltXet?) is not
w, but, as corresponding with the 01'^ (not pij, observe),
i, or ecrrat, in which the petitioner expresses his final
determination. It may be observed further, that the broken
utterance is in keeping with the deep emotion of our Lord.
For co?, which, so far as the essential meaning is concerned,
is identical with the relative pronoun, comp. Hermann, ad
Horn. h. in Cer. 172.

Ver. 40. The fact that the disciples slept, and that these
disciples did so in circumstances such as the present, and
that all three gave way, and that their sleep proved to be
of so overpowering a character, is, notwithstanding Luke's ex-
planation that it was airo TT}? XUTTT^ (xxii. 45), a psychologi-
cal mystery, although, after utterances of Jesus so manifestly
authentic as those of vv. 40 and 45, the statement that they
did sleep is not to be regarded as unhistorical, but is to be taken
as implying that Jesus had spent a considerable time in prayer,
and that the disciples, in consequence of their deep mental
exhaustion, found it impossible to keep awake. icai] three
times ; the narrative is characterized by a simple pathos.
TO> JTeT/3ft>] to him He addressed words that were equally ap-
plicable to them all ; but then it was he who a little ago had
surpassed all the others in so boldly declaring how much he was
prepared to do for his Master, vv. 33, 35. OVT <o<;] siccine,
thus, uttered with painful surprise, is to be taken in con-
nection with what follows, without inserting a separate mark
of interrogation (in opposition to Euthymius Zigabenus and
Beza). Comp. 1 Cor. vi. 5.

Ver. 4l."Iva] indicating, not the object of the
but purpose, and that of the watching andpraying.
et<? ireipaa-fiov] in order that ye may not be betrayed into
circumstances in which ye might be led to show yourselves
unfaithful to me (into the a-feavSaXi&a-dat, of ver. 31). Comp.
vi. 13. By watching and praying, as a means of maintaining
clearness of judgment, freedom, and a determination to adhere
to Christ, they were to avoid getting into such outward cir-
cumstances as might prove dangerous to their moral wellbeing.

CHAP. XXVI. 42-44. 221

The watching here is no doubt of a physical nature (ver. 40),
but the Trpoo-eu^eo-^at has the effect of imparting to it the
character and sacredness belonging to spiritual watchfulness
(Col. iv. 2). TO [lev Trvevpa, /c.r.X] a general proposition
(all the more telling that it is not introduced with a "/dp),
intended to refer, by way of warning, to the circumstances
in which the disciples were placed, as though it had been
said : ye are no doubt, so far as the principle of your ethical
life in its general aim and tendency is concerned, willing
and ready to remain true to me ; but on the individual
side of your nature, where the influence of sense is so strong,
you are incapable of resisting the temptations to unfaithful-
ness by which you are beset. Com p. on John iii. 6. Euthy-
mius Zigabenus : 57 Se <ra-p%, daOevrj^ ovcra, vTroare\\erai KOI
OVK evTovel. In order, therefore, to avoid getting into a pre-
dicament in which, owing to the weakness in question, you
would not be able to withstand the overmastering power of
influences fatal to your salvation without the special protection
and help of God that are to be obtained through vigilance and
prayerfulness, watch and pray !

Ver. 42 ff. TId\i,v etc Sevrepov] a well-known pleonasm.
John xxi. 15 ; Acts x. 15. Comp. Sevrepov ird\t,v, Plat. Polit.
p. 260 D, avOis 7rd\iv (p. 282 C), and such like. We some-
times find even a threefold form : afidis av irdXtv, Soph. Phil.
940, 0. C. 1421.; el] not quandoquidem (Grotius), but: if.
The actual feelings of Jesus are expressed in all their reality
in the form of acquiescence in that condition of impossibility
(ov Bvvarai) as regards the divine purpose which prevents the
thing from being otherwise. TOVTO] without TO iror^piov
(see the critical remarks) : this, which 1 am called upon to drink.
edv jj,rj avro TTUB] without my liaving drunk it ; if it cannot
pass from me unless it is drunk. yevyQiJTO) TO Oe\r)fj,d crot/j
this is the vTraKorj pe'xpi Qavdrov (rravpov, Phil. ii. 8 ; Roin.
v. 19. Observe in this second prayer the climax of resignation
and submission; His own will, as mentioned in ver. 39, is
completely silenced. Mark's account is here less precise.
Ver. 43. rjvav yap, /c.T.X.] for their eyes (see on viii. 3) were
heavy (weighed down with drowsiness). Comp. Eur. Ale. 385.


Ver. 44. etc rpirov] belongs to irpocrrjvj;. Comp. 2 Cor.
xii. 8. r. avr. Xoy.] as is given at ver. 42.

Ver. 45. The annoyance at finding the disciples asleep
(ver. 40 : OVTOX; OVK la-^ya-are, ye.r.X) now deepens into an in-
tensely painful irony : " sleep on now, and have out your rest "
(the emphasis is not on TO \onrov, but on icadev&eTe K. avair.") !
He had previously addressed them with a yprf/opelre, but to how
little purpose ! and, accordingly, He now turns to them with
the sadly ironical abandonment of one who has no further
hope, and tells them to do quite the reverse ; sleep on, etc.
Comp. Euthymius Zigabenus, Beza, Mlinster, Erasmus, Calvin,
Er. Schmid, Maldonatus, Bengel, Jansen, Michaelis, Fritzsche,
Keim, Ewald. On XOLTTOV and TO \otirov, for the rest of the time,
in the sense of jam (Vulgate), henceforward (Plat. Prot. p. 321 C),
see Schaefer, ad Long. p. 400 ; Jacobs, ad Philostr. p. 663.
Comp. on Acts xxvii. 20. To object, as is frequently done,
that the ironical view does not accord with the frame
of mind in which Jesus must have been, is to fail to
appreciate aright the nature of the situation. Irony is not
inconsistent even with the deepest anguish of soul, especially
in cases where such anguish is also accompanied with such
clearness of judgment as we find in the present instance ;
and consider what it was for Jesus to see such an over-
powering tendency to sleep on the part of His disciples, and
to find everything so different from what He needed, and
might reasonably have expected! Winer, p. 292 [E. T. 391],
following Chrysostom, Theophylact (who, however, admits the
plausibility of the ironical view), and Grotius, excludes the
idea of irony, and interprets thus : " sleep on, then, as you are
doing, and take your rest," which words are supposed to be
spoken permissively in accordance with the calm, mild, resigned
spirit produced by the prayers in which He had just been
engaged. This is also substantially the view of Kuinoel,
de Wette, Morison, Weiss on Mark ; and see even Augustine,
who says : " verba indulgentis eis jam somnum." But the
idea that any such indulgence was seriously intended, would
be incompatible with the danger referred to at ver. 41, and
wiiich He knew was threatening even the disciples themselves.

CHAP. XXVI. 46. 223

There are others, again, who are disposed to take the words
interrogatively, thus : are ye still asleep ? Such is the view
of Henry Stephens, Heumann, Kypke, Krebs, in spite of the
ordinary usage with regard to TO XotTroV, to understand
which in the sense of " henceforth " (Bleek, Volkmar) would
be entirely out of keeping with the use of the present here.
If, however, the mark of interrogation be inserted after icaOev-
Bere, and TO \oiirov ical avairaveaOe be then taken impera-
tively (Klostermann), in that case teal would have the inten-
sive force of even ; but its logical position would have to be
before TO \onrov, not before avairavecrde, where it could be
rendered admissible at all only by an artificial twisting of the
sense (" now you may henceforth rest on, even as long as you
choose "). While Jesus is in the act of uttering His KadevBere,
K.T.\., He observes the hostile band approaching ; the painful
irony changes to a painful earnestness, and He continues in
abrupt and disjointed words : IBov, tfyyircev, K.T.\. The rj &pa
should be taken absolutely: hora fatalis, John xvii. 1. The
next clause describes in detail the character of that hour.
et<? Xfipas afiaprJ] into sinners' hands. He refers to the
members of the Sanhedrim, at whose disposal He would be
placed by means of His apprehension, and not to the Romans
(Maldonatus, Grotius, Hilgenfeld), nor to both of these together
(Lange). The TrapaBiBoix; is not God, but Judas, acting,
however, in pursuance of the divine purpose, Acts ii. 23.

Ver. 46. Observe the air of quick despatch about the words
fyeipea-de, aywuev, IBov. aywjjbev] is not a summons to
take to flight, in consequence perhaps of a momentary return
of the former shrinking from suffering (which would be incon-
sistent with the fact of the victory that had been achieved,
and with the clear consciousness which He had that o vios
r. d. vrapaBiBoTai, K.T.\. ver. 45), but : to go to meet the
betrayer, with a view to the fulfilling of the TrapaBiBorai of
which He had just been speaking. Kavrevdev eBeigev, on
CKODV aTTodaveirai, Euthymius Zigabenus.

KEMARK. On the agony in the garden (see, in general,
Ullmann, Sundlos., ed. 7, p. 127 ff. ; Dettinger in the Tub.
Zdtschr. 1837, 4, 1838, 1 ; Hofmann, Schriftbew. II. l,p. 306 ff. ;


Keim, III. p. 306 ff.), the following points may be noted : (1)
As to the nature of it, we must not regard it simply as bodily
suffering (Thiess, Paulus), nor as consisting in sorrow on
account of the disciples and the Jews (Jerome), nor as pain
caused by seeing His hopes disappointed ( Wolfenbuttel Frag-
ments), nor as grief at the thought of parting from His friends
(Schuster in Eichhorn's Bibl. IX. p. 1012 ff.) ; but, as the prayer
vv. 39, 42 proves, as consisting in fear and dread of the cruel
suffering and death that were so near at hand, the prospect of
which affected Christ whose sensibilities were purely human,
and not of the nature of a philosophical abstraction, like the
imperturbability of Socrates or the apathy of the Stoic
(Celsus, in Origen, ii. 24, charges Him with cowardice) all the
more powerfully in proportion to the greater purity, and depth,
and genuineness of His feelings, and the increasing distinctness
with which He foresaw the approach of the painful and,
according to the counsel of the Father, inevitable issue. For
having been victorious hitherto over every hostile power,
because His hour had not yet come (John vii. 30, viii. 20), He
realized, now that it was come (ver. 45), the whole intensity of
horror implied in being thus inevitably abandoned, in pursuance
of God's redemptive purpose, to the disposal of such powers, with
the immediate prospect before Him of a most dreadful death,
a death in which He was expected, and in which He Himself
desired, to manifest His perfect obedience to the Father's will.
The momentary disturbing of the complete harmony of His
tvill with that of God, which took place in Gethsemane, is to
be ascribed to the human dffd'usia incideutal'to His state of
humiliation (comp. 2 Cor. xiii. 4 ; Heb. v. 7), and should be
regarded simply as a natural shrinking from suffering and
death, a shrinking entirely free from sin (comp. Dorner, Jesu
sundlose Vollkommenh. p. 6 f.). Neither was it in any way
due to the conviction, unwarrantably ascribed to Him by
Schenkel, that His death was not absolutely necessary for the
redemption of the world. That touch of human weakness
should not even be described as sin in embryo, sin not yet
developed (Keim), because the absolute resignation to the
Father's will which immediately manifests itself anew pre-
cludes the idea of any taint of sin whatever. To suppose,
however, that this agony must be regarded (Olshausen, Gess) as
an actual abandonment by God. i.e. as a withdrawing of the
presence of the higher powers from Jesus, is to contradict the
testimony of Heb. v. 7, and to suppose what is inconsistent
with the'very idea of the Son of God (Strauss, II. p. 441) ; and

CHAP, xxvt 225

to explain it on the ground of the vicarious character of the
suffering (Olshausen, Ebrard, Steinmeyer, following Luther,
Melanchthon, Calvin, Beza, and the dogmatic writers of the
orthodox school), as though it were to be regarded as "a
concrete bearing of the whole concentrated force of a world's
sin" (Ebrard), and of the wrath of God in all its fulness
(comp. Thomasius, III. 1, p. 69 f. ; Weber, v. Zorne Gottes,p.
266 ff.), is erroneously to take a materialistic and quantitative
view of the i^asr^piov of Jesus ; whereas Scripture estimates His
atoning death according to its qualitative value, that is to say,
it regards the painful death to which the sinless Son of God
subjected Himself in obedience to the Father's will as consti-
tuting the efficient cause of the atonement, and that not
because He required to undergo such an amount of suffering
as might be equivalent in quantity and intensity to the whole
sum of the punishment due to mankind, but because the
vicarious Xvrpov on behalf of humanity consisted in the volun-
tary surrender of His own life. Comp. ver. 27 f., xx. 28 ; John
i. 29 ; 1 John ii. 2, iii. 5 ; 1 Tim. ii. 6 ; 2 Cor. v. 21 ; Gal. iii.
13. But it would be unwarrantable, on the other hand, to
ascribe the dread which Jesus felt merely to the thought of
death as a divine judgment, and the agonies of which He was
supposed to be already enduring by anticipation (Kostlin in
the Jahrl. /. D. Theol. III. p. 125). Those who adopt this
view lay great stress upon the sinlessness of our Lord as
tending to intensify this painful anticipation of death (Det-
tinger, comp. Ullmann, Neander). (2) John, notwithstanding
the fact that he was both an eye and ear witness of the
agony in Gethsemane, makes no mention of it whatever,
although he records something analogous to it as having
taken place somewhat earlier, xii. 27. With the view of
accounting for this silence, it is not enough to suppose that
John had omitted this incident because it had been suffi-
ciently recorded by the other evangelists, for a mere external
reason such as this would accord neither with the spirit of
his Gospel nor with the principle of selection according
to which it was composed (in opposition to Liicke, Tholuck,
Olshausen, Ebrard). We should rather seek the explanation of
the matter in the greater freedom which characterizes the com-
position of this Gospel, and therefore in the peculiarities of style
and form which are due to this work of John being an inde-
pendent reproduction of our Lord's life. After the prayer of
Jesus, which he records in ch. xvii., John felt that the agony could
not well find a place in his Gospel, and that, after xii. 23 ff., there



was no reason why it should be inserted any more than the cry
of anguish on the cross. Comp. Ewald, Gesch. Chr. p. 557 f. In
John, too, ch. xviii., the transition from acting to suffering is
somewhat abrupt (in opposition to Hofmann) ; but after the high-
priestly prayer, the suffering appears as one series of victories
culminating in the triumphant issue of xix. 30 ; in fact, when
Jesus offered up that prayer, He did so as though He were
already victorious (xvi. 33). It is quite unfair to make use of
John's silence either for the purpose of throwing discredit
upon the synoptic narrative (Goldhorn in Tzschirner's Magaz.
f. chr, Pred. 1, 2, p. 1 ff. ; Schleiermacher, L. J. p. 422 f.), or as
telling against John (Bretschneider, Probab. p. 33 ff. ; "Weisse, II.
p. 268 ; Baur, Keim ; likewise Theile in Winer's Journ. II. p.
353 ff., comp. however, his Biogr. Jesu, p. 62), or with a view to
impugn the historical character of both narratives (Strauss,
Bruno Bauer). The accounts of the two earliest evangelists
bear the impress of living reality to such an extent that their
character is the very reverse of that which one expects to find
in a legend (in opposition to Gfrorer, Heil. Sage, p. 337 ; Usteri
in the Stud. u. Krit. 1829, p. 465) ; nor is there any reason why,
even after the high-priestly prayer, such an agony as that in
question should not find a place in the Gospel narrative ; for
who shall presume to say what changes of feeling, what eleva-
tion and depression of spirit, may not have taken place on the
eve of such a catastrophe in a heart so noble, so susceptible,
and so full of the healthiest sensibilities, and that not in conse-
quence of any moral weakness, but owing to the struggle that
had to be waged with the natural human will (comp. Gess, p.
175 ; Weizsacker, p. 563) ? Comp. John, remark after ch. xvii.
(3) The report of Jesus' prayer should not be (unpsychologically)
supposed to have been communicated by the Lord Himself to
His disciples, but ought rather to be regarded as derived from
the testimony of those who, before sleep had overpowered them,
were still in & position to hear at least the first words of it.

Ver. 47. JS?9 T&V SwSe/ea] precisely as in ver. 14, and
repeated on both occasions in all three evangelists. In the
oral and written tradition this tragic designation (feariyyopia,
Euthymius Zigabenus) had come to be so stereotyped that it
would be unconsciously inserted without there being any
further occasion for doing so. The same holds true with
regard to 6 vrapaSiSov? avrov, ver. 48, xxvii. 3. 0^X09
Matthew makes no reference to the Eoman cohort, John

CHAP. XXVI. 48-50. 227

xviii 3 ; his account, however, does not, at the same time,
exclude it, as it is simply less precise. Luke xxii. 52 like-
wise represents the high priests and elders as appearing at
this early stage among the throng ; but this is an unwarrant-
able amplification of the tradition; see on Luke. %v\av\
cudgels, fustibus (Vulgate). Herod, ii. 63, iv. 180; Polyb. vi.
36. 3. Wetstein on the passage. airb TMV, /c.r.A,.] belong3
to rf\0- ) see on GaL ii. 12.

Ver. 48. It is usual, though unwarrantable (see on John
xviii. 24), to take eScotcev in the sense of the pluperfect
(comp. Mark xiv. 44), in which case it is necessary, with
Ewald, to make ver. 48 a parenthesis. The Vulgate correctly
renders by : dedit. He communicated the signal to them while
they were on the way. ov av <f>L\ijcra), K.T.\.] Fritzsche
inserts a colon after <tX?;'o-a>, and supposes the following
words to be understood : est vdbis comprehendendus. It may
be given more simply thus : Whomsoever I shall have kissed,
He it is (just He, no other is the one in question) ! This
auTo? serves to single out the person intended, from those
about Him. Hermann, ad Viyer. p. 733.

Ver. 49. jEv#ea>9] is not to be taken with elire (Fritzsche),
but with 7rpoo-e\0(av : immediately, as soon as he had given
them this signal, he stepped up, etc. No sooner said than
done. Kare^i\t]a-ev] embraced and kissed Him, kissed Him
most endearingly. Xen. Mem. ii. 6. 33 : &><? TOUV fj>ev /raXow
(j)i\rja-avT6<; fj,ov, TOW 5' ayaOovs Kara<f)i\^<ravTo<; ; Tob. vii. 6 ;
Ecclus. xxix. 5 ; 3 Mace. v. 49 ; Test XII. patr. p. 730. It
is not the case, as de Wette imagines (see Luke vii. 38, 45 ;
Acts xx. 37), that in the New Testament (and the LXX.)
the compound has lost the force here ascribed to it ; but it
is to be insisted on in our present passage as much as in
classical Greek. The signal, as arranged, was to be simply a
kiss ; the signal actually given was kissing accompanied with
embraces, which was entirely in keeping with the excitement
of Judas, and the desire he felt that there should be no mistake
as to the person intended.

Ver. 50. 'Eralpe] as in xx. 13. e<' o Trdpet] As the
relative 69 is never used in a direct (see Lobeck, ad Phryn. p.


57), but only in an indirect question (Kiihner, II. 2, p. 942 ;
Ellendt, Lex. Soph. II. p. 372), it follows that the ordinary
interrogative interpretation must be wrong; and that to suppose
(Winer, p. 157 [E. T. 207 f.]) that we have here one of those
corrupt usages peculiar to the Greek of a less classical age, is,
so far as o<? is concerned, without any foundation whatever.
Fritzsche, followed by Buttmann, Neut. Gr. p. 217 [E. T. 253],
understands the expression as an exclamation : " ad qualem rem
perpetrandam ades !" But even then, Greek usage would have
required that it should have been put in an interrogative form
and expressed by rl, or failing this we might have had the
words e'<' olov instead (Ellendt, as above, p. 300 f.). The
language, as might be expected from the urgent nature of the
situation, is somewhat abrupt in its character : Friend, mind
what you are here for ! attend to that. With these words He
spurns the kisses with which the traitor was overwhelming Him.
This suits the connection better than the supplying of eiVe
(Morison). Instead of this hypocritical kissing, Jesus would
prefer that Judas should at once proceed with the dark deed he
had in view, and deliver Him to the catchpolls. John xviii.
3 ff., it is true, makes no mention whatever of the kissing ; but
this is not to be taken as indicating the legendary character of
the incident, especially as there is nothing to prevent us from
supposing that it may have taken place just before the question
viva %T)TiT, John xviii. 4 ; see on this latter passage.

Ver. 51. It is strange that the Synoptists have not men-
tioned the name of Peter here (John xviii 10, where the
name of the high priest's servant is also given). It may be
that, with a view to prevent the apostle from getting into
trouble with the authorities, his name was suppressed from
the very first, and that, accordingly, the incident came to be
incorporated in the primitive gospel traditions without any
names being mentioned, it having been reserved for John
ultimately to supply this omission. avrov TO toTt'oz/] his
ear (see on viii. 3). On cortov, see Lobeck, ad Phryn. p. 211.
He missed the head at which the stroke was aimed.

Ver. 52. Put back thy sword into its place (#77*771', John xviii.
11 j Kcitew, 1 Chron. xxi 27). A pictorial representation;

CHAP. XXVI. 53, 54. 229

the sword was uplifted. Trdvres yap, /c.r.X] All, who have
taken a sword, will perish by the sword, an ordinary axiom

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