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PUBLIC LIBRARY THE BRANCH L.BRAR ES



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HISTORY OF THE JEWS.



.HISTORY OF THE JEWS,,



BY



PROFESSOR H. GRAETZ.
523 *

*



VOL. I.

FROM THE EARLIEST PERIOD TO THE DEATH OF SIMON
THE MACCABEE (135 B. C. E.).




PHILADELPHIA:

THE JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF AMERICA.
1891.



COPYRIGHT, 1891,
BY THE JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF AMERICA.



PRESS OF

THE FRIEDFNWALD COMPANY,
BALTIMORE, MD., U. S.A.






'






PREFACE TO THE SOCIETY'S EDITION.



Owing to necessary revision by the American
editors, there has been a delay in the publication
of this work beyond the time announced for its
appearance.

It is hoped that in the future such delay may be

avoided.

THE PUBLICATION COMMITTEE.

June, 1891.



PREFACE.



IT is a matter of especial satisfaction to me that my
work, " The History of the Jews, from the Earliest
Times to the Present Day," should be rendered
accessible to the English-reading public in a com-
pact form and by means of an adequate translation ;
for in countries where English is spoken, books are
not only bought, bound, and placed in libraries, but
are also read, taken to heart, and acted upon. It is
therefore to be expected that the English-speaking
people, which has never disregarded but has at all
times recognised and appreciated the peculiar char-
acter of the Jewish race, will feel an increased
sympathy for it, on reading the alternations of its
sublime and tragical history.

English readers, to whom the forefathers of the
Jews of to-day the patriarchs, heroes, and men of
God are familiar characters, will the better under-
stand the miracle which is exhibited in the history
of the Jews during three thousand years. The con-
tinuance of the Jewish race until the present day is a
marvel not to be overlooked even by those who deny
the existence of miracles, and who only see in the
most astounding events, both natural and preter-
natural, the logical results of cause and effect. Here
we observe a phenomenon, which has developed and



VI PREFACE.

asserted itself in spite of all laws of nature, and we
behold a culture which, notwithstanding unspeakable
hostility against its exponents, has nevertheless pro-
foundly modified the organism of nations.

J O

It is the heartfelt aspiration of the author that this
historical work, in its English garb, may attain its
object by putting an end to the hostile bearing against
the Jewish race, so that it mav no lono-er be be-

J * o

grudged the peculiar sphere whereto it has been
predestined through the events and sorrows of thous-
ands of years, and that it may be permitted to fulfil
its appointed mission without molestation.

This translation, in five volumes, is not a mere
excerpt of my " Geschichte der Juden " (like my
Yolksthumliche Geschichte der Juden"), but a con-
densed reproduction of the entire eleven volumes.
But the foot-notes have been omitted, so as to render
the present work less voluminous for the general
reader. Historical students are usually acquainted
with the German language, and can read the notes
in the original.

In this English edition the " History of the Present
Day' 1 is brought down to 1870, whilst the original
onlv gfoes as far as the memorable events of 1848.

* o

The last volume will contain a survev of the entire

m

history of the Jewish nation, together with a compre-
hensive index of names and events.

In conclusion, I cannot refrain from expressing my
gratitude to one whose life-task it is to further with
rare generosity all humane and intellectual interests,
and who has caused this translation to be made and



PREFACE. vii



published. At the risk of wounding his modesty, I
must mention, as the Maecenas of this work, Mr.
Frederick D. Mocatta, whose name is a household
word in every Jewish circle.

H. GRAETZ.

BRESLAU, January, 1891.



To the foregoing words of the author I merely
wish to add, that while the first volume, as far as
the period of the Hasmonaeans, has been translated
by me, the other volumes have for the greater part
" been done into English by various hands," and have
afterwards been revised and edited by me.

My cordial thanks are due to Mr. Israel Abrahams,
whose scholarly co-operation has enabled me to cope
with the difficulties presented by Hebrew and Jewish
names and technicalities.

BELLA LOWY.

LONDON, January, 1891.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

THE EARLIEST PERIOD.

The Original Inhabitants of Canaan Gigantic Anakim and
Rephaim The Phoenicians Israel's Claim to Canaan
The Patriarchs Hereditary Law Emigration to Egypt
Tribal Union Bright and Dark Sides of the Egyptians
-Moses, Aaron and Miriam The Prophetic Sage Call of
Moses as Deliverer Opposition Exodus from Egypt
Passage of the Red Sea Wandering in the Desert Reve-
lation on Mount Sinai The Decalogue Relapse Conces-
sions Crisis Circuitous Wanderings Victories over Popu-
lations of Canaan on Trans-Jordanic Side Commencements
of Hebrew Poetry Death of Moses page i

CHAPTER II.

OCCUPATION OF THE LAND OF CANAAN.

Joshua's Succession Passage of the Jordan Conquest of
Jericho The Gibeonites Coalition of Canaanite Cities
against the Israelites Settlement in the Land Isolation of
the Tribes Allotments The Tribe of Levi The Ark of
the Covenant at Shiloh Condition of Canaan at the time of
the Conquest Climate and Fertility Intellectual Activity
Poetry of Nature Remnants of Canaanite Populations
Death of Joshua page 32

CHAPTER III.

NEIGHBOURING NATIONS.

The Phoenicians, Aramaeans, Philistines, Idumaeans Their Cus-
toms and Mythology The Moabites and Ammonites
Intercourse of the Israelites with their Neighbours and
Adoption of their Manners Disintegration of the Tribes-
Consequent Weakness Temporary Deliverers . page 53

CHAPTER IV.

THE JUDGES.

Animosity of the Idumaeans Othniel, a Deliverer Eglon,
King of Moab The Canaanite King, Jabin Sisera, his
General The Prophetess and Poetess Deborah Barak
Victory near Tabor Early Hebrew Poetry Sufferings



X CONTENTS.

through Nomads The Hero Gideon v jerubbaal) Victory
in the Plain of Jezreel Commencement of Prosperity
Abimelech Feud with the Shechemites Jair the Gileadite
Hostilities of the Amalekites and the Philistines Jephthah
Samson Zebulunite Judges page 60

CHAPTER V.

ELI AND SAMUEL.

Importance of the Judges Public Feeling Sanctuary in Shiloh
-Eli and his Sons Defeat by the Philistines Capture of
the Ark Destruction of Shiloh and the Sanctuary Flight
of the Aaronites and Levites Death of Eli The Ark in
Philistia and in Kirjath Jearim Prophecy re-awakened
Samuel in Ramah The Order of Prophets or Singers
Popular revulsion The tribe of Judah Repeated attacks
of the Philistines Meeting at Mizpah Samuel's activity
Nob as a place of Worship Increase in the power of the
Philistines and Ammonites The Tribes desire to have a
King Samuel's course of action page 68

noo ? 1067 B. c. E.
CHAPTER VI.

THE APOGEE.

Establishment of a Kingdom Saul His Position and Charac-
ter His secret Election at Mizpah Humiliating Condition
of the Nation under the Philistines Declaration of War
Assemblage in Gilgal Battle of Michmash Defeat of the
Philistines Severity of Saul Victory over the Ammonites-
Saul's Election as King confirmed His Court and Attend-
ants His Officers and Standing Army Victory over the
Amalekites Disputes between Saul and Samuel Saul's
Attacks on the neighbouring People War with the Gibeon-
ites Place of Worship in Gibeon War against the Philis-
tines in the Valley of Tamarinths Goliath and David
Meeting of Saul and David Saul's Jealousy turns into
Madness The Persecution of David Saul's last Battle
against the Philistines Defeat and Death . . . page 82

1067 1055 B. c. E.
CHAPTER VII.

DAVID AND ISHBOSHETH.

Burning of Ziklag Defeat of the Amalekites Judah elects
David as King Abner and Ishbosheth War between the
houses of Saul and David Murder of Abner Death of
Ishbosheth David recognised as sole King Capture of



CONTENTS. Xi

Zion Fortification of Jerusalem War with the Philistines
-Victory of David The Heroes Alliance with Hiram
Removal of the Ark of the Sanctuary to Jerusalem The
High-Priest Choral Services of the Temple Internal
Government of Israel The Gibeonites and Rizpah Me-

phibosheth page 106

10551035 B. c. E.

CHAPTER VIII.

DAVID.

War with the Moabites Insult offered by the King of the
Ammonites War with the Ammonites Their Defeat
Battle of Helam Attack of Hadadezer Defeat of the
Aramaeans Acquisition of Damascus War with the Idu-
maeans Conquest of the town of Rabbah Defeat of the
Idumaeans Conquered races obliged to pay tribute Bath-
sheba Death of Uriah the Hittite Parable of Nathan-
Birth of Solomon (1033) Misfortunes of David Absalom
Wise Woman of Tekoah Reconciliation of David and
Absalom Numbering of the Troops Pestilence breaks out
in Israel Absalom's Rebellion Murder of Amasa Sheba's
Insurrection David and Nathan Adonijah . . page 125

I0 35 1015 B. c. E.
CHAPTER IX.

SOLOMON.

The new King's Rule Solomon's Choice Poetic Allegory
Murder of Adonijah and Joab The Court Alliance with
Egypt Tyre Solomon's Buildings The Plan of the
Temple The Workmen The Materials Description of
the Temple The Ceremony of Consecration Reorganisa-
tion of the Priesthood The King's Palace The throne
-Increase of National Wealth The Fleet The Seeds of
Disunion Jeroboam Idolatry permitted Estrangement
from Egypt Growth of surrounding Kingdoms Solomon's

Fame His Death page 156

1015 977 B. c. E.

CHAPTER X.

SECESSION OF THE TRIBES.

Accession of Rehoboam Jeroboam's return The King at
Shechem The Secession of the Ten Tribes Election of
Jeroboam New Alliances Rezon and Shishak Fortifica-
tion of Shechem Jeroboam's Idolatry Ahijah's rebuke-
Religion in Judah Abijam Asa Nadab Baasha Wars



Xll CONTENTS.

between Asa and Baasha Defeat of Zerah Benhadad
Elah Zimri Omri Civil war Samaria built Omri's
policy Alliances with Ethbaal and Tyre Ahab : his char-
acter Jezebel The Priests of Baal Elijah Naboth's vine-
yard Elijah at Carmel War with Benhadad Death of
Ahab and Jehoshaphat Ahaziah's Accession Jehoram
Elijah and Elisha Jehu Death of Jezebel . . page 179

977 887 B. c. E.
CHAPTER XI.

THE HOUSE OF DAVID AND THE JEHUIDES.

Athaliah's rule Early years of Joash Proclamation of Joash
by Jehoiada Athaliah slain Religious Revival Elisha
Repairing of the Temple Death of Jehoiada and of his Son
-Invasion of Israel by Hazael Jehoahaz Murder of Joash,
King of Judah Jehoash, King of Israel Defeat of the
Aramaeans Amaziah Conquest of Edom Death of Elisha
Amaziah defeated by Jehoash Jeroboam II. Death of
Amaziah page 213

887 805 B. c. E.
CHAPTER XII.

END OF THE HOUSE OF JEHU AND THE TIME OF UZZIAH.

Condition of Judah The Earthquake and the Famine Uzziah's
Rule Overthrow of Neighbouring Powers Fortification of
Jerusalem Navigation of the Red Sea Jeroboam's Pros-
perity The Sons of the Prophets Amos Prophetic Elo-
quence Joel's Prophecies Hosea foretells Ultimate Peace
Denunciation of Uzziah Zechariah, Shallum, Menahem
Last Years of Uzziah Contest between the King and the
High Priest Uzziah usurps the Priestly Functions
Uzziah's Illness page 228

805 758 B. c. E.
CHAPTER XIII.

THE DOWNFALL OF THE KINGDOM OF THE TEN TRIBES ; THE

HOUSE OF DAVID, AND THE INTERVENTION OF

THE ASSYRIANS.

King Menahem The Babylonians and the Assyrians Pekah
Jotham's reign Isaiah of Jerusalem His style and influ-
ence His first public address Later speeches Their im-
mediate and permanent effect His disciples Their charac-
teristics Zechariah His prophecies .... page 246

758740 B. c. E.



*



CONTENTS. Xlll

CHAPTER XIV.

THE END OF THE KINGDOM OF THE TEN TRIBES, AND THE

HOUSE OF DAVID.

The Reign of Ahaz His Character Alliance between Pekah
and Rezin Tiglath-Pileser and Assyria Ahaz seeks Assy-
rian Aid Isaiah's Opposition Defeat of Pekah and Rezin
Introduction of Assyrian Worship Human Sacrifices
The Second Micah Samaria after Pekah's Death Assyria
and Egypt Hoshea Samaria taken by Shalmaneser The
Exile Hezekiah His Early Measures His Weakness of
Character Isaiah's Efforts to Restrain Hezekiah from War
with Assyria Arrangements for the Defence Change of
Policy Isaiah Predicts the Deliverance Micah Rabsha-
keh's Embassy Hezekiah's Defiance His Illness and Re-
covery The Destruction of Sennacherib's Army Mero-
dach-baladan Hezekiah's Rule The Psalmists Death of
Hezekiah page 257

739 696 B. c. E.



CHAPTER XV.

THE LAST KINGS OF JUDAH.

Manasseh Fanatical Hatred of Hezekiah's Policy Assyrian
Worship Introduced The Anavim Persecution of the
Prophets Esarhaddon The Colonisation of Samaria
Amon Josiah Huldah and Zephaniah Affairs in As-
syria Regeneration of Judah under Josiah Repairing of
the Temple Jeremiah The Book of Deuteronomy Jo-
siah's Passover Battle at Megiddo .... page 281

695 608 B. c. E.



CHAPTER XVI.

END OF THE KINGDOM OF JUDAH.

Effects of Josiah's Foreign Policy Jehoahaz Jehoiakim
Egyptian Idolatry introduced The Prophets Uriah the
Son of Shemaiah Jeremiah's renewed Labours Fall of
Assyria Nebuchadnezzar Baruch reads Jeremiah's Scroll
Submission of Jehoiakim His Rebellion and Death
Jehoiachin Zedekiah Siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchad-
nezzar The Siege raised owing to the Intervention of
Egypt Defeat of the Egyptians Renewal of the Siege
Capture of Jerusalem Zedekiah in Babylon Destruction
of the Capital Jeremiah's Lamentations . . . page 298

608586 B. c. E.



XIV CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XVII.

THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE DESTRUCTION.

The National Decay The Fugitives Enmity of the Idu-
masans Johanan, Son of Kareah The Lamentation Neb-
uchadnezzar appoints Gedaliah as Governor Jeremiah
Encourages the People Mizpah Ishmael Murders Geda-
liah The Flight to Egypt Jeremiah's Counsel Disre-
farded Depopulation of Judah The Idumaeans make
ettlements in the Country Obadiah Condition of the
Judaeans in Egypt Defeat of Hophra Egypt under Amasis

Jeremiah's Last Days page 317

586 572 B. c. E.

CHAPTER XVIII.

THE BABYLONIAN EXILE.

Nebuchadnezzar's treatment of the Exiles The Exiles obtain
grants of land Evil-Merodach favours Jehoiachin Number
of the Judaean Exiles Ezekiel's captivity in the first period
of the Exile Moral change of the People Baruch collects
Jeremiah's Prophecies and compiles the Histories The
Mourners of Zion Proselytes The Pious and the Worldly
The Poetry of the Time Psalms and Book of Job
Nabonad's Persecutions The Martyrs and the Prophets
of the Exile The Babylonian Isaiah Cyrus captures
Babylon The Return under Zerubbabel . . page 329

572537 B. c. E.
CHAPTER XIX.

THE RETURN FROM BABYLON, THE NEW COMMUNITY IN
JUD^A, EZRA AND NEHEMIAH.

The Journey to Jerusalem The Samaritans Commencement
of the Rebuilding of the Temple Interruption of the
Work Darius Haggai and Zechariah Completion of the
Temple Contest between Zerubbabel and Joshua Inter-
marriage with Heathens The Judaeans in Babylonia Ezra
visits Jerusalem Dissolution of the Heathen Marriages
The Book of Ruth Attacks by Sanballat Nehemiah His
Arrival in Jerusalem Fortification of the Capital Sanbal-
lat's Intrigues against Nehemiah Enslavement of the Poor
Nehemiah's Protest Repopulation of the Capital The
Genealogies The Reading of the Law The Feast of Tab-
ernacles The Great Assembly The Consecration De-
parture of Nehemiah Action of Eliashib Withholding the
Tithes Malachi, the Last of the Prophets Nehemiah's
Second Visit to Jerusalem His measures . . page 354
537420 B. c. E.



CONTENTS. XV

CHAPTER XX.

THE SOPHERIC AGE.

Enmity of the Samaritans against the Judaeans The Temple
on Mount Gerizim The High-Priest Manasseh The mixed
language of the Samaritans Their veneration for the Law
of Moses Judaism loses its national meaning The Jubilee
and Sabbatical Year Almsgiving The Council of Seventy
The Assyrian Characters The Schools and the Sopherim
-Observance of the Ceremonies '1 he Prayers The Fu-
ture Life The Judaeans under Artaxerxes II. and III.
Their Banishment to the Caspian Sea Jochanan and Joshua
contend for the office of High-Priest Bagoas The Writ-
ings of the Period The Greeks and Macedonians Alex-
ander the Great and the Judaeans Judaea accounted a
Province of Ccelesyria Struggles between Alexander's
Successors Capture of Jerusalem by Ptolemy Judaea
added to the Lagidean-Egyptian Kingdom The Jndaean
Colonies in Egypt and Syria and the Greek Colonies in
Palestine Page 389

420 300 B. c. E.
CHAPTER XXL

SIMON THE JUST AND HIS DESCENDANTS.

Condition of the Judaeans under the Ptolemies Simon effects
Improvements His Praises are sung by Sirach His Doc-
trines TheChasidim and the Nazarites Simon's Children
Onias II. and the Revolt against Egypt Joseph, Son of
Tobias His Embassy to Alexandria He is appointed Tax-
collector War between Antiochus the Great and Egypt-
Defeat of Antiochus Spread of Greek Manners in Judaea
Hyrcanus The Song of Songs Simon II. Scopas de-
spoils Jerusalem The Contest between Antiochus and Rome
Continued Hellenisation of the Judaeans The Chasidim
and the Hellenists Jos6 ben Joezer and Jose ben Johanan
Onias III. and Simon Heliodorus Sirach's Book of
Proverbs against the Errors of his Time . . . page 420

300175 B. c. E.

CHAPTER XXII.

THE TYRANNICAL CONVERSION TO HELLENISM AND THE
ELEVATION OF THE MACCABEES.

Antiochus Epiphanes His Character His Wars with Rome

-He appoints Jason to the High-Priesthood Introduction

of the Greek Games Jason sends Envoys to Tyre to take



XVI CONTENTS.

part in the Olympian Games Affairs in Jerusalem Anti-
ochus invades Egypt Report of his Death in Jerusalem
Antiochus attacks the City and defiles the Temple His
Designs against Judaism His Second Invasion of Egypt
The Persecution of the Judaeans The Martyrs Mattathias
and his five Sons Apelles appears in Modin The Chasi-
dim Death of Mattathias and Appointment of Judas Mac-
cabaeus as Leader His Virtues Battles against Apollonius
and Heron Antiochus determines to Exterminate the Ju-
daean People Composition and Object of the Book of
Daniel Victory of Judas over Lysias .... page 442

175 1 66 B. c. E.
CHAPTER XXIII

VICTORIES AND DEATH OF JUDAS MACCABEUS; JONATHAN

THE HASMON^EAN.

Return of Judas to Jerusalem Reconsecration of the Temple
The Feast of Lights Fortification of the Capital The
Idumasans and Ammonites defeated by Judas Ill-treatment
of the Galilean Judaeans Measures against Timotheus
Death of Antiochus Embassy of the Hellenists to Anti-
ochus V. Battle at Bethzur Retreat of Judas Affairs in
Jerusalem Alcimus Intervention of the Romans Nica-
nor's Interview with Judas Battle of Adarsa Death of
Judas Results of his Career Condition of the People after
the Death of Judas The Chasidim, the Hellenists, and the
Hasmonaeans Jonathan His Guerilla Warfare against
Bacchides Death of the High-Priest Alcimus Truce
between Jonathan and Bacchides Jonathan as High-Priest
His far-sighted Policy His Captivity and his Death.

page ^ i

165 143 B. C. E.

CHAPTER XXIV.

THE JUDAEANS IN ALEXANDRIA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF

SIMON.

The Judaean Colonies in Egypt and Cyrene Internal Affairs of
the Alexandrian Community King Philometor favours the
Judaeans Onias and Dositheus The Temple of Onias
Translation of the Pentateuch into Greek Struggle between
the Judaeans and Samaritans in Alexandria Affairs in
Judaea Independence of Judaea Simon's League with the
Romans Overthrow of the Acra and of the Hellenists-
Simon's Coinage Quarrel between Simon and the Syrian
King Invasion by Cendebaeus Assassination of Simon.

page 503
160 135 B. c. E.



HISTORY OF THE JEWS.



CHAPTER I.

THE EARLIEST PERIOD.

The Original Inhabitants of Canaan Gigantic Anakim and Rephaim
The Phoenicians Israel's Claim to Canaan The Patriarchs
Hereditary Law Emigration to Egypt Tribal Union Bright
and Dark Sides of the Egyptians Moses, Aaron and Miriam
The Prophetic Sage Call of Moses as Deliverer Oppo-
sition Exodus from Egypt Passage of the Red Sea Wan-
derings in the Desert Revelation on Mount Sinai The
Decalogue Relapse Concessions Crisis Circuitous Wander-
ings Victories over Populations of Canaan, on Trans-Jordanic
Side Commencements of Hebrew Poetry Death of Moses.

IT was on a spring day that some (pastoral /tribes
passed across the Jordan into a strip of land which
can only be regarded as an extended coast-line of
the Mediterranean. This was the land of Canaan,
/subsequently called Palestine. The crossing of the
Jordan and the entry into this Aerritory were /des-
tined to become of the /utmost importance to man-
kind. The land of which the /shepherd tribes
possessed themselves became the/arena of great
events, so /enduring and important in their results,
that the country in which they took place became
known as the Holy Land. Distant nations had
no /conception that the entry of the Hebrew or
Israelite tribes into the land of Canaan would
have such /momentous consequences. Even the
inhabitants of Palestine were far from recognising
in this ^invasion an /occurrence /fraught with/ vital
significance to themselves.



a HISTORY OF THE JEWS. CH. I.

At the time when the Hebrews occupied this
territory it was inhabited by tribes and peoples dis-
similar in/descent and /pursuits The /primary place
was held by the /aborigines, the Anakim and Re-
phaim, a powerful race of giants. Tradition repre-
sents them as the descendants of that unruly and
/overbearing race which, in primaeval times, yat-
tempted to storm the heavens. For this rebellious
attempt they had been 'doomed to 'ignominious
destruction.

Their/reputed descendants, the powerful /natives
of the country who by some of the ancient nations
were called Emim, "terrible men" were unable
to 'maintain themselves; notwithstanding their im-
posing figures, they were destroyed by races of
inferior 'stature. The rest were /obliged to/migrate
to the East-Jordanic lands, to the south, and also
to the south-west of the West -Jordanic /region.
This/remnant of the Anakim filled the Israelite
spies with such abject /terror that they made the
entire nation despair of ever obtaining possession of
the country. This gave rise to the proverb, "Who
can stand before the children of Anak?" "We
were," said the spies, " in our own eyes as grass-
hoppers, and so we appeared unto them." These
giants were eventually /overcome by the Israelite
/dwarfs.

Another group of inhabitants which had settled
in the land between the Mediterranean and the
Jordan was that of the Canaanites, whom the
Greeks called Phoenicians. These Phoenicians ap-
pear to have pursued the same employment in their
new country as they had followed on the /banks of
the Red Sea or the Persian Gulf. Their chief pur-
suits were /navigation and -'commerce. The position
which they had selected was eminently favourable
to their daring expeditions. The great ocean,
forming a strait at the Pillars of Hercules, and
separating Europe from Africa, as the Mediterra-



CH. THE CANAANITES. 3

nean Sea, has here its extreme limit. At the foot of
the snow-topped Lebanon and its 'spurs, commodious

[inlets formed natural harbours that/ required but little
improvement at the hand of man. On this ^seaboard
the Canaanites built the town of Sidon, /situated on a

/prominent crag which /overhangs the sea. They
afterwards built, on a small rocky island, the port of
Tyre (Tor, which subsequently became celebrated);
they also built Aradus to the north of Sidon, and
Akko (Acre) to the south of Tyre. The neighbouring
forests of the Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon sup-
plied them with /lofty /cedars and strong /cypresses
for ships. The Canaanites, who became the first

/mercantile nation in the world, owed much of their
success to the advantage of finding on their coast
various species of the /murex (Tolaat shani], from
the fluid of which was obtained a most brilliant
and widely celebrated purple dye. The beautiful
white sand of the river Belus, near Acre, supplied
fine glass, an article which was likewise in much
request in the Old World. The wealth of the
country lay in the sands of the sea-shore. The
Canaanites, on account of their 'extensive / trade,
required and introduced at an early period a /conve-
nient form of writing, and their alphabet, the Phoeni-
cian, became the model for the alphabets of ancient
and modern nations. In a word, the narrow belt of
land between the Mediterranean and Mount Leb-
anon, with its spurs, became one of the most impor-
tant points On the face of the globe. Through the
peaceful pursuits of commerce the Canaanites were
brought into /contact with remote nations, who



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