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THE COMPOSITION OF THE
ELIHU SPEECHES

JOB, CHAPS. 32-37



A DISSERTATION

PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OE BRYN MAWR COLLEGE FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



BY

HELEN HAWLEY NICHOLS



Reprinted from

The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures

Vol. XXVII, No. 2, January 1911



CONTENTS



Bibliography

Abbreviations

History of the Interpretation of the Elihu Speeches

Genuineness of the Elihu Speeches ....

Date of Job

The Composition of the Elihu Speeches .

The Omissions of the LXX Text . . . .

The Date of the EUhu Speeches

Translation with Critical Notes

a) The Prose Introduction

6) The Original EUhu Speeches ....
c) The Words of a Second Wise Man



Vita



5

9
11
16
22
28
40
61

66
66

88

96



236740



BIBLIOGRAPHY

LITERATURE ON JOB

Augustine, Annotationum in lob. "Patrologiae Cursus Completus," Vol.

34, c. 825 f. Paris, 1845.
Baethgen, F., "Hiob" in Kautzsch, Die heilige Schrift des A.T. Leipzig,

1894.
Baur, Gustav, "Das Buch Hiob und Dante's Divina Commoedia." Theol.

Studien und Kritiken (1856), p. 583.
Beer, G., "Proverbia et lob" in Kittel's Biblica Hebraica. Leipzig, 1906.
Bickell, G., "Krit. Bearbeitung des Jobdialogs," Wiener Zeitschrift f. d. Kunde

d. Morgenlandes (1892), S. 137 f., 241 f., 327 f. (1893), S. 1 f., 153 f.

, Das Buch Job. Wien, 1894.

Bleek, F., Einleitung ins A.T. 6. Aufl. von Wellhausen. Berlin, 1893.
Boelicke, M., Die Elihureden (Dissertation). Halle, 1879.
—f—Bradley, G., Lectures on the Book of Job. Oxford, 1887.
Budde, K., Beitrdge zur Kritik des Buches Hiob. Bonn, 1876.
, "Das Buch Hiob," in Nowack's Handkommentar zum A.T. Got-

tingen, 1896.
Calvin, John, Condones. 1563 (translated by A. Golding, 1593).
Cheyne, T. K., Job and Solomon. London, 1887.
, "The Book of Job and Its Latest Commentator," in The Expositor

(1897; fifth series), V, 401 f.; VI, 22 f.
Cornill, C, Introduction to the Canonical Books of the O.T. (EngUsh transl.
, by Box). London, 1907.

-T" Cox, S. A., A Commentary on the Book of Job. London, 1885.

Davison, W. T., Art. "Job" in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, II (1899).
Davidson, A. B., "The Book of Job" in the Cambridge Bible. Cambridge

and London, 1884.
Dehtzsch, Franz, Das Buch Hiob. Leipzig, 1876.
Delitzsch, Friedrich, Das Buch Hiob. Leipzig, 1902.
Deutsch, I., De Elihui sermonum origine atque auctore (Dissertation).

Breslau, 1873.
DiUmann, A., Hiob. Leipzig, 1869; 4th ed., 1891.
, "Textkritisches zum Buche Hiob," in Sitzungsberichte der kgl.

Akademie zu Berlin (1890), II, S. 1345.
Driver, S. R., Introduction to the Literature of the O.T. Edinburgh, New

York, 1891.
, "The Sceptics of the O.T.," Contemporary Review, LXIX (1896),

257 f.



6 The Composition of the Elihu Speeches

Dulim, B., "Das Buch Hiob," in Marti' s Handkommentar zum A.T. Tub-
ingen", 1897.
Eichhorn, J. G., Einleitung ins A.T., III. Leipzig, 1803.
Ewald, H., Die poetischen Biicher des A.T., III. Gottingen, 1836.
Galliner, J., Abraham Ihn Esra's Hiohkommentar (Dissertation). Berlin, 1901.
Genung, J. F., The Epic of the Inner Life. Boston and New York, 1891.
Gilbert, G. H., The Poetry of Job. Chicago, 1889.
Godet, F. Etudes bibliques. Paris, 1873.
Graetz, H., "Das Zeitalter d. griechischen Uebersetzung d. B. Hiob,"

Monatsschrift, XXVI (1877), 83 f.
Green, W. H., The Argument of the Book of Job Unfolded. New York, 1874.
Gregory, "Expositio moralis in beatum lob," Bibliotheca Patrum Latina,

75, 76.
Grill, J., Zur Kritik der Komposition d. B. Hiob. Tubingen, 1890.
Hahn, H. A., Kommentar iiber das Buch Hiob. Berlin, 1850.
Hatch, E., "On Origen's Re\asion of the LXX Text of Job," in Essays on

Biblical Greek. Oxford, 1889.
Heihgstedt, Commentarius in Jobum. Leipzig, 1842.
Hengstenberg, E. W., Das Buch Hiob. Berlin, 1870.
Herder, J. G., Vom Geist der Ebrdischen Poesie, I. Dessau, 1782.
Hirzel, L., Hiob (2 ed., by Olshausen). Leipzig, 1852.
Hitzig, F., Das Buch Hiob. Leipzig, 1874.
Hodges, Elihu, or an Enquiry into the Principal Scope and Design of the Book

of Job. London, 1750.
Hoffmann, J. G., Hiob. Kiel, 1891.

Holtzmann, H., in Stade's Geschichte des Volkes Israel, II. Berlin, 1888.
Jastrow, M., "A Babylonian Parallel to the Story of Job," Journal of Bib.

Lit. (1905), XXV, 135-91.
Jerome, Praefatio in Job, IX.
Kleinert, P., "Das spezifisch Hebraische im Buche Hiob," Theol. Studien

und Kritiken (1886) , 26 f .
Koenig, E., Einleitung in das A.T. Bonn, 1893.
, "The Problem of the Book of Job," American Journal of Theol.

(1904), VIII, 66 f.
Kuenen, A., Historisch-kritische Einleitung, III (German transl. by Miiller).

Leipzig, 1894.
Laue, J. L., Die Komposition d. B. Hiob (Dissertation). Halle, 1895.
Ley, J., Das Buch Hiob. Halle, 1903.
, "Die Abfassungszeit d. B. Hiob," Theol. Studien and Kritiken

(1898) 34 f .
, " Characteristik der drei Freunde Hiobs," Theol. Studien und

Kritiken (1900), 331 f.
f "Das Problem in B. Hiob," Neue Jahrbilcher fur Phil. u. Pddag.

(1896), II, 125.



The Composition of the Elihu Speeches 7

Lowth, R., De sacra poesi Hehraeorum (edited by Rosenmueller). Leipzig,

1815.
Macdonald, D. B., "Some External Evidence on the Original Form of the

Legend of Job," American Journal of Sem. Languages (1897), XIV,

137 f.
Magnus, E., Commentar zum Hiob. Halle, 1851.
Mandl, A., Die Peschittha zu Hiob. 1892.

MargoUouth, D. H., Art. "Job" in Smith's BihU Die. (2d ed. 1893).
Marti, K., Geschichte der israelitischen Religion (1897), III, 262 f.
Meinhold, J., "Das Problem d. B. Hiob," Neue Jahrbucher f. deutsche

Theol. (1892), 63 f.
Merx, A., Das Gedicht von Hiob. Jena, 1871.
Michaelis, J. H., Notae uberiores in librum Jobi. Halle, 1720.
Noldeke, Th., Gottinger Gelehrte Anzeigen (1865), S. 575 f.
Peake, A. S., "Job" in the Century Bible. Edinburgh, 1905.
Posselt, Wenzel, Der Verfasser der Eliu-Reden. Freiburg im Breisgau, 1909.
Renan, E., Le livre de Job. Paris, 1865.
Reuss, E., Hiob. Braunschweig, 1888.

, Geschichte der heiligen Schrift d. A.T. Braunschweig, 1881.

Rosenmueller, E., Scholia in Vetus Testamentum, V. Leipzig, 1824.

Schlottmann, H., Das Buch Hiob.

Schrader, E. (De Wette-Schrader). Lehrbuch der historisch-kritischen Ein-

leitung. Berlin, 1869.
Schultens, A., Liber Jobi. Leyden, 1737.
-^Siegfried, C, "The Book of Job" in Sacred Books of the O.T. Baltimore,

1893.

, Art. "Job" in Jew. Enc.

Stickel, J. G., Das Buch Hiob. Leipzig, 1842.

Strack, H., Einleitung ins A.T. Miinchen, 1895.

Studer, L., Das Buch Hiob. Heidelberg, 1832.

Stuhlmann, M., Hiob. Hamburg, 1804.

Umbreit, F. W. C, Das Buch Hiob. Heidelberg, 1832.

Vatke, W., Biblische Theologie, I. BerUn, 1835.

"Watson, R. A., "The Book of Job" in the Expositor's Bible. New York,

1892.
Wellhausen, J., Jahrbucher f. deutsche Theol. (1871), XVI, 552.
Wildeboer, G., Die Liter atur des A.T. (German transl. by Risch, 1895).
- Wright, G. H. B., The Book of Job. London, 1883.

general literature

Bacher, W., Art. "Targum" in Jew. Enc.

Barton, G. A., " Ecclesiastes," International Critical Commentary. Edin-
burgh and New York, 1908.
Burkitt, F. C, The Old Latin and The Itala. Cambridge, 1896.



8 The Composition of the Elihu Speeches

ChejTie, T. K., Jewish Religious Life after the Exile. New York, 1898.
Friedlander, M., Griechische Philosophie im A.T. Berlin, 1894.
Gunkel, H., Schopfung und Chaos. Gottingen, 1895.

, Zum religionsgeschichtlichen Verstdndnis des N.T. Gottingen, 1903.

L^vi, The Hebrew Text of Ecclesiasticus, "Semitic Study Series." Lej^den,

1904.
Peake, A. S., The Problem of Suffering in the O.T. London, 1904.
Schiirer, E,, Geschichte des jiidischen Volkes (3d ed.). Leipzig, 1898.
Swete, H. B., An Introduction to the O.T. in Greek. Cambridge, 1900.
Toy, C, "Proverbs." International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh,

1899.

material for text critical apparatus

Veins Testamentum Hebraicum cum Variis Lectionibus. Benjamin Kennicott,

Oxford, 1780.
Vetus Testamentum Graecum cum Variis Lectionibus. Holmes and Parsons,

Oxford, 1823.
The Old Testament in Greek, IL H. B. Swete, Cambridge, 1887.
Origenis Hexaplorum Quae Supersunt, IL Field, Oxford, 1875.
Walton^ s Polyglott. London, 1656.
Sacrorum Bibliorum Fragmenta Copto-Sahidica, IL Rome, 1889.

For the readings of the Sahidic text I am indebted to Professor George
A. Barton, who kindly placed his collation of the text at my disposal.

Facsimile of Codex Alexandrinus. Published by the British IVIuseum, 1883.

reference books

A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Brown, Driver, and

Briggs, New York, 1906.
A Concordance to the Septuagint. Hatch and Redpath, Oxford, 1897.
Talmudic Dictionary, Jastrow, M., London and New York, 1903.
Lexicon Syriacum. Brockelmann C, Berlin, 1895.
Thesaurus Syriacus. Payne-Smith, R., Oxford, 1879.



ABBREVIATIONS

A. = Version of Aquila.

Aeth.=Aethiopic version

Alex. = Greek Codex Alexandrinus.

Baeth.=Baethgen F., Hioh in Kautzsch's Die heilige Schrift d. A.T.

B. D. B.= Brown, Driver, and Briggs, Hebrew and English Lexicon of the O.T.

Bi.=Bickell, G., Das Buch Hioh.

Bodl.=a Latin MS of the Old Latin and the Vulgate in the Bodleian Library
(Cod. Lat. 2426).

Col.=a Greek MS of the LXX, Cod. Colbertus, in the Bibliotheque National

(1952).
Del.=DeUtzsch, Franz, Das Buch Hioh.
Dil]^=Dillmann, A., Hioh.
Enc. Bih.=Enc]jclopaedia Biblica.

Ew.=Ewald, H., "Hiob" in Die poetischen Biicher des A.T., III.
l^Jjjt^Hitzig, F., Das Buch Hioh.
Il|rff.= Hoffmann, G., Hioh.

H. and P. = Holmes and Parsons, Vetus Testamentum Graecum.
Hrz.=Hirzel, L., Hioh.
Jew. Enc. = Jewish Encyclopaedia.
Ken.=Kennicott, B., Vetus Testamentum Hebraicum.
Keth.=Kethib, the Hebrew Text as written.
Kit. Ed.=Kitters edition of "Job" in Biblica Hebraica.
LXX= Greek Septuagint version.
MT=The Massoretic pointed text.

Marm.=A Latin MS found in the monastery of Marmoutiers.
01s. = 01shausen in 2d ed. of L. Hirzel's Hioh.
P. = Priestly document of the Hexateuch, ca. 450.
Qr.=Qere, the Hebrew text as read.
Sah.=Sahidic version.
Sieg.= Siegfried, C, The Book of Job.
Stud. = Studer, L., Das Buch Hioh.
Sym.=Version of SjTiimachus.
Syr.=Syriac, Peshitto version.
S3T:-Hex.=S5Tiac Hexapla version.
Tar.=Targum on Job, or Aramaic version.
Theo.= Version of Theodotion.

Vat.=A Greek MS of the LXX in the Vatican (346, numbered by H. and
Vet. Lat. = Old Latin version. [P. 248).

Vul.= Vulgate version.
Wr.= Wright, G. H. B., The Book of Job.

9



THE COMPOSITION OF THE ELIHU SPEECHES
(JOB, CHAPS. 32-37)

HISTORY OF THE INTERPRETATION OF THE ELIHU SPEECHES

The speeches with which this discussion is concerned constitute
chaps. 32-37 of the Book of Job. In agreement with the verdict
of the majority of modern scholars and for reasons to be considered
later, this discussion assumes that the Elihu Speeches are not an
integral and original part of the poem. But their history and that
of their interpretation are inevitably bound up with those of the
Book of Job. Though Job without the Elihu Speeches would be
artistically more perfect, the Elihu Speeches separated from the
poem could have no significance.

Scholars previous to the nineteenth century did not question
the genuineness of the speeches. Stuhlmann^ in 1804 was the first
to suggest that they formed a later addition to the poem. Yet the
judgment passed upon Elihu by earlier critics is still of interest for
the interpretation of his contribution.

The rabbis devote far less attention to him in the Talmud than
his own claims would seem to have warranted. In the Babylonian
Talmud^ he is reckoned with the seven prophets of the Gentiles:
Balaam, his father, Job, Eliphaz, Bildad, Zophar, and Elihu. It
was later maintained, however, that all these prophets were Israelites,
who prophesied primarily concerning the Gentiles. A discussion
once arose between R. Akiba,^ who believed Elihu was Balaam, and
R. Eleazar, who contended that he must represent Isaac because of
his name Barachel. With surprising insight Rabbi Judah^ main-
tained that Job's words were in praise of God, more than Elihu's.

In the Testament of Job^ — a Greek apocryphal form of the story
— Elihu appears as a Satanic beast, and when the friends are par-
doned Elihu does not receive forgiveness.

» Hioh, 1804.

2 Baba Bathra, 156.

3 Jer. Talmud, Sotah, V, 20d.

* Ex. R. 34:1; Jew. Enc, art. "Job."'
' See "Testament of Job" in Jew Enc, VII.

11



12 The Composition of the Elihu Speeches

The early Christian Fathers were by no means admirers of EUhu.
Jerome in his commentary on Job^ agreed with the opinion of the
Talmudist that EHhu represented Balaam and was therefore a false
prophet, while Gregory the Great ^ believed that Elihu had right
understanding of the matter but his words were proud and arrogant.
The heretical Theodore of Mopsuestia,^ whose opinions concerning
Job were cited as evidence against him, found Elihu's words if pos-
sible more offensive than those of the friends.

Jewish criticism of a later period seems decidedly more favorable
to Elihu. Ibn Esra* expresses the opinion, in a commentary which
dates from about 1140, that the true solution of the problem is to be
found in Elihu's words. Job is there taught by the consideration
of nature's mysteries not to seek full understanding of God's justice
and the friends are reproved for their insufficient conception of God's
providence.

The remarkable theory was advocated by Lightfoot^ that Elihu
was the real author of the poem. Michaelis*' and Schultens'^ looked
upon him with favor, as did Calvin,^ and to Bishop Lowth^ Elihu's
gentleness appeared in beautiful contrast to the harshness of Job's
other censors. In 1750 an Englishman named Hodges^" devoted
an entire treatise to an attempt to show that Elihu was an antitype
of Christ and therefore his words were similar to the Yahweh
Speeches.

After centuries of alternately over-harsh or over-commendatory
estimates of his worth, it remained for the nineteenth century to
question his place in the book. Though Stuhlmann believed the
poem itself a pre-Mosaic work, he assigned to the speeches of Elihu
a post-exilic date. His chief arguments against their genuineness
were that they rendered the Yahweh Speeches superfluous and that
they were inferior in style to the remainder of the book.

1 Praefatio in Job.'^IX..

2 Expositio moralis in beatum lob (Bibliotheca Patrum Latina 75, 76).
' Mansi's Councils, IX, col. 200 f.

* Abraham Ibn Esra's Hiobkommentar, Julius Galliner (Dissertation, 1901).

6 Chronol. V. T., p. 25 (quoted by Michaelis) .

' Notae Uberiores in librum Jobi (1720). ' Liber Jobi (1737).

' Condones (1563). Translated by Arthur Golding, 1593.

' De Sacra Poesi Hebraeorum (1753).

'" Elihu, or an Enquiry into the Principal Scope and Design'of the Book of Job (1750).



The Composition of the Elihu Speeches 13

From that time until the present the discussion of the EUhu
Speeches has been largely concerned with the question of their
genuineness. It will be simpler to give a list of the important names
identified with either decision and to discuss afterward special
treatments of the subject. In favor of their genuineness are: Jahn/
Staeudlein,^ Berthold,^ Gesenius,^ Schaerer,^ Rosenmueller,^ Umbreit,''
Bruno Bauer,^ Vaihinger,^ Stickel/° Haevernick/^ Hahn,^^ Schlott-
mann/^ Hengstenberg,^'* Deutsch/^ Bunsen/^ Kamphausen/^ Green/^
Boelicke,^^ Godet,'° Cox,-^ Briggs,-^ Genung,^^ Wildeboer,^* Cornillj^s
Budde,^^ Posselt.2'^ It should be mentioned that Bunsen and Kamp-
hausen suggest that the speeches were added later by the original
poet to avoid misunderstanding of the poem.

Against the genuineness of the speeches range themselves in long
array after Stuhlmann: Eichhorn,^^ Bernstein,-^ Vatke,^° Ewald,^^

1 Einleitung in das AUe Testament, II.

2 Beitrage zur Philosophie und Geschichte der Sittenlehre, II.
' Einleitung in die Schriften des Alten Testaments, V (1815).
^ Geschichte der hebrdischen Sprache.

6 Das Buch Hiob (1818).

6 Scholia in Vet. Test. (1824). ; ;:

' Das Buch Hiob (1S32).
' Die Religion des Alten Testaments, II.

9 Das Buch Hiob (1842). '" Das Buch Hiob (1842).

" Handbuch der historisch-kritischen Einleitung ins AUe Testament, 3 Theil (1849).

12 Commentar iXber das Buch Hiob (1850).

13 Das Buch Hiob (1851). " Das Buch Hiob (1870).
^^ De Elihui Sermonum Origins atque Auclore (Dissertation, 1873).

16 Theol. Studien und Kritiken (1863), S. 1810.

1' Bleek, Einl., S. 661. (These two are quoted by Budde in his Commentar, S. xvii.)

18 Argument of Job Unfolded (1873).

19 Die Elihureden (Dissertation, 1879).

2» Etudes bibliques (transl. by Lyttelton, 1875). ;

" A commentary on the Book of Job (1885).

22 Pres. Review (1885), p. 353.

23 The Epic of the Inner life (1891).

2< Die letterkunde des Ouden Verbonds (1893) (German transl. by Risch, 1895).

25 Introduction to the Can. Bks. of the O.T. (English transl. by Box, 1907).

26 Beitrage zur Kritik des Buches Hiob (1876); Das Buch Hiob (1896).
"Der Verfasser der Eliu-Reden (1909).

28 Einleitung ins A.T., V (1824).

29 Keil's und Tzschirner's Analekten, III.
" Biblische Theologie, I (1835).

'1 Die poetischen Bucher des A.T. 3 Theil (1836).



14 The Composition of the Elihu Speeches

Hirzel/ Knobel,^ Heiligstedt,^ Magnus,'* Renan,^ Simson,^ Schra-
der/ Dillmann,** Merx,^ Hitzig,io Deli^zsch,ii Studer/^ Davidson,!^
Wright/^ Kleinert/^ Holtzmann,i« Cheyne/ Reuss/» Grill/^ Hoff-
mann,2o Driver/^ Koenig,-^ Bickell,^^ Margoliouth,-^ Siegfried,^^
Kuenen,26 Baethgen,^^ Laue,^^ Strack,^^ Meinhold,^" Marti,^! Duhm,32
Davison,^^ Friedrich Delitzsch,^'* Ley,^^ Peake.^^

Those who have defended Ehhu in the critical debate have usually
found in his words the positive solution of the problem, which the
poem without them fails to give, and a preparation for the Theoph-
any. But even among some modern scholars an exactly opposite
view has been held. Herder,^^ who called Elihu "ein lauter Schat-
ten," may be considered an early exponent of it. Hahn and Umbreit
uphold a similar theory, and more recently in this country Briggs

1 Hiob (1839).

2 De Carminis Jobi argumento (1835).
' Commentarius in Johum (1842).

4 Commentar zum Hiob (1851). * Le Livre de Job (1860).

5 Zur Kritik des Buches Hiob (1861).

' (de Wette-Schrader) Lehrbuch der historisch-kritischen Einleitung (1869).
8 Hiob (1869), 4th ed., 1891. ' Das Gedicht von Hiob (1871).

•o Das Buck Hiob (1874). " Das Buck Hiob (1876). 12 d^s Buck Hiob (1881).

13 "The Book of Job" in the Cambridge Bible (1884).
» The Book of Job (1883).

" "Das spezifisch Hebraische im Buche Hiob," in Theol. St. Kr. (1886), S. 26 f.
'6 In Stade's Geschichte des Volkes Israel, II, S. 348 (1888).
" Job and Solomon (1887). is Hiob (1888).

" Zur Kritik der Komposition des Buches Hiob (1890).
20 Hiob (1891).

S' Introduction to the Literature of the O.T. (1891).

" Einleitung ins A.T. (1893). -^ Das Buck Hiob (1894).

" Art. "Job" in Smith's Bible Diet. (1893).
« "The Book of Job" in Polychrome Bible (1893).
2« Historisch-kritische Einleitung, 3 Theil (transl. by Mtiller, 1894).
2' Kautzsch's Die heilige Schriften des A.T. (1896).
2' Die Komposition des Buches Hiob (Dissertation, 1895).
'^'Einleitung ins A.T. (1895).

30 "Das Problem des Buches Hiob," in Neue Jahrbiicher fur deutsche Theologie (1892),
Band I, S. 63.

'I Geschichte der israelitischen Religion, III, S. 262 (1897).

" Hiob (1897).

"Art. "Job" in Hastings' Bib. Die, II (1899).

" Das Buch Hiob (1902). " Das Buch Hiob (1903).

'6 "Job," Century Bible (1905).

" Vom Geist der Ebraischen Poesie, I (1782).



The Composition of the Elihu Speeches 15

and Genung. According to this view Elihu sums up the argument
of the friends in all its essential weakness to show that the mystery
is unsolvable by human wisdom and thus to prepare the reader for
the great revelation of Yahweh in the chapters which follow. The
author has intentionally characterized Elihu as a bombastic and
over-confident youth in order to emphasize the inadequacy of his
wisdom. Genung finds an exquisite dramatic fitness and grim
irony in the claim which Elihu makes and his later humiliation.

We must agree with Budde that this is of all explanations the
most improbable. This kind of subtle irony would be more natural
to a modern mind than to a Hebrew poet. Moreover, the theory
shows a singular lack of appreciation for the sincerity and real worth
of Elihu's words. They .are earnest and earnestly meant by their
author.

After Stuhlmann, the next severe attacks against the genuineness
of the Elihu Speeches were made by Ewald in 1836 and Hirzel in
1839. They urged the peculiarities of the language of Elihu as
indubitable evidence against him. Stickel answered this charge
in 1842 by a detailed study of the linguistic evidence and came to
the conclusion that it was not sufficient to condemn the speeches.

In 1873 Emmanuel Deutsch published a dissertation which
reviewed the controversy up to that date. He found a convincing
argument for the speeches in the fact that Elihu takes a higher
ground than the friends and supplies the deficiencies of the earlier
discussion. But his argument is rather an apology for Elihu than
a scholarly defense of his place in the poem.

A far more effective defense was made by Budde in 1876. Fol-
lowing Stickel's plan, he made a careful comparison of the diction
of chaps. 32-37 with that of the poem and expressed the conviction
"dass die Echtheit der Elihu-Reden ihrem sprachlichen Charakter
gegeniiber vollkommen moglich bleibt." His thorough study estab-
lished the fact that the linguistic argument must be strongly sup-
ported by other arguments to renc^r an adverse judgment decisive.

Budde was followed by Boelicke in a dissertation on the speeches,
which maintained their genuineness.

Among recent defenders of Elihu may be mentioned Cornill and
Wildeboer. Though admitting striking contrasts between these



16 The Composition of the Elihu Speeches

chapters and the rest of the book, they yet find in them the pro-
found and positive solution of the problem, which they believe the
poet must have given. They, with Budde, suggest that the formal
incompleteness of the latter half of the dialogue may be due to lack
of revision by the author, a fact which might also account for the
inferior style of the Elihu chapters.

In his commentary on Job, Budde again took up the defense;
this time less from the standpoint of language than from that of
interpretation. He admits that the speeches as a whole make a
somewhat unfavorable impression on him but he believes that the
removal of numerous glosses will do much to alter this impression.
The aim of the poet, as Budde interprets it, is to reveal to Job his
sin of hidden spiritual pride and to bring him to penitence. Only
after this experience could he be pardoned and restored. It is
Elihu's mission to bring him to the true understanding of his trial,
and the chapters are therefore indispensable in the scheme of the
poem. Cornill also holds this interpretation.

The most recent special treatment of the speeches is that of
Wenzel Posselt. The arguments against their genuineness are con-
sidered with thoroughness and fairness but no convincing evidence
is offered in their defense.

In the following general summary of the arguments employed
by Elihu's defenders, those are chiefly considered which assume the
positive worth of his contribution. Many of the same arguments
are, however, employed with either interpretation.

genuineness of the elihu speeches

Content. — 1. Aside from the speeches the poet brings no positive
answer to Job's problem. The Yahweh Speeches merely bring the
hero to submission.

2. Elihu offers a positive teaching which is in advance of that of
the friends and at the very summit of Old Testament thought.

a) Job may not because of his own trials forget the divine justice
and wisdom which are the order of the universe.

6) Pain and suffering are educative — a means of blessing in
God's hands and a proof of his love.

c) Suffering is to bring to light hidden sin, and to destroy it.



The Composition of the Elihu Speeches 17

3. The solution could not be put into the mouth of Yahweh, who
would thus descend to the level of human debate, but must be
offered by another speaker. Elihu's somewhat exalted view of him-
self and his extreme zeal are due to youthful enthusiasm.

Relation to the poem. — 1. The speeches prepare for the Theophany


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