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L I B R A. 11 Y

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. N. J.



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Professor of the University of Gottiiigeii.

rritJ^iTSij-A.TEX) B^jaoivi the a-Eis-^vcA-iq- s-y


' The Old 7'efiament tall still be a JVetv Testaineiil to him who comes with a fresh
(ifstie of iiifonnalion Fullei;.

Vol. V.

The History of Ezra and of the Hagiocracy in Israel
To the time of Christ.





The present volume of the History of Israel, though the
Fifth of the English series, is only the Fourth of its German
original. The translation has been made from the third
edition, published at Gottingen in 1864.

The Translator has endeavoured to adhere to the rules
adopted in the previous volumes. The spelling * Jahveh '
has been retained for the sake of uniformity, in the place
of Yahveh or Yahweh ; in other cases the ordinary ortho-
graphy has been followed, except where special reasons are
given for preferring a different form. In order to complete
the Analytical Table of Contents, short descriptive titles of
the subdivisions of the various sections have been added, so
as to exhibit more fully the method in which each branch
of the subject is developed. In the hope, also, of rendering
more accessible the vast quantity of historical information
which the volume contains upon many topics not in the
scope of a Dictionary of the Bible, an Index has been

To the friend who so materially lightened his labours in
the earlier part of the volume by contributing a consider-
able portion of translation for his use, the sincerest thanks

vi translator's preface.

of tlie Translator arc gladly rendered. Nor can he omit
to acknowledge with gratitude his great obligations to
Prof. Eussell Martineau, M.A;, by whose rich stores of
knowledge and unfailing kindness he has so largely pro-

It only remains to apologise for the tardy appearance of
tliis volume. Unexpected circumstances seriously inter-
rupted its execution ; and the volume of ' Antiquities,'
which was to have been issued simultaneously with it, is
now in other hands.

Lkeds : Jniumrrj,\9>7A.





Inteoductio]^ : The Transformation into the Hagiocract

I. Israel during the Captivity ....

1. The Age and its Sufferings .....

2. The Age and its Hopes ......

II. Israel among the Heathen ....

1. The Inward Transformation .....

1) The Keturn to the Old Truths, and the Revolt from Hea

thenisra ......

2) The Mission of Israel to the Heathen

3) The Hope of Restoration ....

4) Inability of Israel to effect its own Restoration

2. The Approach of the Crisis .....

' 3. The Liberation by Cyrus .....

III. The Special Character of the New Period

1. The Hagiocracy .

1) The Sovereignty of Jahveh

2) The Power of Sanctity

3) Nature of the Hagiocracy

4) Its Intrinsic Dangers

2. Its Progressive Development

1) The Persian Age

2) The Greek Age .

3) The Roman Age

The Ddraiion of the Exile
VOL. V. a



Section I. The Hagiocracy under the Persian Empire

A. The Commencement of the New Jercsalem

I. Zerubbabel of the House of David, and Joshua the High

Priest .......

II. The Eetukn of the Ten Tribes, and the State of the

Several Districts of the Ancient Land of Israel

1. The Occupants of the Country ....

2. Partial Return of the Ten Tribes

3. New Importance of Jerusalem ....

III. The BuiLDixrj of the Tkmpi.e in Jerusalem, and the Sama

RITANS . . .

1. The Foundations are laid .....

2. Relations of the Judeans and Samaritans

3. Completion of the Temple .....

IV. The Descendants and SuccEssoiis of Zerubbabel and Joshua

The High-Priests .....

V. Later Views of Zerubbabel and his Time .

B. Ezra the Scribe, and the Governor Nehemi.\h .

I. Ezra ........

1. The Journey to Jerusalem ....

2. Ezra begins his Administration as Chief Judge

3. General Result of his Labours ....

II. Nehemiah .......

1. Commencement of the Rebuilding of the Walls of Jerus;ileni

2. Oppo.'tition of Sanballat and Tobiah

3. Completion of the Walls, and general Administration of

Nehemiah ......

III. Later Representations of Ezra and Nehemiah .

C. The National Development in the Persian Age .

I. The Establishment of the Hagiocraoy
II. The Extinction of Prophetism. — The Last Prophet
lU. The Influx of Foreign Elements ....

IV. The Transformation of Literature .
V. Geum.? of Further Dissolution and Weakness within a.xu

without .......

1. The Weakness of the Hagiocracy

2. Tho Elaboration of the Law ....

3. Reactionary Tendencies of the Hagiocracy

D. The Issue ov the I^ersian Epoch

I. Thk Rish and Character of the High-Pribstly Power


11. The Books of Baruch and Tobit
III. Thk TuMPub om GKRiziM.— Thk Expedition of .Alkxandhi*



■Section- II. The Hagiocracy under the Greeks and Maccabees,


A. The Greek Age down to the Decline op the Ptole-

MEAN Supremacy, b.c. 332 - 200 . . . .225

I. The Prevailing Feeling against the Heathen and the

-^ Introduction of the Feast of POrim . . . . 225

II. The Influx of Greek Culture and Art . . . 23.5

1. The Greek Bible . 24!)

2. The Judean Hellenism ...... 256

\^ 3. The Progress of Culture in Palestine.— The Son of Sirach , 262

III. The Ascendency of the Greeks. — The Kuling Powers of

the Age ....... 268

1. The High-Priests . . . . . . . 270

2. The Wise Men of the Age in Judea and in Samaria. The

Sadducees and the Pious ..... 274

3. The Greek Rulers . . . . . . . 2»2

B. The Supremacy op the SELEUciDiE ; the Maccabees ; and

THE ASMONEANS, B.C. 200-106 .... 28(i

I. General Position of the Judeans under the Syrian Govern-
ment . . . , , . . . 286
^^ 1. Aiitioehus Epipliaues ...... 2i)3

- 2. The Martyrs ; the Book of Daoiei . . . . . 300

1) The Psulms of Solomon ..... 3ol

2) The Book of Daniel . . , . . . go2

II. The Elevation under the Maccabees, b.c. 167-135. — The


1. Judas Maccahaeus . . . . . . . 306

1 ) His first Enterprises •...'. 309

2) Purification of the Temple, and Successes of Judas in the

East . . . . . . . . 311

3) Death of Antiochus, and Peace with Lysias . .315
i) Alciraus made High-Priest ; Campaigns of Bacchides and

Nicanor . . . . , . . 319

5) Defeat and Death of Judas .... 323

2. Jonathan the Asmonean, High-Priest . . . . 324

3. Simon the Asmonean, High -Priest and Prince. . . 333
III. John Hyrcanus, Grandson of Mattathias, b.c. 135-106 . . 342

X. His Conquests. The Books of Enoch and Judith . . 342

1) Early Years of his Rule . . . . . 343

'- 2) Books of Judith and Enoch .... 345

3) Subjugation of the Idumeans and Samaritans . . 349

2. The Temple at Leontopolis and the Egyptian Judeans . 354




Section II. The Hagiocbact undee the Greeks and Maccabees,

IV. The Elevation and Strength, and the Weakness and Dis-


1.. The Pharisees and Essees ..... 365

1) The Pharisees ........ 365

2) The Essees and Therapeutse . . . .370

3) Eeappearance of the Party of the Free, luider the name of

Sadducees . . . . . . . 377

2. The End of the Eule of John . . . . .878

C. The End of the Asmoneans and the Herodeans . . 385
I. The Sons of John Hyrcantjs, Kings Aeistobttltis I., and Jan-

NMvs Alexander; Alexandra, b.c. 106^70 . . . 385

1. Aristobulus I. . . . . . . . 385

2. Early Years of the Reign of Jannseus . . . . 386

3. The Civil War . . . . . . . 380

4. Subsequent Conqiiests of Jannseus ; His Death . . 390
5i Reign of Queen Alexandra . . . . . . 392

II. The Last Asmonean Rulers, b.c. 70-37 . . . 394

1. Contests between Hyrcanus and Aristobulus . . . 395

2. Effects of Roman Interference ...... 402

3. The Early Years of Herod. . . . . . 406

4. Successes of Antigonus and the Parthians . . . 408

5. Herod establishes himself on the Throne . . . . 412

III. Herod and the Ruins of the Asmoneans, b.c. 37-4 . .417

1. Relations with Antony and Octarian . . . . 422

2. The Rebuilding of the Temple . . . . .429

3. Last Years of his Reign . . . . . . 437

IV. The Herodeans until the Direct Supremacy of Rome over

Jerusalem, b.c. 4-a.d. 6 .... . 449
V. The Development of Nationality, Literature, and Science,

IN the Later Greek Age . . . . . . 457

1. Historical Literature. — The Books of Maccabees . . 462

2. Prophetic-Poetic Literature. — The Book of Judith and the

Wisdom of Solomon . . . . . . 473

3. Reproduction of Older Books.— The Greek Book of Daniel . 486

4. Development of Biblical Science . . . . . 488

Conclusion . . . . . . . . .491

Chronological Survey. . . . . . . . 493

Addenda ......... 497

Index . . . ^ . . .. . . . 501

Page 1 09, note 5, ad fin., for ds read fls.
Page 331, lino 12, and subsequently, /r^r Trypho read Tryphi
Page 361, lino 6, for Sybilline read Sibylline.
Page 373, note 5, for Menahem read ]\Ianahem.





I. Israel during the Captivity.

1. The Age and its 8uferings.

The destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans, and the
disasters which followed it, proved the complete ruin of every-
thing which had hitherto been the pride and glory, the refuge
and defence, of the people of Israel. There remained only the
ultimate foundation of the eternal sanctity which had now been
established and developed upon earth through the history of a
thousand years. This was indestructible. Every object out-
wardly sacred, every means of defence, and every weapon of
what, though small, was still, nevertheless, a community, was
shattered ; the earthly kingdom of Israel down to its last visible
remains was utterly destroyed, and the people, as a people,
annihilated. And if, strictly speaking, it was impossible for
any actual community to survive the infinite anguish and the
unutterable grief of this age, the result was that its sufferings
pressed with all the heavier gloom on the souls of the scattered
survivors of the nation.

Of their severity, indeed, it is hai'dly possible to form a
sufficiently vivid conception. As long as the Chaldean supre-
macy in Asia remained unshaken, there was no hope of
any mitigation of the material punishment which hung over

VOL. v. B


Israel ; just as in later times it was not until the Persian
empire had been destroyed by Alexander that the Greeks avIio
had been carried away by the Persian kings could be released,
and the rich Grecian booty restored.^ Nabuchodrozzor, how-
ever, the all-powerful sovereign of the age, and the oppressor
of Israel, was still in the full vigour of his maturity at the time
of the destruction of Jerusalem, and only eighteen or nineteen
out of the forty-three years of his reign had as yet expired.
Moreover, he continued to rule with the same energy up to the
end of his long reign ; for though we now possess but little
detailed information concerning its latter years, the period in
question, yet we may infer with confidence that the warlike son
of Nabopolassar remained the terror of the nations, at any rate
in Asia, until his death,^ and, in particular, that he maintained
in full force his severe treatment of Israel.^ It is true that his
successors* showed far less military ability; but when the
Chaldean empire had prescribed law to a number of nations
for more than half a century, the state of things thus esta-
blished would continue to exist by its own strength even
after the death of Nabuchodrozzor ; a fact of which we have
clear evidence with reference to the position of the people of

Nor could Egypt, the great rival power of the age, be
expected to afford any real assistance or relief. It is true that
from the eighth century, and even earlier,^ great numbers of

' As the historians of Alexander were only as his father had done before him.

never •weary of relating. See Joseph. Conir. Ap. i. 20, of. i. 1 9,

^ Only tiie account of his divine trial Anl. x. 11, 1 ; Euseb. Prcpp. Ev. ix. 11,

in Dan. iii. 31-iv. 34 [iv. 1-37] repre- 40, and Chron. Arm. i. p. 62 sq., make no

Bents him as falling into madness, or essential additions.

rather absolute bestiality, for the space ^ If indeed the narrative in Dan. ir.

of seven years, but as recovering again were strictly historical, we should have

when converted to the true God, and then expected from the very fact of his conver-

resuming the sovereignty, and in a royal sion that he would luive ceased toojjprcss

proclamation communicating this divine so severely tiie peojile of that ' Most Iligli

(ixperienco to all liis subjects. Wo know God' whom Daniel liad made known to

from the cuneiform inscriptions that tiie him; but there is not tiie smallest indica-

great monarciis of Asia were in the habit tion of tliis to bo discovered anywhere,

of recording their private history for the and even tlio narrative in Daniel itself is

benefit of their subjects and of posterity silent about it.

in public monuments of this kind, and ' For their names and the duration of

so far tliore is nothing surprising in the their reigns see the Chronological Table at

form of this section of the book of Daniel, the end of tliis volume ; it is unnecessary

15ut this record clearly owes its present hero to touch on the details of their

shape to the author of the book of Daniel ; history.

and, unfortunately, we know notliing * Vol. iv., at p. 219. Cf. especially all

further of the original form of the his- the conclusions which may in the first

torical materials which were at his com- jjImco bo drawn from other indications,

mand, and which he evidently worked up and are furtlier confirmed by the book

with great, freedom. According to ]5ero.sus, of Aristeas ; also JIos. vii. 11 sq., Is. xi.

Nabuchodro/zor at any late did not dieoTi 11. In this last, }iassa^e it, is not

tlio battle lii'ld, but (ui the sick bml ; l>iit without reason that Lower and Upper


individuals were driven from Israel to Egypt by a great variety
of causes. Some went as fugitives, some as prisoners, some as
settlers, either separately or in large masses, so that in some
towns there certainly arose a numerous and permanent popula-
tion of Israelites.^ Now, since there are traditions, though we
can no longer investigate them at first hand, that Nabuchodroz-
zor, so far from ever concluding peace with Egypt, conducted an
expedition against it which penetrated far into Africa,^ it might
have been expected that the Egyptian sovereigns would have
assisted a people whose territory had been wrested from them by
these same Chaldeans, and of whom so many representatives,
some of them distinguished men, had in recent times sought
refuge and hospitality among themselves. But Israel could
not hope for any permanent and serious aid from Egypt, for
the latter was inspired by too constant a jealousy of the
Chaldean empire ; and when it had lost all its military posts
on the mainland of Asia, the aims of its ambition were concen-
trated upon the rich maritime cities of Phoenicia, which it
strove to subdue ; though Nabuchodrozzor himself had directed
against them his whole power, without obtaining any suffi-
ciently satisfactory result.^

Egypt, as tho abode of groat numbers of
the dispersion, are mentioned immedi-
ately after Assyria and before any other

' They were specially niimerous in
Migdol and Taphne (Tahpanhes) to the
north-east, not far from Pelusiiim, in
Memphis, and in Upper Egypt, in the last
case perhaps having been compelled by
the Egyptian sovereigns to settle further
to the south; Jer. xliii. 7, xliv. 1, 15,
26-28. Wo may conclude from Is. xlix.
12 that they preferred 'the land of the
Pelusians (Sinim),' so as to be as near to
the sacred land as possible ; for it always
seems to me most probable, if only from
Ezekiel xxx. 15 sq., that the Sinim must
have been the Pelusians. The words of
Lam. iv. 17, cf. v. 4, 6, evidently refer to
the futility of the hopes based on Egypt.

- According to Strabo, Geogr. xv. 1,
G, and the later Abydenus in Eusob.
Prcei^. Ev. ix. 41, Ckron. Arm. i. p. 88,
sqq., Megasthenes recorded that Nabu-
chodrozzor carried his arms as far as the
Libyans and Iberians, and transported
captives thence to the Pontus ; moreover,
we are told in the Chronogr. of Georgius
Syncellus, ii. p. 453, ed. Bonn., that the
Chaldeans only quitted Egypt through
superstitious fear of an earthquake. An
inroad of this sort into Africa could not

have been undertaken until long after the
final conquest of all Phccnieia, a conclu-
sion to which the words of the prophet
in Jer. xliv. 30, xlvi. 25 sq., Ezek. xxix.
17-20, also point. But unfortunately we
have no accurate information on this
subject, whatever may be the intrinsic
probability of such an event, in conse-
quence of the general relations of Egypt
and Asia. This also furnishes tho best
explanation of the manner in which the
power of Pharaoh Hophra (the Apries of
the Greeks) was first shaken and could
at last be overthrown by Amasis.

^ The accounts, given without any accu-
rate chronological data by Horodot. ii.
161, and Diodor. i. 68, of victorious ope-
rations on the part of Apries against the
Phoenicians, by land and sea, appear to
refer to those years of his reign in whicli,
with the assistance perhaps of a party
of Phcenician refugees, he may have
pursued the Chaldeans as they retreated
from Egypt into Asia, and at any rate
overthrown the Chaldean faction in Tyre.
Thereupon, according to Monander, cited
in Jos. Contr. Ap. i. 21, the Tyriaus,
after great internal commotions and rapid
changes, once more obtained a king of
their ancient race from Babylon, eigliteen
years before the downfall of the Chal-
dean empire.


Still less did any other kingdom, large or small, trouble
itself about the misery of Israel. Numerous remnants of the
people must have been scattered through many other coun-
tries ever since the glory of the nation, once so great, began
to decline. A prosperous people spreads by its prosperity,
its importance, its success, its industry, and commerce. An
unfortunate people by its very misfortunes is scattered ' to all
the winds ; ' and the ungodly race had always been threatened
with this latter fate by the Prophets.^ The ' Exile ' in this
wider sense begins as early as the tenth and ninth centuries,
long before the destruction of the kingdom of the Ten Tribes ;
for great numbers were made prisoners of war and subse-
quently for the most part sold as slaves,^ and many who
sank through internal commotions, took to more or less volun-
tary flight.^ The ancient people, however, long retained a
rooted antipathy to emigration or banishment to foreign lands ;
and this latter cause must consequently have been far less
active than the former in early times. But since the dis-
solution of the Israelite nationality was mainly the work of
the Assyrians and Chaldeans, in the centuries during which
it was in progress, most of the Israelites who had not been
compelled to settle in the East, and who could not find a
resting-place in Egypt, resorted to the remaining countries
of the Mediterranean or others which were still free. In
particular the ' Coasts of the Sea,' i.e. the numerous maritime
districts and islands of the Mediterranean, are now (as in
the eighth century)'' frequently mentioned as a residence of
the Dispersion.^ The extensive trade of the neighbouring
Phoenicians had long been directed to these countries, which
now appear for the first time in the history of Israel, and many
who were not sold as slaves followed the example of the
Phoenicians, and went thither of their own free will. Others
spread more or less to the north-west,*^ and also to the south in
the remote tracts of Arabia.^ But we are not informed of any

' Cf. for tho most recent threats Ezek. moro briefly the ' Coasts,' by the great

V. 2, 10, 12 ; and in much earlier times Unnamed, Is. xl. If), xli. 1 ; cf. somewhat

Zcch. xiii. 7-9. earlier Jcr. xxxi. 10, xxvi. 21 sq.

'■^ Tliis is indicated clearly enough by " This may be inferred from Obadiah

Joel iv. 2-8 [iii. 2-8], Amos i. 6, 9, and ver. 20 sq., however dubious the meaning of

may ho traced in many other passages. tho name of Sepharad may yet appear.

^ Amos and Ilosea, for instance, were Some interpreters would make it the Bos-

compellcd to flee, at any rate, from Sa- porus, some Sparta, and somo Sardis, all

maria to Judah, and tho example of Jonah, of them simply following tho resemblance

i. ;} S([., shows that many sought refuge of the sound,

cvi^n in tlu; far West. ' In tho first centuries after Christ

' Aeeording to Is. xi. 11. there wore numbers of Judeans residing in

^ Tills is why such frequent mention northern and southern Arabia, and in

it; made of tho ' Coasts of the Sea,' or some cases in considerable communities ;


nation having- sliown special sympathy for the fate of Israel,
which had now sunk to its lowest, and seemed to be utterly

The sufferings of the dispersion, therefore, though differing
in the different countries in which, more or less against their
will, the Judeans were compelled to live, were everywhere very
severe. For some centuries past individual Israelites had
been obliged, by a necessity which constantly increased in
force, to accustom themselves both to the idea and the reality of
compulsory residence among foreigners (the so-called Gdlutli or
Golah) ; but now the whole nation, with no further exceptions,
had to learn to submit patiently to this most bitter fate. Those
who were obliged to settle in foreign countries under the
orders of the Chaldeans, generally constituted in each case
(so far as we can learn) a small community confined to the
spot assigned to it. They were required to pay for their exist-
ence in heavy services and tributes, b'ut in other respects they
were allowed free intercourse with each other. The many
thousands who were banished with King Jehoiachin to the dis-
tricts of the East, eleven years before the destruction of Jeru-
salem, as the real ' flower of the people,' enjoyed at first a
tolerable degree of freedom, as we see from the book of their
fellow-exile Ezekiel, and from that of Jeremiah. Moreover, they
clearly established a certain unity and a somewhat more com-
pact community amongst all the scattered Judeans, but specially
amongst themselves;^ and, from the very fact that the noblest
and most distinguished of the nation were of their number,
they enjoyed the highest reputation. But the disturbances
which broke out among them even before the destruction of
Jerusalem, though only of a suppressed and isolated character,
together with the destruction itself and the increase of the
exiles by so large an additional number, inevitably tended to
limit their freedom still further and increase the sufferings of

this we know partly from the Syrian been further explained here, was unfor-

ecclesiastical historians, partly with still tunately lost with many other MSS.

greater accuracy from the Koran, and the in my removal from Tiibingen, nor

biographers of Muhammed ; no doubt, have I been able since then to make

however, these were not driven thither good the loss from the Milanese MS.

for the most part until after the final The Judeans in Yemen believe that the ori-

destruction of Jerusalem. But even before ginal settlers fled thither from Nabuchod-

that time there were many scattered rozzor, see J. "Wilson's La7ids of the Bible,

through the eoimtry, Acts ii. 11. During vol. i. p. 681 sqq.

the expedition of Nabuehodrozzor against ' They are represented in the story of

the Arabian tribes, which later Arabian Susanna, v. 5, as having their own judges,

writers of history still recorded, many like those which they tried to obtain

Judeans may have been driven thither; the in later times under the Persian, Greek,

fragment of the Arabic work mentioned and Roman supremacies.
in vol. i. p. 253, which was to have


them all. Even Ezekiel's voice is liushed, lienceforth, for

Online LibraryHeinrich EwaldThe history of Israel ... : translated from the German .. (Volume 5) → online text (page 1 of 69)