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^







HISTORY OF THE JEWS



HISTORY OF THE
JEWS



BY

PROFESSOR H. GRAETZ



VOL. Ill

From the Revolt against the Zendik (511 C. E.) to

THE Capture of St. Jean d'Acre by the

Mahometans (1291 C. E.)




PHILADELPHIA
The Jewish Publication Society of America



Copyright, 1894,
By the Jewish Publication Society of America.



CONTENTS



.3



CHAPTER I.

THE DECAY OF JUD^A, AND THE JEWS IN DISPERSION.

The Zendik Religion — King Kobad and Mazdak the Re-
former — Revolt of the Jews — Mar-Zutra — Revival of the
Schools — The Saburaim — The Talmud committed to writing
— Tolerance of Chosru II — The Christianization of Judaea —
The Jews under Byzantine Rule — Justinian — Persecution of
the Samaritans — Benjamin of Tiberias — Attack on Tyre —
The Emperor Heraclius pci-g^ i

500 — 628 c. E.
CHAPTER II.

THE JEWS IN EUROPE,

Growth of the Jews in Europe — The Communities in Con-
stantinople and Italy — Theodoric — Isidore of Seville — Pope
Gregory I — The Jews of France — Chilperic and Dagobert —
Avitus — The Jews in Spain — Controversies between Jews and
Christians p(^g^ 24

510 — 640 c. E.
CHAPTER III.

THE JEWS OF THE ARABIAN PENINSULA.

Happy condition of the Jews in Arabia — Traditions as to their
original settlements — Yathrib and Chaibar — The Jewish-
Arabic tribes — The Benu-Nadhir, the Benu-Kuraiza, and
Benu-Bachdal — The Benu-Kainukaa — The Jews of Yemen —
Their power and influence — Conversion of Arabian tribes to
Judaism — Abu-Kariba, the first Jewish- Himyarite king —
Zorah Dhu-Nowas — Samuel Ibn-Adija — Mahomet — His in-
debtedness to Judaism — Mahomet's early friendliness to the
Jews and subsequent breach with them — His attacks on the
Jewish tribes — The War of the Fosse — The position of the
Jews under the Caliphs page 53

500 — 662 c. E.



IV CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IV.

THE AGE OF THE GEONIM.

The Conquests of Islam — Omar's Intolerance — Condition of
the Jews in Babylonia — Bostanai — The Princes of the Cap-
tivity and the Geonim — Dignity and Revenues of the Prince
— Communal Organization — Excommunication — ^Julian of
Toledo and the Jews — The Moslems in Spain — The Jews
and Arabic Literature — The Assyrian Vowel-system — The
Neo Hebraic Poetry: Jose ben Jos6— Simon ben Caipha — ■
Employment of Rhyme — ^Jannai — Eleazar Kaliri — Oppo-
sition to the Study of the Talmud — 1 he F'alse Me>siah
Serenus, the Syrian — The Jews in the Crimea and the Land
of the Chazars — The False Messiah Obadia Abu lsa,pci^i,>^e 86

640 — 760 C. E.

CHAPTER V.

RISE OF KARAISM AND ITS RESULTS.

Anan ben David, the founder of Karaism — His life, writings,
and influence — Hostility to the Talmud — Anan's innovations
— Karaite reverence of Anan— The Exilarchate becomes
elective — Adoption of Judaism by the Chazars — King Bulan
and Isaac Sinjari — Bulan's Jewish successors — Charlemagne
and the Empire of the Franks — The Jews and Commerce —
Jewish Envoy sent to the Caliph Haroun Alrashid— Spread
of the Jews in Europe — The Caliphs and the Jews — The
study of philosophy — Sahal — The Kalam — Mutazilists and
Anthropomorphists — ^Judah Judghan — The Shiur Kotnah —
The Akbarites — Moses the Persian page 127

761 — 840 c. E.
CHAPTER VI.

FAVORABLE CONDITION OF THE JEWS IN THE PRANKISH DOMI-
NIONS, AND THE DECAY OF THE EXILARCHATE IN THE EAST.

The Jews under Louis le Debonnaire — The Empress Judith
and her Veneration for Judaism — Agobard, Bishop of Lyons
— Conversion of Bishop Bodo — Amolo's effort against the
Jews — Charles the Bald — Troubles in Beziers and Toulouse —
Decree against the Jews in Italy — Boso of Burgundy — Ba-
silius — Leo the Philosopher — Decline of the Exilarchate —
The Geonim acquire Additional Influence — The Prayer Book
of Amram — Mar-Zemach — Literary and Scientific Activity
of the Jews — Decay of Karaism — Dissensions at Pumbe-
ditha page 160

814 — 920 c. E.



CONTENTS. V

CHAPTER VII.

THE GOLDEN AGE OF JEWISH SCIENCE: SAADIAH AND CHASDAI.

Judaism in the Tenth Century — Saadiah, the Founder of Re-
ligious Philosophy — Translation of the Bible into Arabic —
Saadiah opposes Karaism — The Karaite Solomon ben Yeru-
cham — Saadiah and the School at Sora — Saadiah retires
from Sora — His Literary Activity — Extinction of the Exil-
archate — Sahal and other Karaite writers — Jews in Spain —
The School at Cordova— Dunash ben Tamim — Chasdai —
His services to Judaism — Menachem ben Saruk — Chasdai
and the King of the Chazars page i?>'j

928 — 970 c. E.
CHAPTER VIII.

THE RISE OF JEWISH-SPANISH CULTURE, AND THE DECAY OF
THE GAONATE.

The Gaon Sherira and his son Hai— Sherira's Historical Letter
— The Jewish Congregations in Spain — Jewish Culture in
Andalusia — The Disciples of Menachem and Dunash — ^Je
huda Chayuj — Contest between Chanoch and Ibn-Abitur —
Jacob Ibn-Jau — The Jews of France — Nathan the Babylonian
and Leontin — The Jews of Germany — Gershom and his
Ordinances — The Emperor Henry II — The Caliph Hakem
— The Jewish Communities of Northern Africa — Chananel,thc
Son of Chushiel, and Nissim bar Jacob Ibn Shahin — The
Jerusalem Talmud — Hai Gaon — His Character and Impor-
tance — Samuel bar Chofni — Chiskiya, the Lnst Gaon—
Samuel Ibn-Nagrela — ^Jonah Ibn-Janach . , . page 231

970—1050 C. E.
CHAPTER IX.

IBN-GEBIROL AND HIS EPOCH.

Solomon Ibn-Gebirol — His early life — His poems — The states-
man Yekutiel Ibn- Hassan befriends him — Murder of Yeku-
tiel — Bachya Ibn-Pakuda and his moral philosophy — The
Biblical critic Yizchaki ben Yasus — ^Joseph ben Chasdai, the
Poet — Death of Samuel Ibn Nagrela — Character of his son
Joseph and his tragic fate — Death of Ibn-Gebirol — The
French and German communities — Alfassi — Life and works
of Rashi — ^Jewish scholars in Spain — King AMonsOy page 265

1027 — 1070 C. E.



VI CONTENTS.

CHAPTER X.

THE FIRST CRUSADE.

The position of the Jews in Germany previous to the Crusades
— The community of Speyer and Henry IV — The Martyrs
of Treves and Speyer — Emmerich of Leiningen and the
Martyrs of Mayence — Cruel persecutions at Cologne — Suffer-
ing of the Jews in Bohemia — Pitiful death of the Jews of
Jerusalem — Emperor Henry's justice towards the Jews —
Return of Converts to Judaism — Death of Aifassi and
Rashi page 297

1096 — 1 105 c. E.
CHAPTER XI.

ZENITH OF THE SPANISH-JEWISH CULTURE : JEHUDA HALEVI.

The Jews under the Almoravides — Joseph Ibn-Sahal, Joseph
Ibn-Zadik — Joseph Ibn-Migash — The Poets Ibn-Giat, Ibn-
Abbas, Ibn Sakbel and Ibn Ezra — Abulhassan Jehuda Ha-
levi — His Poems and Philosophy — The Chozari — Incidents
of his Life — Prince Samuel Almansur — Jehuda Halevi's I'il-
grimage to Jerusalem — His Death P^ge 2,\\

1105 — 1 148 c. E.
CHAPTER XII.

PERSECUTIONS DURING THE SECOND CRUSADE AND UNDER
THE ALMOHADES.

Condition of the Jews in France — The Second Crusade — Peter
the Venerable and the Monk Rudolph — Bernard of Clair-
vaux and the Emperor Conrad — Protectors of the Jews —
Persecutions under the Almohades — Abdulmumen and his
Edict — The Prince Jehuda Ibn-Ezra — The Karaites in Spain
— ^Jehuda Hadassi — The historian Abraham Ibn-Daud and
his Philosophy — Abraham Ibn-Ezra — Rabbenu Tam,

page 347

II43 — I 170 C. E.

CHAPTER XIII.

SURVEY OF THE EPOCH OF MAIMUNI (mAIMONIDES).

The Jews of Toledo — Ibn-Shoshan, Ibn-AIfachar — The Poet
Charisi — Sheshet Benveniste — Benjamin of Tudela — The
Jews of Provence — The Kimchis— The Communities of B6-
ziers, Montpellier, Liinel, and Toulouse — Persecutions ()f
Jews in Northern France— The Jews of England — Richard
I — I he Jews of York — Fhe Jews ot Germany — Ephraim ben



CONTENTS. VU

Jacob — Siisskind — Petacliya the Traveler — The Jews of
Italy and of the Byzantine Empire — Communities in Syria
and Palestine — The Jews of P)agdad — Mosul — The Pseu-
do-AIessiah, David iMroy — The Jews of India — Conver-
sion to Judaism of Tartars — The Jews of Egypt, page 382.
1171 — 1205 c. E.

CHAPTER XIV.

MAIMUNI (mAIMONIDES).

Early years of Mainumi (]\Iaimonides) — His journey to Fez
— Letter of Consolation of Alaimun (father of Maimo-
nides) — Maimuni and the Jewish Converts to Islam — The
Maimun Family in Palestine and Egypt — Maimuni's
Commentary on the Mishna — Saladin and the Jews —
Letter of ]\Iaimonides to Yemen — The Misknc-Torah of
IMaimuni — Controversies with reference to this Work —
Joseph Ibn-Aknin — ]\Iaimuni as a Physician — Maimuni
attacked by Samuel ben Ali — Maimuni and the Jews of
Provence — The More Ncbuchim and its importance —

Death of Maimonides page 446

1171 — 1205 c. E.

CHAPTER XV.

NEW POSITION OF THE JEWS IN CHRISTIAN LANDS AT THE
BEGINNING OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY.

Effects of the Death of Maimuni — Abraham ]\Iaimuni, the
son of Maimuni — Hostility of the Papacy against the Jews
— Pope Innocent HI — The Albigenses — Emigration of
Rabbis to Palestine — The Lateran Council and the Jewish
Badges — Synod of Rabbis at Mayence — The Dominicans
and the Rise of the Inquisition — King Jayme of Aragon
and his Physician Benveniste — Stephen Langton and the
Jews of England — Gregory IX and Louis IX of France —

The Jews of Hungary page 494

1205 — 1232 c. E.

CHAPTER XVI.

THE MAIMUNIST CONTROVERSY AND THE RISE OF THE
KABBALA.

The Opposition against Maimuni — Maimunists and anti-
Maimunists — Mei'r Abulafia — Samson of Sens — Solomon
of Montpellier — Excommunication of the Maimunists —
David Kimchi's energetic Advocacy of Maimuni — Nach-
mani — His Character and Work — His Relations to Mai-



Vlll CONTENTS.

muni. Ibn-Ezra, and the Kabbala — Solomon of Montpel-
lier calls in the aid of the Uoniinicans — Moses of Coucy
— Modern date of the Kabbala — Azriel and Ezra — Doc-
trines of the Kabbala — Jacob ben Sheshet Gerundi — The
Bahir — Three Parties in Judaism — Last flicker of the
Neo-Hebraic Poetry — The Satirical Romance: Al-Charisi

and Joseph ben Sahara page $22

1232 — 1236 c. E.

CHAPTER XVII.

PUBLIC DISCUSSIONS, AND THE BURNING OF THE TALMUD.

Pope Gregory IX — Emperor Frederick II and the Jewish
Scholars, Jehuda Ibn-Matka and Jacob Anatoli — The
Jewish Legislation of Frederick of Austria — The Martyrs
of Aquitaine and Gregory IX — Louis IX of France and
his Enmity to the Jews — Attacks on the Talmud — The
Apostate Nicholas-Donin — Disputation at the French
Court between Yechiel of Paris and Nicholas-Donin — ■
Judah of Melun — The Talmud burnt at Paris — The
Church and Jewish Physicians — Moses Ibn-Tibbon and
Shem-Tob Tortosi — Papal Bull acquitting Jews of the
Blood-accusation — The Last French Tossafists — The
Jews of England — The Jewish Parliament — Alfonso the
Wise and the Jews of Spain — Meir de Malea and his Sons
— The Jewish Astronomers Don Judah Cohen and Don
Zag Ibn-Said — The Jews of Aragon — De Penyaforte and
the Apostate Pablo Christiani — The First Censorship of
the Talmud — Nachmani's Disputation with Pablo — Influ-
ence of Nachmani — The Karaites .... page 563

1236 — 1270 c. E.
CHAPTER XVIII.

THE AGE OF SOLOMON BEN ADRET AND ASHERI.

Martyrs in Germany — The Jews of Hungary and Poland —
The Council at Buda — The Jews of Spain and Portugal —
Solomon ben Adret, his character and writings — Ray-
mund Martin's anti-Jewish Works — New antagonism to
the Maimunist Philosophy — David Maimuni — Moses
Taku — Meir of Rothenburg — The Jews of Italy — Solo-
mon Petit — Rudolph of Habsburg — Emigration of Jews
from the Rhine Provinces — Sufferings of the English
Jews — Expulsion of the Jews from England and Gascony
— Saad Addaula — Isaac of Accho .... page 610
1270 — 1306 c. E.



HISTORY OF THE JEWS.



CHAPTER I.

THE DECAY OF JUD^A \ND THE JEWS IN DISPERSION.

The Zendik Religion — King Kobad and Mazdak the Reformer —
Revolt of the Jews — Mar-Zutra — Revival of the Schools — The
Saburalm — The Talmud committed to writing— Tolerance of
Chosru II — The Christianization of Judasa — The Jews under
Byzantine Rule — Justinian — Persecution of the Samaritans —
Benjamin of Tiberias — Attack on Tyre — The Emperor Heraclius.

500 — 628 c. E.

Hardly had the Jews recovered from the long and
horrible persecution to which they had been sub-
jected by King Firuz, when they were overtaken by
fresh storms, which subverted the work of three
centuries. Firuz had been followed by his brother,
who reigned a short time, and was succeeded by
Kobad (Kovad, Cabades). The latter was a weak
king, not without good qualities, but he allowed
himself to become the tool of a fanatic, and was
prevailed upon to institute religious persecutions.
There arose under this monarch a man who desired
to reform the religion of the Magi and make it the
ruling faith. Mazdak — for that was the name of this
reformer of Magianism — believed that he had dis-
covered a means of promoting the promised victory
of Light over Darkness, of Ahura-Mazda over
Angromainyus. He considered greed of property
and lust after women the causes of all evil among
men, and he desired to remove these causes by
introducing community of property and of women,
even allowing promiscuous intercourse among those



2 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. CH. I.

related by tics of consanii^uinity. In Mazdak's
opinion it was on the foundation of communistic
equality that the edifice of Zoroaster's doctrine
could most safely be raised. As he led a virtuous
and ascetic life, and was very earnest in his en-
deavors to reform, he soon succeeded in gaining-
numerous adherents (about the year 501), who
availed themselves of these advantageous liberties,
and called themselves Zendik, or true believers of
the Zend. King Kobad himself became Mazdak's
faithful disciple and supporter. He issued a decree
commanding all the inhabitants of the Persian
Empire to accept the doctrines of Mazdak, and to
live in accordance therewith. The lower classes
became the most zealous of Zendiks ; they promptly
appropriated the possessions of the rich and such
of the women as pleased them. Thus there arose
a confusion of the ideas of right and wrong, of
virtue and vice, such as had never been known in
the history of nations. Finally, the Persian nobles
dethroned this communistic king, and threw him
into prison ; but when Kobad escaped from confine-
ment and, by the aid of the Huns, was again placed
in possession of his dominions, they were unable
to prevent Mazdak's adherents from renewing their
licentious conduct. Many children born during
Kobad's reign were of doubtful paternity, and no
one could be certain of the peaceful enjoyment of
his property.

The Jews and Christians naturally did not escape
the communistic plague, and although only the rich
suffered from the legalized robbery of the Zendiks,
the community of women struck a terrible blow at
all classes. Chastity and holding sacred the mar-
riage vows had, from the first, been characteristic
virtues of the Jews, and by Talmudic law, they had
become even more deeply rooted in their natures.
They could not endure the thought of their wives
and maidens exposed to violation, and the purity of



CH. I. MAZDAK, THE ZENDIK REFORMER. 3

their families, which they treasured as the apple of
their eye, threatened with defilement. They appear
therefore to have opposed an armed resistance to
the licentious attacks of the Zendiks. An insur-
rection of the Jews, which broke out at this juncture,
was in all probability organized for the purpose of
resisting this intolerable communism. At the head
of this insurrection stood Mar-Zutra II, the youthful
Prince of the Captivity, who, to judge from the fact
alone that legend has embellished his birth and
deeds with wonderful details, must have been a
remarkable personage.

Mar-Zutra, born in about 496, was the son of
Huna, a learned Prince of the Captivity, who, after
the death of the tyrant Firuz, was invested with the
dignity of the Exilarchate (488-508). At the time
of his father's death, Mar-Zutra was still a young
boy. During the period of his minority, the office
of Prince of the Captivity was held by Pachda, his
sister's husband, who does not seem to have been
inclined to yield this dignity to the lawful heir.
Mar-Zutra's grandfather, Mar-Chanina, in company
with his grandson, sought the court of the Persian
king, and in 511, presumably by means of valuable
presents, succeeded in effecting Pachda's deposition
and Mar-Zutra's investiture. It was this young
prince who now arose, sword in hand, to protect his
brethren. The immediate cause of the insurrection
is said to have been the murder of Mar-Isaac, the
president of one of the academies. Mar-Zutra's
forces consisted of four hundred Jewish warriors,
with whose help he probably succeeded in expelling
Mazdak's rapacious and lustful adherents from the
territory of Jewish Babylonia, and in resisting this
shameless violation of most sacred rights. He is
further said to have accomplished such brilliant feats
of arms that the troops which had been sent by the
king to quell the insurrection were unable to with-
stand him. Mar-Zutra is even said to have won



4 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. CH, I.

independence for his people, and to have laid the
non-Jewish inhabitants of Babylonia under tribute.
Machuza, near Ctesiphon, became the capital of a
small Jewish state, with the Prince of the Captivity
for its king.

The independence thus conquered by Mar-Zutra
lasted nearly seven years ; the Jewish army was
finally overcome by the superior numbers of the
Persian host, and the Prince of the Captivity was
taken prisoner. He and his aged grandfather,
Mar-Chanina, were executed, and their bodies nailed
to the cross on the bridge of Machuza (about 520).
The inhabitants of this town were stripped of their
possessions, and led into captivity, and it is probable
that this was not the full extent of the persecution.
The members of the family of the Prince of the
Captivity were compelled to flee. They escaped
to Judaea, taking with them Mar-Zutra's posthum-
ous heir, who also bore the name Mar-Zutra.
He was educated in Judaea, and there became a
distinguished scholar. On account of Kobad's per-
secution, the office of Prince of the Captivity in
Babylonia remained in abeyance for some time.
The Talmudical academies were closed, for the
teachers of the Law were persecuted and com-
pelled to hide. Two of the leading men, Ahunai
and Giza, fled, and the latter settled on the
river Zab. Other fugitives probably directed their
steps towards Palestine or Arabia. Kobad's re-
venge for an insurrection provoked by fanaticism
dealt a severe blow at the public life of the Baby-
lonian Jews, which centered in the two academies,
at Sora and Pumbeditha. However, the persecution
does not seem to have extended over the whole of
Persia, for Jewish soldiers served in the Persian
army which fought against the Greek general
Belisarius, and the Persian captain had so great a
regard for them that he requested a truce in order
that they might peacefully observe the feast of
Passover.



CH. I. KOBAD AND HIS SUCCESSORS. 5

After Kobad's death, the persecution of the
Babylonian Jews ceased. His successor, Chosroes
Nushirvan, was not, indeed, well-disposed towards
them, and imposed upon them and the Christians a
poll-tax from which only children and old men were
exempt ; yet this tax was not an indication of
intolerance or hate, but simply a means of filling
the imperial treasury.

As soon as peace was restored the representa-
tives of the Babylonian Jews hastened to re-establish
their institutions, to re-open the academies, and, as
it were, to re-unite the severed links in the chain
of tradition. The fugitive Giza, who had remained
in hiding by the river Zab, was called to preside
over the academy at Sora ; the sister academy at
Pumbeditha chose Semuna as its head. A third
name of this period has been transmitted to pos-
terity, that of Rabai of Rob (near Nahardea), whose
position and office are, however, not clearly known.
These men, with their associates and disciples,
devoted their whole activity to the Talmud. It was
the sole object of the attention of all thoughtful and
pious men of that period ; it satisfied religious zeal,
promoted tranquillity of mind, and was also the
means of acquiring fame, and thus furthering both
spiritual and temporal aims. The persecution of
the Law endeared and sanctified it, and the Talmud
was the sacred banner around which the entire
nation rallied.

But the disciples of the last Amoraim had lost all
creative power, and were unable to continue the de-
velopment of the Talmud. The subject-matter and
the method of teaching were both so fully defined
that they were incapable of extension or of amplifi-
cation. The stagnation in Talmudical development
was more marked than ever before. The presidents
of the academies were content to adhere to the
ancient custom of assembling their disciples during
the months of Adar (March) and Ellul (September),



6 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. CH, I.

giving them lectures on the traditional lore and the
methodolog"y of the Talmud, and assigning to them
themes for private study. At the utmost they
settled, according to certain principles, many points
of practice in the ritual, the civil law and the mar-
riage code, which had until then remained undeter-
mined, or concerning which there was a difference of
opinion in the academies. Their purpose was to
render the exhaustless material of the Talmud,
which discussion and controversy had deprived of
all definiteness, available for practical use. In
order to prevent the decay of religious living, it was
necessary that all doubt and uncertainty should
cease ; the judges stood in need of fixed principles by
which to decide the cases brought before them, and
all were ignorant of authoritative precepts by which
to regulate their religious conduct. The establishing
of the final rules for religious and legal practice after
careful consideration of the arguments /n? and con
conferred upon the post-Amoraic teachers the name
of Sabureans (Saburai). After the various opinions
(Sebora) were reviewed, they were the ones that
established the final, valid law. The activity of the
Sabureans really began immediately after the com-
pletion of the Talmud, and Giza, Semuna and
their associates merely worked along the same
lines ; their intention was to develop a practical
code rather than the theory of the Law. They did not
arrogate to themselves the authority to originate.
First of all, Giza and Semuna, the presidents of
the academies, engaged in the work of committing
the Talmud to writing. They availed themselves
partly of oral tradition, partly of written notes
made by various persons as an aid to memory.

As everything which proceeded from the Amoraic
authorities appeared of importance to their succes-
sors, they gathered up every utterance, every
anecdote which was current in learned circles, so
that posterity might not be deprived of what they



CH. I. THE TALMUD COMMITTED TO WRITING. J

deemed to be the fulness of wisdom. They made
additions for the purpose of explaining obscure
passages. In this form, as edited by the Sabureans,
the contemporary communities and posterity re-
ceived the Talmud.

The era of the Sabureans witnessed the besfin-
ninors of an art without which the sacred writintrs
had remained a sealed book, — the introduction of a
system of vowel-points, by means of which the
text of Holy Writ became intelligible to the un-
learned. This art owes its origin to a faint breath
of "scientific research" wafted from dying Greece.
Justinian had closed the schools of philosophy in
Greece, and the last of her wise men sought refuge
in Persia. From them the science of grammar
was communicated to the Syrian Christians, these
in turn roused in their Jewish neighbors the spirit
of emulation in the investigation of the Scriptures,
and this led to the adoption of vowel-points and
accents.

The names of the immediate successors of Giza
and Semuna have been preserved neither by the
chronicles nor by tradition ; they were forgotten in
the persecution with which the academies were



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