UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
I. THE AMERICAN GIRL'S HOME-BOOK
II. HOUSEHOLD ECONOMICS
G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS, New York and London
AMERICAN GIRL'S HOME BOOK
WORK AND PLAY
AUTHOR OF " UNDER GREEN APPLE-BOUGHS," " THE PROBLEM OF THE POOR," "PATTY
PEARSON'S BOY," " THE AINSLEE SERIES," ETC.
NEW EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED
NEW YORK AND LONDON
G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS
MAY 29 1911
BY G. * PUTNAM'S SONS
LONG ago, when the writer was young, she owned a little book,
consulted with never-flagging enthusiasm, and written by a woman
who did the first intelligent and sympathetic work for children ever
accomplished in this country. In Mrs. Lydia Maria Child's " Girl's
Own Book " such plays as tne more rigorous educational theories
of the time allowed, were set forth in order, and there were also
sundry small occupations for amusement ; the crystallized grasses,
alum-baskets, and various ornamental works still to be found in old
houses, testifying to the zeal with which her instructions were fol-
The little book is now, in many points, as antiquated as if written
in the fifteenth, instead of the nineteenth, century ; and yet it em-
bodies a plan which has never since been carried out, that of com-
bining all the occupations, as well as amusements, practicable in a
mixed family of all ages and tastes. As yet, though boys are pro-
vided for, girls have no book that will be a trustworthy guide, either
in work or play ; and it is hoped that the present one will fill that
"long unoccupied niche" which many authors have felt it their
mission to redeem from emptiness, and become the trusted friend
and adviser of all the girls who are uncertain what is best in either
work or play. All directions have been made as plain and explicit
as possible ; and the writer believes that every fact and figure may
be trusted as the real result of real work, and that, while the Loui-
siana girl may have to plan a slightly different course from her
Massachusetts sister, the same results are probable for both.
The author is indebted to Mrs. Hester M. Poole of Metuchen,
N.J., for the matter from Chaps. XL to XX. inclusive of Part III. ;
her experience having been a practical one, and her facts most
carefully stated. The use of Mr. George B. Bartlett's work in
Chaps. V. and VI., in Part L, has been cordially given by both
author and publishers ; and the same is the case with Mrs. Charles
F. Fernald's "Jack and the Beanstalk" in Part I. The matter
and drawings for part of the chapter on "Magic-Lanterns," in
Part L, was furnished by Mrs. May Cole Baker of Washington;
and the "Stage-Coach" story, by Miss Louise Stockton of Phila-
delphia. Every available authority has been consulted and sifted;
and it is hoped that the American girl will find the results, though
giving slight indication of the amount of labor expended, good
both for present and future.
PHILADELPHIA, August, 1885.
PREFACE TO REVISED EDITION.
Five years have passed since the first edition of the
" American Girls' Home Book of Work and Play " was
prepared ; and though there are many points in which it
might be bettered, it has proved the safe and trusty com-
panion of a good many girls who have studied the third
part eagerly, and have found it, as they say, precisely the
help they needed. Two chapters are added to the present
edition : one on " Candy- Making," which has proved itself
a practical and profitable home occupation; the other on
"A New Home Industry," a new form of mosaic-work
both pretty and practical.
Naturally in five years countless games have been in-
vented, and have had their day, the old favorites calmly
holding their own, and returned to always with the sense
of satisfaction found in familiar and well-tested friends.
It would be quite possible to make many alterations and
additions, where this portion of the book is concerned,
but the gain would be but trifling, since the children of
each generation reproduce the games of the last, and are
all, in this direction, conservatives of the first water. And
so, having turned over the pages diligently, the author
leaves them as they stand, knowing that other books will
give the newest thing told in the newest way, but that
she may still count upon friends for the old, as well as
hope for new ones to come.
LONDON, February, 1888.
RAINY-DAY AMUSEMENTS AND HOME-MADE TOYS FOR YOUNGER CHIL-
Coloring Pictures, 2; Making Scrap-books, 3 ; A Picture-puzzle, 4;
Paper Dolls and Furniture, 4 ; Reception-chair, 5 ; Paper Bed, 6; Paper
Sofa, 7 ; Rocking-chair and Ottomans, 8 ; Parlor Table, 9 ; Bureau,
10 ; Washstand, 1 1 ; Cork-work, 12 ; Paper Fly-boxes, 13; Paper Caps
or Cocked Hats, 14; Paper Boats, 15; Pricking Pictures, 16; Soap-
bubbles, 16; Keeping Store, 17; Home Newspapers, 20; Home Post-
A CHILDREN'S PARTY AND THE GAMES THEY PLAYED .... 23
Stage-coach, 24; Bluff, 27; Magic Music, 28; How do you Like it?
When do you Like it? Where do you Like it? 28; Hunt-the-slipper,
30; Thus says the Grand Mufti, 31 ; The Emperor of Moscow, 31 ;
The German Dwarf, 32; The Kentucky Giant and the Kentucky
Giant's Wife, 34 ; The Elephant, 35 ; Magic-lantern, 35 ; The House
that Jack built, 36; Little Miss Muffet, 39.
FIFTT FORFEITS 41
SOME GAMES THEY MIGHT HAVE PLAYED 52
Shadow Buff, 52 ; The Reader, 53 ; The Elements, 55 ; The Secret
Word, 57 ; Many Words in One, 59 ; The Watchword, 61 ; The Mer-
chants, 62; Consequences, 63; How to guess any Number thought
of, 67 ; Here I Bake, and here I Brew, 67 ; You are Nothing but a
Goose, 67 ; The Puzzle Wall, 69 ; Girofle, Glrofla, 70 ; Good-day, Ce-
cilia, 73; The New French Fashion, 76; Sowing Oats, 78; The Black
Art, 81 ; Galoo, 81 ; To put Three Children through the Keyhole, 82 ;
How Two Children may stand on a Handkerchief without touching
One Another, 82 ; French Blind Man's Buff, 82 ; Bachelor's Kitchen,
82; Easter Eggs, 83; Bonbons, 84; Balloons. 84; Grab-bag, 85;
Paper Bags, 85 ; Scissor Presents, 85.
HINTS FOR PARLOR PLAYS 86
Simple Tableaux Vivants and Frame Pictures, 89; Plan for the
Frames, 91 ; Faith, Peace, and Glory, 93 ; Ignorance is Bliss, 93 ; Exe-
cution of Joan of Arc, 94 ; Living Statuary, 95 ; Monumental Group,
99; The Angel of Sleep, 99; Nydia, 100; The Christian Graces, 100;
Caractacus, 100; Justice, Mercy, and Peace, 100; Maud Muller, 101.
BALLADS IN ACTION 102
Auld Robin Gray, 102; The Mistletoe-bough, 104; Villikins and
his Dinah, 106; Lord Ullin's Daughter, 109.
THE TWELVE Miss PELICOES 113
CHARADES AND PROVERBS IN ACTION 116
Patchwork, 116, Dramatic, 117; Childhood, 118; Proverbs in Tab-
leaux, 118; A Stitch in Time saves Nine, 118; Hunger is the Besl
Sauce, 119; Acting Charades, 120; Ringlet, 120; Petticoat, 121; Post-
man, 122; Post-chaise, 122; Bookcase, 122^ Wedlock, 123; Mis
chief, 123; Wardrobe, 124; Woodstock, 125; Mortality, 125; Help-
mate, 126; Incautious, 126; Illustrated Poems, 127; Jack and the
HALLOWEEN AND OTHER AMUSEMENTS 144
Snapdragon, 144; Nut-burning, 144; Diving for Apples, 145; The
Wedding-ring Test, 145; The Needle Test, 145; Melting Lead, 145;
The Looking-glass Test, 146; Literary Enigmas, 147.
LAWN TENNIS AND ITS LAWS 151
Strokes, 160; Holding the Racket, 162; The Serve, 162; The Take
and the Return, 165; Volleys and Half-volleys, 169; Four-handed
Games, 171 ; Winter Tennis, 173; Seaside Tennis, 174.
ARCHERY AND OTHER GAMES 175
The Bowstring, 177; The Arrow, 178; The Target, 179; How to
Shoot, 180; Rules for Target-shooting, 181 ; Croquet, 183; Croquet
Pool, 183; Badminton, 184; Lawn Billiards, 187; Ship-Coil, 187;
A HOME SWIMMING-SCHOOL 189
Swimming on the Chest, 191 ; Swimming on the Side, 193; Miscella-
neous Instructions, 194.
BOATING FOR GIRLS 196
Parts of a Boat, 197 ; Short Rules for Rowing, 198 ; Towing, 202.
HINTS ON MAKING SMALL COLLECTIONS 204
Butterflies and Moths, 205 ; Caterpillars, 206 ; Pins and Mounting, 212.
THE AQUARIUM 215
Aquarium Cement, 215; A Marine Aquarium, 217 ; Shoit Rules, 222.
WALKING-CLUBS AND CAMPING OUT . - 225
Dress, 227 ; Shoes, 227 ; Rest, 227 ; Camping, 228.
Dress, 230; Rings, 231 ; Wands, 232; Dumb-bells, 232.
LIGHT GYMNASTICS 230
SEWING AND DOLL'S DRESS-MAKING 234
Straight Lines, 234; Outline Pictures, 234; Doll's Nightgown, 239;
Chemise, 239 ; Drawers, 239 ; Waist, 240 ; Apron, 242 ; Dresses for
China Dolls, 243; Boy's Knickerbockers, 244; Costume Dolls, 245;
Normandy Peasant, 245 ; Italian Peasant, 246 ; Spanish Dancer, 247 ;
Marquise Dress, 247.
FIFTY CHRISTMAS-GIFTS FOR SMALL FINGERS 248
Spectacle-wipers, 248 ; Baby-shoe Penwiper, 248 ; Leaf Penwiper, 249 ;
Shaving-paper Case, 250; Garters, 250; "Polly, put the Kettle on,"
251 ; Turtle Cloves, 251 ; Another Gift with Cloves, 252 ; Pretty Scent-
cases, 252 ; English Walnut Scent-cases, 252 ; Walnut Boats, 253 ; Bureau
Covers, 253; Drawn-work, 253; Crocheted Mats, 257 ; Pansy Pincushion,
258; Parasol Penwipers, 258; Work-cases, 259; Birchbark Presents,
259; Straw Wall-baskets, 260 ; Feather Screens, 261 ; Spatter-work, 263 ;
Shadow-pictures, 264 ; Book-covers, 265 ; Scent-cases for Trunks, 265 ;
Cabin-bags, 266 ; Work-aprons, 266 ; Toothbrush-rack, 266 ; Sand bags
for Windows, 267: Shoe-cases, 267; Bean-bags, 268, A Hemlock
Pillow, 268 : Sachet for Linen-closet, 268 ; Baby's Blanket, 268 ; Sum-
mer Blankets, 269; Napkin-bands, 269, Embroidered Linen, 269, Shawl-
CONTENTS. i x
bags, *7*i Bird's-nest Penwiper, 270; Glove-box, 270; Plain Sewing,
271 ; What to do with Autumn Leaves, 271 ; Fern-work, 272 ; Barrel-
chair, 273; Decorated Candles, 273; A Christmas-pie, 273; A Broom
Penwiper, 274 ; Tea and Egg Coseys, 274.
DOLL'S HOUSES AND MAKE-BELIEVE HOUSEKEEPING .... 276
Tomato-can Box Houses, 276; Beds, 278; Chairs and Home-made
WHAT CAN BE DONE WITH TISSUE-PAPER ...... 283
Tools, 283 ; Patterns, 284 ; Lamp-shades, 288.
CARDBOARD AND ITS USES ... ...... 290
Cardboard Cottage, 290; Perforated Card, 292; Crosses, 293.
PRESERVING AUTUMN LEAVES, FERNS, ETC ....... 294
Gathering Ferns, 294 ; Pressing Leaves, 295 ; Seaweeds, 295 ; Drying
Flowers, 296 ; Skeletonizing Leaves and Flowers, 297 ; Mounting, 298.
WHAT MAY BE DONE WITH LEATHER ....... 299
Materials, 299; Tools, 299; A Spray of Ivy-leaves, 300; Vine,
Leaf, and Stalk, 303 ; Convolvulus Flowers and Leaves, 304 ; Large
Garden-rose, 306 ; Mouldings, 307 ; The Redemption of the Tin Can,
308 ; Decorative Leather, 316.
WAX FLOWERS ............ 318
Wax, 318; Patterns, 319; Tools, 319; White Camellia, 320; Leaves,
322; White Jasmine, 324; White Pf'nk, 324; China Rose, 326; Tea-
rose, 329; Stephanotis and Hoya, 333 Wax Fruit, 334.
SHELLS, MOSSES, PINE-CONES, ETC 335
Cement, 335; Brackets, 335 ; Shell Pincushions, 336; Mosses, 336;
Cones, 336; Lawn Flower-box, 337.
WOOD-CARVING, AND LIGHT CARPENTERING 339
Manuals, 339; Tools, 345; Woods, 347; Sharpening, 352 ; Spray of
Ivy-leaves, 355 j Light, 359; Polishing, 360.
STRAWBERRY-CULTURE FOR GIRLS 36*
Ground, 362 ; Plants, 362 ; Varieties, 363 ; Picking, 364 ; Returns, 365.
SMALL FRUITS, CURRANTS, RASPBERRIES, AND BLACKBERRIES . . 367
Land, 367 ; Pruning, 367 ; Raspberries, 368 ; Profits, 369.
CANNED FRUIT, JELLY, AND PRESERVES 371
Glats Cans, 37 1 ; Jelly, 372 ; Canning, 373 ; Preserves, 374 ; Profits, 375.
THE REARING OF POULTRY 376
Hatching, 376; Coops, 377; Food, 377; Roosts, 378; Eggs in Win-
ter, 379; Profits, 379.
CANARY-BIRDS, THEIR REARING AND TRAINING 380
Pairing, 380; Feeding, 381; Hatching, 382; Food, 382; Training,
382 ; Diseases, 383.
THE HONEY-BEE 384
Hives, 384; Queen-bees, 384 ; Eggs, 385; Queen-rearing, 385 ; Honey-
making, 386; Swarming, 387 ; Italian Bees, 388 ; Profits? 389.
Mulberry-planting, 390; Eggs, 390; Hatching, 391; Feeding, 391;
Cocoons, 392; Profits, 392; Shrubs, 397.
Dress, 394; Preparing Ground, 394; Plants, 395; Seeds, 395.
PARLOR-GARDENING . 399
Compost, 399; Flowers and Cuttings, 400; Boxes, 400; Bulbs, 401 ;
DRAWING AND DESIGNING 403
Paper, 403; Pencils, 403; Geometrical Drawing, 404; Sketching, 405;
Art Manuals, 406.
HOME-MADE CANDY . 407
A NEW HOME INDUSTRY 4M
COOKING-CLUBS AND WORK IN GENERAL 420
Cooking-clubs, 420 ; Bread, 421 ; Home-made Things, 421 ; Village
Improvement Society, 422 ; Village Library, 423 ; Amusements, 423.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
POLL'S FURNITURE: PAGB
Reception and Rocking Chair 5
Paper Bed O
Paper Sofa 7
Parlor Table 9
Washstand ...... n
PAPER FLY-BOXES 13
PAPER CAPS AND COCKED HATS 14
PAPER BOATS it;
HOME STORE-KEEPING 17
THE GERMAN DWARF 33
THE KENTUCKY GIANT 34
THE ELEPHANT 35
THE HOUSE THAT JACK BUILT 36, 37, 38
LITTLE Miss MUFFET 39
NAME IN LETTER 45
GOOSE PUZZLE 68
PUZZLE WALL 69
PLAN FOR TABLEAU STAGE yi
MONUMENTAL GROUP 99
Plan of Ground , 153
Movement of Ball 163
Position of Players 164
xiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
LAWN TENNIS, continued:- PAGE
Fall of Ball 165
Fore Overhand Stroke 167
Back Overhand Stroke 167
Forward Play 168
Forward Play Underhand 169
TARGET-SHOOTING, SCORING-CARD 181
PLAN FOR BADMINTON 185
SWIMMING ON THE CHEST 191
SWIMMING ON THE SIDE 193
VIEW OF AQUARIUM 219
SECTIONAL VIEW OF SLOPE-BACK TANK 220
DOLL'S DRESS-MAKING PATTERNS 237-246
BABY-SHOE PENWIPER 249
" POLLY PUT THE KETTLE ON" HOLDER 251
TURTLE CLOVES . . 251
DRAWN-WORK 254, 255
PANSY PINCUSHION . . 258
FEATHER SCREENS 261, 262
BROOM PENWIPER 274
DOLL'S BED 280
DOLL'S BED CANOPY 280
PILL-BOX CHAIR 281
TISSUE-PAPER FLOWERS 285, 286, 287
CARD-BOARD HOUSE 291
LEATHER-WORK LEAVES 301, 302, 303, 304, 306
LEATHER-WORK MOULDINGS . . 307
TIN CAN WITH WOODEN OR LEATHER HANDLE AND BASE . . . 309
TIN CAN DECORATED 310
TIN CAN DOUBLED AND ORNAMENTED 311
TOOLS FOR ORNAMENTING THE LEATHER 312
TIN CAN WITH BASKET HANDLE 3*3
TIN BISCUIT OR CRACKER Box 314
WAX FLOWERS .... 320, 321, 324, 325, 326, 329, 331, 332, 333
LAWN FLOWER-BOX 33?
TOOLS FOR WOOFJ-CARVING 345' 35 1
SPRAY OF IVY-LEAF (wood-carving) 355
THE AMERICAN GIRL'S HOME BOOK.
RAINY-DAY AMUSEMENTS AND HOME-MADE TOYS FOR YOUNGER
To begin with, some room where work or play can go on
without interfering with the elder people ought to be set
aside in every family. No matter how small, such a room
with long, low shelves on one side, .and a long, narrow table
on the other will give space for the keeping of all the
countless odds and ends that have their value, however worth-
less they seem to others. Supposing there are four children :
one or two of these shelves may be divided into compart-
ments, where the special property of each can be kept ;
while the full length of another may be reserved for boxes
of all shapes and sizes, holding the materials to be used,
in one, scraps of silk and lace and ribbon, for dolls' dress-
making ; in another, cardboard and needles, for pricking
pictures ; in another, pictures for scrap-books ; and so on
through the long list of articles that will be found necessary
2 RAINY-DAY AMUSEMENTS.
both for work and play. One corner should be given to the
blunt scissors, the pot of nicely prepared paste (which can
now be bought very cheaply, but may also be made at
home), the little glue-pot, which will often be needed, and
all the brushes and other small things required. Let it be
a rule to put every thing back in its place as soon as
used. Wash all paint or paste brushes, so that they may
not be found hard and sticky when wanted again, and pick
up all litter of every sort. In this way there will never be
any trouble in knowing just where things are ; and, whether
the day is rainy or pleasant, here will be a place always
ready for work. If it is impossible to give up a whole
room to such purposes, a closet may be arranged to hold all
the small properties ; but even one end of a room is better
than none, and, if desired, can be curtained off, and hidden
from general view. Such a room will often take the place
of school, in part at least ; for invention is stimulated, and
a child finds out what can be done without depending upon
others. In any case, it saves worry and vexation. The
older people are not troubled by litter in unexpected places ;
and the younger ones know that here is a spot where they
have full right, and may arrange as seems good to them.
It is always easier to color a picture before it has been
cut from the paper. Let it lie smoothly before you on the
table. Have every thing ready beforehand, with the cup of
water for wetting the brushes, two or more of which will be
necessary for nice work. The " Kate Greenaway " paint-
boxes are of tin, and made with hollow spaces opposite the
colors for mixing different shades ; as red and blue to make
purple, or yellow and blue for different shades of green.
There are books, also, in which a colored picture is on one
MAKING SCRAP-BOOKS. . $
page, and one in black and white, to be colored like it, on
the other. These are very expensive ; and there is just as
much pleasure to be had with an old " Harper's Weekly," or
any good illustrated paper. Think what the colors ought to
be before you put them on. Be very careful not to run over
the edges, and make a thing look swollen or jagged; and
often you can paint a picture so that it will be quite pretty
enough to paste on a card and give away, or to put in a
scrap-book for a sick child, either at home or in a hospital.
These are of two sorts. Where they are to be turned
over and over by little fingers, it is well to have the leaves
made of strong, thick cotton cloth ; and after they are filled
a bright cover can be made, and the whole sev/ed together.
Colored cambric leaves with pinked edges are also used.
But it is best to begin with a common paper book, an old
copy-book being quite as good as a new one. Cut the
pictures out very carefully, and plan how to arrange them
before you begin work. Sometimes one is large enough to
cover a page ; and sometimes one can be put in the middle,
with smaller ones at each corner. To paste neatly you want
smooth paste, a small but broad brush, and a soft clean
cloth. Lay the picture on its face, on a paper spread on
the table. Take only a little paste on the brush at once,
and cover the back of the picture thoroughly ; then lift it
carefully and lay in its place, dabbing it smooth with the
small cloth, pressing it down, and wiping away any particle
of paste about the edges. Paste but one side at a time, and,
when nearly dry, iron smooth with a warm iron, when the
other side can be filled if you want both covered. A book
of animals can be made the pictures colored before or after
pasting ; and it is very easy, now that pictures are so plenty,
4 m RAINY-DAY AMUSEMENTS.
to have them on special subjects. A nice rainy-day game
is to take one of these scrap-books, and make up stories
about the pictures ; the best time for this being the twilight,
when you cannot see any longer to work comfortably.
Take a picture which has a good many figures in it, and
color it, or leave it plain (though coloring will be best) ; or a
small bright chromo can be used. Paste it carefully on a
piece of stiff pasteboard the same size : an old box-lid will
often answer perfectly well. Let it get thoroughly dry, then
cut it into pieces not over two inches long or wide, and in
any shapes you choose. Mix the pieces all together, and
then try to put them in such order as to make the picture
again. A map can be treated in the same way, and you
will have just as amusing and interesting a "dissected " map
or picture as can be bought in the toy-stores. " Sliced let-
ters" may be made on the same plan. Cut large letters
from advertising-bills or newspaper-headings until you have
enough, then paste carefully, and, when dry, first cut out,
and then cut each one in two or three pieces. To put them
together is a game for little children who have just learned
PAPER DOLLS AND FURNITURE.
These are sold in every toy-store ; the dresses and furni-
ture being printed on thick paper, which will bear a good
deal of handling, ready for cutting out. In the country,
where it may not be easy to buy them ready-made, a doll
can be cut from the fashion-plate of a magazine, and a pat-
tern made, from which the dresses and hats may be cut. If
you have only plain white paper, it can be colored from the
paints in your color-box ; and it is really more interesting to
plan a doll's wardrobe in this way than to have it all ready-
PAPER DOLLS AND FURNITURE.
made. Diagrams for bed, chair, table, and sofa, are given
below ; and the furniture can be cut from bristol-board, and
colored, or from thin, smooth pasteboard.
In cutting out this furniture, patterns of it may first be
taken by laying a piece of thin paper over each diagram,
and carefully copying every line. These can be laid on the
RAINY-DA Y AMUSEMENTS.
cardboard, and a pencil-line drawn around them. There are
three sorts of lines, each one meaning different treatment,
as you will see in the description of how to cut out the
rocking-chair. If you have only white cardboard to use, you
will have to paint your furniture, either dark-brown, like
walnut ; or in colors, like the enamelled sets.
PAPER DOLLS AND FURNITURE. 9
First of all, cut round the outside of the rocking-chair ;
and, if you begin by cutting off the greater part of the waste
cardboard, you can turn your scissors more easily. Now lay
it down ; take a flat ruler, or something with a straight edge,
PIG. 7. PARLOR TABLE.
and mark over all the parts which are to be turned down,
with the point of your scissors, or with a penknife, but not
deep enough to cut through : these parts are indicated in
little dots ; thus, (as seen in the lines from A to
A). Now the lines marked thus are to be
marked in the same manner ; but, as those parts are to
be turned up, you must mark them on the reverse side.
PAPER DOLLS AND FURNITURE.
12 - RAINY-DAY AMUSEMENTS.
As there are no lines on that side, make a little hole with
the point of a pin at the extreme end of these lines (B and
B), to show you where to draw your knife when the rocking-
chair is turned over. Next you must cut through the lines
marked thus (as seen in lines from C to C) :
now bend the parts up or down, as the lines direct. You
will find, when you have cut out and bent your furniture as
directed, little tabs, that are to go underneath, to gum or sew
the other parts to.
Every bit of gay -colored yarn or worsted works into pretty
little mats, though it is well to have a good deal of either
black or some dark color as contrast. A patent spool with
wires set in it, and a catch at one side for holding the
worsted, is now sold ; but a common spool answers just as
well. A large one is necessary ; and into it four stout pins
are set, around the hole in the middle, and close to the edge.
Then wind the worsted once around each pin, letting it be
drawn rather tightly, and letting the end at which you begin
be long enough to drop down through the hole in the spool,
and be used to gradually pull the work through. Now, hold-
ing the spool and the worsted in the left hand, wind the
worsted round so as to begin another row. Then take up
the loop on the first pin, with a long pin or needle, and pull
it out toward you till long enough to lift over the top of the