MELTING LEAD. 145
Some kindle couthie, side by side,
An' burn thegither trimly ;
Some start awa' wi' saucy pride,
An' jump out owre the chimlie,
Fu' high that night."
DIVING FOR APPLES.
This is a rather rough part of the evening's games, but
boys find it very much to their minds. Apples are thrown
into a tub partly filled with water, and whoever can bring
one up in the mouth secures good luck for the year to come.
Another method is to hang the apple by a string just on a
level with the mouth, tie the hands behind one, and then
try to bite the swinging fruit. There is small doubt about
the good luck of whoever succeeds, for it requires persever-
ance enough to insure success in any thing.
THE WEDDING-RING TEST.
Each wedding-ring is held by a hair in the centre of a
glass tumbler. Soon it will begin to swing, till finally it
rings against the side of the glass ; the loudest chime being
the signal of the best fortune for the holder.
THE NEEDLE TEST.
A dozen or more needles are thrown into a bowl of water,
and names are given them. They float about, sometime?
point to point, sometimes closely side by side, and now and
then one sinks suddenly. The pair which float longest side
by side are true lovers, and will not be divided.
In this case the lead is melted, and poured into cold water ;
the shapes it takes indicating what the profession of the
146 HALLOWEEN AND OTHER AMUSEMENTS.
lover will be. In "We Girls" it was all prophetic, "spears
and masts and stars ; and some all went to money ; and one
was a queer little bottle and pills ; and one was pencils and
artist's tubes, and really a little palette with a hole in
THE LOOKING-GLASS TEST.
Two ways of trying this form have been followed, and
either is equally uncomfortable. In the first, the seeker
carries a small looking-glass, and walks backward from the
house to the middle of a cornfield, saying a rhyme in which
the word "moon" or "stars" may be used, according as
there is moonlight or starlight.
" Round and round, O stars so fair !
Ye travel and search out everywhere.
I pray you, sweet stars, now show to me
This night who my future husband shall be."
In the second case, the maiden must take a candle and go
alone to a looking-glass in an empty room. There she eats
an apple, standing before it ; and at the end, the face of the
future husband will look over the shoulder. It is needless
to say that no better opportunity could be given to an enter-
prising and daring lover than this affords ; and it is also
needless to add, that all these games, while interesting as
curious old customs followed ever since the days of the
Druids (and some of them practised hundreds of years
before that era), are most of them of a rather rude type.
There are many not given here, many of which are described
in Burns's " All-halloween." Such games usually end with
a supper, and sometimes a dance, and have their real place
in an old-fashioned country-house.
These enigmas are to be given out one by one, either in
a small company or a home game ; the answer to each being
the name of some well-known English or American author.
What a rough man says to his son when he wishes
him to eat his food properly. CHAUCER.
A lion's house dug in the side of a hill where there is
no water. DRYDEN.
A good many pilgrims and flatterers have knelt low to
kiss him. POPE.
Makes and mends for first-class customers. TAYLOR.
Represents the dwellings of civilized countries. HOLMES.
Is a kind of linen. HOLLAND.
Can be worn on the head. HOOD.
One name that means such fiery things
I can't describe their pains and stings. BURNS.
Belongs to a monastery. PRIOR.
Not one of the four points of the compass, but inclin-
ing towards one of them. SOUTHEY.
Is what an oyster-heap is apt to be. SHELLEY.
Is any chain of hills containing a certain dark treasure. COLERIDGE.
Always youthful, you see ;
But between you and me.
He never was much of a chicken. YOUNG.
An American manufacturing town. LOWELL.
Humpbacked, but not deformed. CAMPBELL.
Is an internal pain. AKENSIDE.
The value of a word. WORDSWORTH.
A ten-footer whose name begins with fifty. LONGFELLOW.
Brighter and smarter than the other one. WHITTIER.
HALLOWEEN AND OTHER AMUSEMENTS.
A worker in the precious metals.
A very vital part of the body.
A lady's garment.
Small talk, and heavy weight.
A prefix, and a disease.
Comes from an unlearned pig.
A disagreeable fellow to have on one's foot.
A sick place of worship.
A mean dog 'tis.
An official dreaded by the students of English
His middle name is suggestive of an
Indian or a Hottentot. WALTER
A manufactured metal.
A game, and a male of the human species.
An answer to, Which is the greater poet, William
Shakspeare, or Martin F. Tupper?
Meat, what are you doing ?
Is very fast indeed.
A barrier built of an edible.
To agitate a weapon.
Red as an apple, black as the night,
A heavenly sign, or a perfect fright
A domestic worker.
A slang exclamation.
Pack away closely, never scatter,
And doing so you'll soon get at her.
A young domestic animal.
One who is more than a sandy shore.
A fraction in American currency, and the prevailing
Mamma is in perfect health, my child,
And thus he named a poet mild. MOTHERWELL.
A girl's name, and a male relation. EMERSON.
Take a heavy field-gun, nothing loath,
And in a trice you'll find them both. HOWITTS, SIR.
Put an edible grain 'twixt an ant and a bee,
And a much beloved poet you'll speedily see. BRYANT
A common domestic animal, and what she cannot do. COWPER
Each human head, in time, 'tis said,
Will turn to him, though he is dead. GRAY.
Found in the kitchen. COOKE.
The witches' salutation to Macbeth. HALE.
Grows upon a marshy bank. READE.
Leads a religious order. ABBOTT.
The reigning monarch of the South. COTTON.
An obstinate animal, and a protection against burglars. MULOCH.
The delight of an Englishman's heart. HUNT.
Never melancholy. GAY.
Oliver Twist's importunate demand, MORE.
Reminds one of Othello. MOORE.
What a good man did in his trouble. PRAED.
A silvery stream in a sylvan dell,
Where golden treasures often dwell. BROOKE.
I do it for information,
I do it for recreation,
It can music awaken,
But is easily shaken. READE
150 HALLOWEEN AND OTHER AMUSEMENTS.
Thousands by me have met their death ;
All Nature withers at my breath. FROST
The knights of old my protection sought
When in battle or tourney they gallantly fought SHIELDS.
LAWN TENNIS AND ITS LAWS.
THIS deservedly popular game is not of mushroom growth,
but is rather antiquated ; as it can be traced to the introduc-
tion of tennis into England, by certain "persons of superior
rank," in the sixth year of the reign of Henry III., or about
1222, as an amusement well befitting the tastes and inclina-
tions of the nobility, in the performance of which they could
exercise a commendable zeal, as also their whole physique.
Tennis undoubtedly came from France, where it had been
played many years prior to its introduction among the
worthy sports of our English ancestry. There are not a
few, however, who most tenaciously hold, that, in some
modified form, it existed among the sports of Rome as far
back as the time of Nero. The name is in all probability a
derivative from Tennois, a place in France, in the district of
Champagne, which, by a perversion of.the first letter, is now
written Sennois, where balls were manufactured, and, it is
claimed, the game first introduced.
As played in that ancient day, ornamental and in some
cases very elaborate and expensive courts were constructed,
usually 96 or 97 feet long by 33 or 34 feet wide, provided
I $2 LAWN TENNIS AND ITS LAWS.
with a net hung across the middle, parallel to the shorter
sides of the parallelogram, over which the ball must be
struck to make any stroke good. This net divided the
court into two sides, known respectively as the service side
and hazard side. There were some marked features of this
game, from which the play as we at present have it has been
a severe divergence.
The essentials to a thorough enjoyment of this game are
not so many, but the few should be carefully selected.
Those who share in the game should possess themselves
with a large stock of good nature and untiring zeal. Nothing
so effectually mars the pleasure of an afternoon's sport as a
momentary burst of ill-directed temper. Disappointments
and failures should work a renewed determination to excel,
rather than lead to sulks and disheartenment. The latter
unfortunate disposition in one is sure to mar the enjoyment
for the remaining associates.
A lawn, as is indicated by the name, is the first essential
to pleasurable play. This should have its grass well
clipped, and the turf evenly rolled. The courts should be
laid off rectangularly, as indicated in the diagram. Experi-
ence has taught that it is best to get up the game with a
reference to the direction of the wind, the net (A B, see
diagram, p. 153) being set at right angles to it. Thus will
be avoided in great measure the tendency of the air-currents
to carry the balls off or beyond the bounds, and the play
will be then against or with the wind. In either case, its
influence can be more accurately calculated.
The lines of boundary and division should be indicated
upon the greensward by means of whitewash carefully laid
on with brush and string. The larger or double-handed
court should be 78 feet long by a width of 36 feet inside
measurement ; and the smaller or single-handed court, 78 by
LAWN TENNIS AND ITS LAWS.
27 feet inside measurement. As in the old game of tennis,
so in this, the court is divided across the middle, and at right
angles to its greatest length, by a net (A B) so stretched
and fastened to and by two posts (A and B) standing 3 feet
outside of the side-lines F H and G J, that the height of the
net at each post for the
double-handed or larger F 2 7tz 0g E 36. G
court is 4 feet, and in
the middle, over the
half-court line at C, 3
feet 6 inches; and, for
the single - handed or
smaller court, 4 feet 9
inches at the posts, and
3 feet in the middle,
over the half-court line.
These divisions are
termed courts, and are
subdivided into half-
courts by a line (D E)
midway between the
side-lines, and running
parallel with the great-
est length, which is
known as the half-court
line. The four result- FIG. 38. PLAN OF GROUND.
ing half-courts are re-
spectively divided by a line on each side of the net (K M
and N P) parallel to, and 22 feet from it. These two lines,
called service-lines, it may be observed, will then be 17 feet
inside of the lines of boundary for the short sides (F G and
H J) known as base-lines.
The implements comprise net, posts, cordage, balls, and
H D ,
I$4 LAWN TENNIS AND ITS LAWS.
rackets. The most substantial of these will be found to give
the greatest satisfaction. Any one with a medium amount
of ingenuity can make a net, for which a careful choice
should be made of the cord, that strength, and lightness of
weight, may be secured, thus enabling a better drawing of
the net to have it taut. The posts will be more rigid, and
appear with better grace, if turned without a joint in their
middle ; but if, for convenience in packing, it is desirable to
have the joint, care should be taken to have it so adjusted,
that when set it will be straight, and not, as too many, alas !
are, with so great a " kink " as to look more like the hind-leg
of a dog than the thing of beauty it should be.
The standard ball is hollow, made of India-rubber, and
covered with white cloth. In size it must be at least 2%,
though not more than 2), inches in diameter, and of weight
not less than i% or more than 2 ounces.
The rackets are mostly of foreign manufacture, and usually
of the style in the diagram. An excellent racket, however, is
now made in Philadelphia, and in use, with great acceptance,
at Yale. They are made with a frame of elastic wood, with
a webbing, nicely wrought, of catgut. The individual player
exercises preference in this instrument, as no restriction is
imposed as to their size or shape.
The players should be divested, so far as practicable, of
such clothing as would impede a free and rapid movement of
the muscles, especially those of the limbs. Greater security
of person, and accuracy of movement, will be attained if the
feet be shod with almost any of the many devices for this
purpose. The shoe should be of a pliant material (a soft
canvas is found substantial), soled with corrugated rubber
for the ladies, and spiked for the gentlemen, nearly or
entirely without heel.
Thus equipped, the game may be begun, after the choice
LAWN TENNIS AND ITS LAWS. 155
or arrangement of the sides. The choice of sides, and the
right of serving during the game, is usually decided by toss,
with the proviso, that, if the winner of the toss choose the
right to serve, the other player shall have the choice of sides,
and vice versa.
There are double-handed, three-handed, and four-handed
games, each having some variations peculiar to itself.
In the double-handed game the players should stand on
opposite sides of the net. The player who first delivers the
ball is called the server; and the other, the striker-out. The
first game having been played, these interchange : the server
becomes striker-out, and the striker-out becomes server ; and
so alternately in subsequent games of the set.
The server usually announces the intention to serve by
the interrogatory, " Ready ? " If answered affirmatively, the
service is made (the server standing with one foot outside
the base-line), and from any part of the base-line of the right
and left courts alternately, beginning with the right.
The ball so served is required to drop within the service-
line, half-court line, and side-line of the court which is
diagonally opposite to that from which it was served (see
diagram), where the service from base-line D J must fall, to
be a service, within the lines A K, K L, L C.
If the ball served (a) drops on or beyond the service-line,
or (b) if it drops in the net, or (c) if it drops out of the court
or on any of the lines which bound it, or (</) if it drops in
the wrong court, or (e) if, in attempting to serve, the server
fails to strike the ball, it is a fault. A fault cannot be taken,
but the ball shall be served a second time from the same
court from which the fault was served.
Though the service is made, if the striker-out is not ready,
the service shall be repeated, unless an attempt is made
to return the service on the part of the striker-out ; which
156 LAWN TENNIS AND ITS LAWS.
action shall be construed to be equivalent to having been
ready. No service is allowed to be volleyed ; that is, the
striker-out is not allowed to return a service while the ball is
"on the fly," or before a bounce. If such a return of service
is made, it counts a stroke for the server.
To return a service properly, and have the ball in play,
the ball is to be played back over the net or between the
posts before it has touched the ground a second time, or
while on the first bounce, and is subject to no bounds other
than the side and base lines of the court. After the ball is
in play, it may be struck while "on the fly;" but policy would
dictate a bounce to determine whether or not it has been
played beyond the boundaries of the court, A H, H J, and
J B, for one side of the net, or A F, F G, and G B, for the
other side. Balls served or in play may touch the net, and
be a good service or return. If it touches the top cord, it is
termed a let, a life, or a net ball, and need not be played if
it drops just inside the net on the striker-out side, but must
be served again. Should it fall on the service side, or in
the wrong court on the striker-out side, or out of bounds,
it counts a fault. If, however, it falls so as to be a good
return in any stage of the game other than service, it must
be played as a good ball.
In play (a) if the striker-out volleys the service, or (b) fails
to return the service or the ball in play, or (c) returns the
service or the ball in play so that it drops, untouched by the
server, on or outside any of the lines which bound the court,
or (d) if the striker-out otherwise loses a stroke, as we will
find presently when we consider the conditions common to
both server and striker-out, the server wins a stroke.
In the handling of the racket, great dexterity may be
attained by careful study and practice. By experiment you
will soon become adept in the twist-ball, which forms a
LAWN TENNIS AND ITS LAWS. 157
feature in this game few utilize to a material advantage.
The uncertainty of its bounces is calculated to outwit the
Since, under certain conditions of failure on the part of
the striker-out, the advantage in count of a stroke inures to
the server, so, too, the striker-out reaps a harvest (a) if the
server serves two consecutive faults, or (b) if the server fails
to return the ball in play, or (c) if the server returns the ball
in play so that it drops, untouched by the striker-out, on
or outside any of the lines which bound the court, or (d) if
the server loses a stroke under conditions common to both
server and striker-out ; in any of which cases the striker-out
wins a stroke.
There are conditions under which each player loses a
stroke, as follows : viz., (a) if the service-ball, or ball in play,
touches the player, or any thing worn or carried by him,
except the racket in the act of striking ; or (b) if the player
strikes or touches the service-ball, or ball in play, with the
racket more than once ; or (c) if in returning the service-ball,
or ball in play, the player touches the net with any part of
the body, or with the racket, or with any thing that is worn
or carried, or if the ball touches either of the posts ; or (d)
if the player strikes the ball before it has passed the net ; or
(e) if the service-ball, or ball in play, drops or falls upon a ball
lying in either of the players' courts. So much for the con-
ditions under which the players, either server or striker-out,
win or lose a stroke. And now let us see if we can find out
what are the peculiarities of scoring.
There are two distinct systems upon which the record is
made, each of which has its adherents. Both should be
understood ; and, the more thoroughly familiarized the player
becomes with each, the more at ease will he be, under what-
ever circumstances of count he may be placed.
158 LAWN TENNIS AND ITS LAWS.
The first plan is as follows : the first stroke won counts
for the player winning a score of 15 ; the second stroke won
by same player counts for that player an additional score of
15, making a total of 30; the third stroke won counts for
him an additional 10, making the score 40. Unless there is
a tie at 40, the fourth stroke won by that player entitles
him to score game.
If, however, both players have won three strokes, the
score is called deuce, and the next stroke won by either
player is scored advantage for that player. The term advan-
tage simply means that the player has a tie and one stroke
advantage. If the same player wins the next stroke, he
wins the game ; if he loses the next stroke, the score is
again called deuce ; and so on until at the score of deuce
either player wins two consecutive strokes, when the game
is scored for that player. Six games constitute a set ; and
the player who first wins them wins the set, unless in
case both players win five games, when the score is called
games-all, and the next game won by either player is scored
advantage-game for that player. If the same player wins
the next game, he wins the set: if he loses the next game,
the score is again called games-all ; and so on until at the
score of games-all either player wins two consecutive games,
when he wins the set. An exception to this is where an
agreement is entered into not to play advantage-set, but to
decide the set by one game after arriving at the score of
games-all. In this mode of scoring, both the server and the
striker-out are entitled to count, while in the alternative
method it is different.
An alternative method of scoring is as follows, in which
the term hand-in is substituted for server, and hand-out for
striker-out. In this system the hand-in alone is able to score.
If he loses a stroke, he becomes hand-out, and his opponent
LAWN TENNIS AND ITS LAWS, 159
becomes hand-in, and serves in his turn. Fifteen points won
constitute the game.
If both players have won 14 points, the game is set to 3,
and the score called love-all. The hand-in continues to
serve, and the player who first scores 3 points wins the
In the three-handed or four-handed games of this mode of
scoring, only one partner of that side which is hand-in shall
serve at the beginning of each game. If he or his partner
loses a stroke, the other side shall be hand-in. During the
remainder of the game, when the first hand-in has been put
out, his partner shall serve, beginning from the court from
which the last service was not delivered ; and, when both
partners have been put out, then the other side shall be
The hand-in shall deliver the service in accordance with
the restrictions mentioned for the server; and the opponents
shall receive the service alternately, each keeping the court
which he originally occupied. In all subsequent strokes the
ball may be returned by either partner on each side. The
privilege of being hand-in two or more successive times may
What has been said of double-handed games applies
equally well to the three-handed and four-handed games,
except (a) in the three-handed game the single player shall
serve in every alternate game, (b) in the four-handed game
the pair who have the right to serve in the first game may
decide which partner shall do so, and the opposing pair may
decide similarly for the second game. The partner of the
player who served in the first game shall serve in the third,
and the partner of the player who served in the second game
shall serve in the fourth, and so on, in the same order, in all
the subsequent games of a set or series of sets, (c) The
l6o LAWN TENNIS AND ITS LAWS.
players shall take the service alternately throughout each
game ; no player shall receive or return a service delivered
to his partner ; and the order of service and striking-out,
once arranged, shall not be altered, nor shall the strikers-
out change courts to receive the service before the end of
The players change sides at the end of every set. When
a series of sets is played, the player who was server in the
last game of one set shall be striker-out in the first game of
Experience at play works so greatly to the advantage of a
player, various modes of equalizing the parties are in vogue
where those of much less experience become participants.
Allowances for this purpose are termed odds.
A bisque is one stroke, which may be claimed by the
receiver of the odds at any time during a set, except (a) a
bisque may not be taken after the service has been delivered,
(b) the server may not take a bisque after a fault, but the
striker-out may do so. One or more bisques may be given
in augmentation or diminution of other odds.
Half-fifteen is one stroke given at the beginning of the
second and every subsequent alternate game of a set.
Fifteen is one stroke given at the beginning of every game
of a set.
Half -thirty is one stroke given at the beginning of the
first game, two strokes at the beginning of the second game,
and so on alternately in all the subsequent games of a set.
Thirty is two strokes given at the beginning of every
game of a set.
Half-forty is two strokes given at the beginning of the
first game, three strokes at the beginning of the second, and
so on alternately in all the subsequent games of a set.
Forty is three strokes given at the beginning of every