Heneage Elsley.

Annotations on the four gospels and the Acts of the Apostles : compiled and arranged for the use of students online

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ANNOTATIONS



ON THE



FOUR GOSPELS.



AND THB



TLctsi of tl^t ZvoatitS.



m.



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Digitized by LjOOQIC



«i



ANNOTATIONS



ON THE



FOUR GOSPELS,



AlTD THB



' 7L^& Of tl)e :apo0tie»;

COMPILED AND ABRIDGED

FOR THE USE OF STUDENTS.



IN THREE VOLUMES.
VOL. IIL



SECOND EDITION.




HonHon ;



PIUNTED BY A. J. VALPT, TOOKe's OOUBT,
CHANCERY LANE.
TOR T. PATNEy PAIX MALL.

1812.



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^5^






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ANNOTATIONS



ON THE



FOUR GOSPELS.




ST. JOHN



CHAPTER I



V. 1. In the beginning — ] i. e. from the begin-
ning of the world; taken from Gen. i. 1. rMCfHm.
LXX, iv oLpxr}^ Here, ciim primum rerum imiver-
sitas coepit creari. 'Hv, jam turn erat. Thus the
Hebrews are accustomed to express an eternal exis-
tence ; as John xvii. S. " the glory before the world
began/* See Lightfoot ad loc. et Har. Ev. Grotius.
"Whitby ad loc. et passim on this chapter.

V. 6. — sentfiom God — ] Mai. iii. 1.

V. 16. "^grace for grace^^ x^P^^ ^^'^^ >C^f'rop,
" one favour instead of another ; ** opposing " the law
of Moses " to the " grace and truth by Jesus Christ,"
III. A



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2 St. JOHN. CHAP. r.

in the next verse. In this sense is, x^P^^ *ANTI trig
sitepysa-iag. Xen. Cyropaed. apud Steph. torn. iv. p.
349% That x^P'^Si usually grace, is sometimes bene-
fit or service, see Steph. torn. iv. p. 351, 2. x^P^^
woi€iv vel Movak^ beneficium conferre. Marsh, note

::y*^ qn.MicJxa^, c. iv. § xiv. vol. i. p. 459. See also
SefajSiiKs^ *.TOC. Xaptg. 'AvTi, Many other explana-

•:-' :":/'^ij$ of jhis'^fficult text ^re given bythecommen-

■'■•-••fatof^. - -*-^-:^*

V. 19. — ///e Jews sent^'] i. e. the Jewish Sanhed-
rim : they alone could judge a tribe, the high-
priest, or a prophet. Sanhedrin, Perek. i. Hence a
prophet coiild not perish out of Jerusalem, Luke
;jdii. 33. Lightfoot, Har. Ev. Grotius.

V. 19. Who art thou?'] They knew his name and
parentage : they ask 'respecting his function. Light-
foot. Rather ; they ask. Art thou the Christ ? as
appears by the preceding part of the chapter. So
Nonnus rightly, /atj Xpitrrog e<pog ; Grotius.

V. 20. — and denied not — ] This pleonasm is a
common elegancy of expression in Scripture, and
Strengthens the affirmation ; as ^ Kings xviii. 36.
Isa. xxxviii. 1. Ezek. vii. 6. 1 John i. 1,3. ii. 27.
and here ver. 3. Whitby. So Job v. 17. Grotius.
Lightfoot, Har. Ev.

V. 21. Art thou Elias?'] The Jews had a constant
tradition, 'which they yet cherish, that Elias must first
come. See note on Matt. xi. 14. Whitby; also
note on Matt. xvi. 14. Grotius. Compare Light-
foot ad loc. et Har. Ev. John denied that he was
Elias, such as the Jews expected him — ^in his own
person returned from heaven: but allows that he
was the Elias, in the true sense of the prophet Ma-
lachi iv. 5. mentioned by Christ, Matt. xi. 14, and
by the Angel, Luke i. 17*



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ST. JOHK. CHAP. U S

The Scriptures speak sometimes according to
men's apprehensions ; as, that preaching was fool-
ishness, 1 Cor. i. 21.; that the counsel of Achitophel
was good, 2 Sam. xvii. 14. Thus John to the Jews*
Beza. Lightfoot, Har. Ev.

V. 21. Art thou that prophet ?"] o irf>o(pi}rryj. It
may very well be *' a prophet,'* as the Eng. margin^
Syr. Vulg. ; and to this Lightfoot inclines, as the
idea of Cyril and Chrysostom, with others, that it
refers to Deut. xviii. 15. separate from Christ, or
Elias, has no grounds. The Jews, indeed, expect
all the prophets to rise again in the last days. San-
hedr. fol. 92. 2. ; but no particular one, except £lia&
Lightfoot ad • loc. Har. Ev. It may be Jeremiah ;
see note on Matt. xvi. 14. The article is insisted
on by the Greek commentators ; so 2 Mace. xv. 14«
*' and there was a.rumour amongst them of his com^^
ing/' Grotius. So Whitby ad Matt. xi. 9, 10.

V. 24. — ^ tfie Pharisees.'] The greatest part of the
$anhedrim were pharisees, Acts xxiii. As these were
the most strict in their traditions, they ask, Why in-
troducest thou a new rite ? We understand that an
universal baptism may take place oil the coming of
Christ, from Zech. xiii. 1.; but thou deniest thou
art either Him, or Ellas, or any prophet preceding
him. Grotius. Lightfoot, Or, Why usest thou to
God's people a rite only employed to cleanse the
heathen proselytes, and prepare them for our cove-
nant? Whitby* That infants also, when admitted
proselytes, were baptised, see Lightfoot, Har. Ev.

V. 25. Why baptisest-^] Note : Ti here is ha «,
why? for what cause? as Matt. xvii. 10. vi. 2S.
John iv, 27. vii. 19. and in other places. Whitiby.

V. 26. -"^pU^e withmU^ - ^] See ver. 33. ixijfnu



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4 ST. JOHN. CHAP*. I.

I am the messenger foretold by Malachi. By my
baptism will be fulfilled the promise of God in Ezek.
xxxvi. at ver. 25. by Christ's baptism with the Holy
Spirit, that in ver. 26, 27. Whitby.

V. 28. — in Bethabara beyond Jordan — ] com-
pounded of beth a house or place, and abara a pas-
sage or ford ; from n:3y transire. It was at the
place where John first baptised, ch. x. 40. which was
in Jordan, Matt. iii. 6. ; so that it was at a passage
on the river ; probably the public one from Jericho
to Perea ; and might have its name from Josh. iii.
16, 17. the passage of the Israelite army, where the
word naj^ twice occurs ; or rather from Josh. ii.
7i 23. where the fords are spoken of. Yet the
place was on the Perea side of the river, or beyond
Jordan : not on this side, as Beza would suppose,
'rendering w^p^y " along*' and not ** beyond.'* Gro-
tius. For Beza had once rendered xs^av by seciis, (see
Lightfoot ;) but in his best edition, A. D. 1582, he
silently drops that opinion, and has not that rendering.

Lightfoot, Har. Ev. on the contrary, holds, that
the passage of Joshua's army must be indeterminate,
being a space of many miles (see his note on Luke
iii. 21.); that Bethabara was so near Cana in Gali-
lee as to admit of his going thither in far less than
three days. The first night, ver. 39. of this chapter,
he probably reached Capernaum. That it was plainly
some distance beyond Jordan, by his return, Luke
xviii. 31, 35. from his second going there, ch. x. 40.
and his journeys, Mark x. 1 . That ch. x. 40. says
only that he went to where John first baptised beyond
Jordan, in distinction from iEnon and Salim. And
on the whole ; that during the forty days of Christ's
temptation, John, having long preached on the
banks of Jordan, pursued his course northward by
the east of the sea of Galilee to Bethabara, which he
places in the region of Scythopolis, opposite and not



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ST. JOHN. CHAP. I. 5

far from the passage over Jordan from Galilee, at the
north end of the lake.

Lightfoot places Capernaum on the south end of
the* lake. If it be situated, as usual with other geo-
gxjiphers, on the north end of it, Christ's going there
from Bethabara, ver. 39. and his going forth into
Galilee, ver. 43. are, on Lightfoot's hypothesis, very
consistent. The chief diflSculty is the distance in
this case of Bethabara from Jerusalem, and the long'
journey of the Priests and Leyites, ver. 19. Of Ca-
pemaum, see note on Matt. xi. 24. supra.

V. 28. "^Bethabara — "] The Vulg. Syr. and almost
all the MSS. and Vers, read Bethania. But Chry-
sostom, Hom. 16. in Joh. i. Epiphan. Haeres. 51.
p. 435. , and especially Origen in Joh. fully establish
the present reading. So Theophylact and Suidas.
See Mill, edit. Kiister, ad loc. et Prol. 1039. Whitby
Ex. Millii. Calmet. Beza conjectures the word
might have been Batanea, the country east of the
lake of Galilee, mentioned by Josephus. Beza.

Note : BaiQa^apaf LXX, Josh, xviii. 22. properly,
BaiQapafia ; and BaiSrjpa^ LXX, Jud. vii. 24. pro-
perly, as in the Hebr. JBaifl^ij^a, are different places.
Grotius. Bethania was probably first added in the
margin, and then taken generally into the text.
Mill ubi supra.

V. 29. The nea^t dat/,'] ^' iiroLnpm* not the morrow,
in the Hebrew sense of any future time, but properly
the next day. John bore witness of Christ before his
baptism, as mentioned by the three other EvaAgelists,
Matt. iii. 11.- Mark i. 7. Luke iii. 16. Christ, after
his baptism, withdrew into the wilderness; and whilst
there, the Priests and Levites came to John to know
if he were the Messiah or not. This gave occasion to
a second testimony, ver. 15. and ver. 19, &c. to
ver. 28. The very day after the Priests left the Bap-



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6 8T. JOHN. CHAP. I.

tist, our Lord returned from the desert to Jordan, at
in the text, ven 29. There John sees him, and testi-
fies again of him' at large. The next day after,
ver. 35. is the beginning of a new account ; again,
ver. 43. is the second day of this new account ; and
then is added, ch. ii. 1. "on the third day.*' Ham»
mond.

V. 29. — the Lamb of God — ] Compare 1 Pet. i.
18, 19. alluding either to the paschal Iamb, (Grotius-)
or rather to the lan>b of the daily sacrifice in the
Temple for the sins of the people. Num. xxviii. 3,
Christ was this piacular victim. Rev. v. 9. Eph. i. 7.
jCoI. i. 14. (Whitby.) The stationary men ap-
pointed to represent the people always laid their
hands on the head of the lamb thus offered morning
and evening ; as Lev. i. 4. iii. 2. iv. 4. as a token
of transferring the sins of the people on the victim.
Taanith. c. iv. hal. 2. Lightfoot, The half-shekel
paid yearly by the Jews, ei^ Xwrpov rr^g -^o^^ris, Exod»
XXX. 12* 14. 16. was expended in providing these
lambs for this purpose. (Whitby.) Thus Christ is
said himself to have borne our sins, 1 Pet. ii, 24. He
was made TM^^Tiy a sacrifice for sin for us, 2 Cor.
V. 21, The Baptist constantly preached repentance
to lead to remission of sins. On seeing our Lord,
" Behold (saith he) the Lamb of God ! '* the sacrifice
who will bear your sins, and give this remission,
Lightfoot ad loc. et Har. Ev. So Whitby, Others
refer this to the paschal lamb, by the sprinkling of
whose blood they were delivered from the Egyptian
destruction, Exod. xii. 11 — 17. Whitby, note on
1. Pet. i. 19. Grotius would narrow this text to re-
formation of life, from 1 Pet, i. 18, and 1 John i. ?•

V. 3S, And I knew him «a#— ] I knew not that the
Messiah was in the world till he came to be bap-
tised, when, kixowmg him by the Spirit, I forbade



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ST* JOHN. qHAP. I. 7

him : and the sign of the Hdy Ghost descending
from heaven was given me for assurance and con-
firmation* Beza. Lightfoot. Whitby. Grotius*
See note on Matt. iii. 14. supra. So Chrysostonh
Doddridge.

V, 36. Behold the Lamb of God /] The Baptist does
not allude to the paschal lamb, (which was an eucha-
ristical sacrifice,) but to the lamb oflFered as an ex*
piation for sin, as those daily sacrificed in the Temple.
John compares what Jesus was to perform or undergo
to bring men to holiness, to reconcile man with God,
and to free them from their deserved punishment, to
the rite in which a victim was offered to God for sin.
The person on ^ose account the sacrifice was made,
then confessed, by the very performance of the rite,
that he deserved the death which was fallen on the
victim, and ought himself to die if God exercised
strict justice on him. But God accepted of the
blood of the victim instead of that of the sinner, and
admitted of his confession and repentance. In like
manner, when Christ offered himself to God, he
placed himself in the stead of the whole human race ;
and God accepted of his death in the room of the
pimishments which each particular sinner owed to
God's justice. These he remits, on the condition
that those only who believe in and obey Christ
shall be partakers of the benefits of his sacrifice. See
1 John i, 7. Thus is the sacrifice of Christ set forth
in the Scriptures j and any other explanation cannot
be given, without deviating from the sense in which
the Apostles treat of it. See Heb. vii. (27.) and
Outram de Sacrificiis, lib. ii. c. 6, Le Clerc. Compare
wioce on Matt. xxvi. 26, 28. supra. It is a very ab-
struse and difEcult point, that requires a more ample
dascu^ion ; and the opinion to be fortned on it must
be diligently collected hqm the bi^t sources.



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O ST. JOHN. CHAP. I.

V. 38. — Where dweUest thou ?'\ TIou [jieveig ; The
word intimates either his inn, or his habitation.
Lightfoot supposes the latter, at Capernaum, which
appears to have been his own city ; or, that Joseph
had some connexion with the place, or habitation
there. Compare Matt. ix. 1. Mark ii. 1. There he
paid tribute. Matt. xvii. 24. and was much conver-
sant. So Luke iv. SI. x. 15, John ii. 12. vi. 17, 42.
Lightfoot, Har. Ev. But observe; Christ did not
remove to Capernaum till he left Nazareth, Matt.
IV. 13. See Lightfoot Har. N. Test, on that text.

V. 39. X — uith him that dot/,'] i. e. the following
night : it was then four in the afternoon — ^the tenth
hour, Whitby; and in November ;'^ Lightfoot. See
note on ch. ii. 1. and note on ch. xix. 14. infra.

V. 40. One of the two — was Andrew — ] The other
was probably John the evangelist ; who hence men-
tions the time of day, and the words that passed, with
much punctuality ; but conceals his own name, as
usual in other places. Hammond on ver. 42.

V. 41. — have found the Messiah — ] have disco-
vered him, of whonu John testifies, and whom the
nation expects ; and yet who is come privately, and
without knowing who he is, John vii. 27. Christ is
in numberless places named nWDtl the Messiah, and
^^D the king, Messiah in the Jewish writers ; as in
Daii. ix. 25) 26. Lightfoot, Har. Ev. Grotius.

V. 42. — brought him to Jesus."] The Church of
Rome insists on the TrpwroxKr^a-ia^ the privilege or
distinction of ** the first call ** given to Peter. The
account in this chapter is, that Andrew and another
disciple, probably John, first go with Christ : Andrew
then brings Peter to him. But it does not appear



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ST. JOHN. CHAP. I. 9

that at this time they left their occupations, and fol-
lowed him: on the contrary, Philip was the first
who had that command from our Lord. Christ*^
disciples are next mentioned at Cana in Galilee, and
in the transactions of the three first chapters of this
Gospel, where we find that they baptised, ch. iii. 22.
After all these events, Johniv, S. Luke v. 10. Matt.
iv. 18. Mark. i. 16. Simon and Andrew are following
their employmeiit ; and, on the miraculous draught
of fishes, Peter, Andrew, James, and John, leave all
and follow him. Andrew and the other disciple,
therefore, have the first claim, as abiding with Christ
for a night. If this is not allowed, Peter is also ex-
eluded, notwithstanding the speech of ' thou art Si-
mon,* ver. 42. as he also pursued his former employ-
ment : and the call will rest with Philip or Nathanael,
or some unknown disciple. Hammond. Yet Light-
foot is of opinion, note on Luke v. 10. Har. Ev.
that, setting aside the occurrences as temporary in
John i. 41. Peter and Andrew were first called as
apostles, in Matt. iv. 18. Mark i. 16.; and that Pe-
ter, who i$ named the first of the two, with the inter-
change of discourse in St. Luke v. 3, 10. as above,
had certainly a claim to the first call. And thus
Grotius. See note on Matt. x. 2. supra.

V. 42. — Simon, the son qfjona,'] i. e. of John. So
Barjona is the son of Jonah, or John. Hammond.

V.42. — qfjona,'] u e. of Jonah ; the genitive of
Jonas, LXX, Jon. iv. 8. ; in the N. Test. Matt. xii.
41. 39. ; not of John, as has been needlessly sup-
posed. So Rabbi Jona, a Jewish writer. Lightfoot
ad loc. et Har. Ev.

V.42. — by interpretation, a stone,'] Ucrpog: more
properly, " by interpretation, Peter.'* So the Vul-
gate ; quod interpretatur, Petrus. Not an appella-
tive or common noun, a rock or stone, but the
Greek proper name in the masculine gender, express-r



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10 8T. JOHN* CHAP. U

ing the Syriac proper name Cephas. The Hellenktt
never make use of the Attic dialect in their appella*
dves. Thus they always use Trsrpa when a rock it
mentioned: et ipse Johannes statim appellativum
communiter c^xtulit Tsrpa. Grotius. Lightfoot, Har.
£v. This last sentence in Grotius is obscure: for
werpa does not once occur in St. John's GospeL See
Tromm. Concord. Thus properly, adds Lightfoot,
Acts ix. S6. ** Tabitha, by interpretation, Dorcas j*'
not, ^ by interpretation, a goat," the appellative cxr
common noun expressed by lopxag^ which would be
absurd. Lightfoot apprehends that Cephas is pro-
perly a Syriac adjective with a Greek termination^
petrosus. See Lightfoot, Har. Ev. et ad loc* ; abo
note on Matt. xvi. 18. supra. — ^Note: After alf,
there is a manife^ allusion to a rock or stone conveyed
in this text. See npte bn Matt. x. 2. supnu

V. 43. The day follcmng — ] If the third day,
ch. ii. L is reckoned from the testimony of the Bap-
tist at ver. S5. of this chapter, this is the day follow-
ing that testimony. Jansenius and Grotius, it seems,
suppose that a day intervened, when Simon wat
named Cephas ; and calculated the third day from
that event : — but Lightfoot doubts not that Andre\r
being the brother of Peter, Mark i, 29. Matt. iv. 18.
he readily might bring him to Jesus the day in ver* 35»
after the tentn hour. Lightfoot, Har. Ev.

V. 44. — Beiksaida-^'] on the lake of Gennesa-
reth, made a city by Philip the tctrarcjti, and named
Julia after the daughter of Augustus. Joseph, Ant^
xviii. 3. See note on Matt. xiv. 13. supra. Philip
apparently was prepared or instructed by his friends
" of the same city, Andrew and Peter,*' probably
born there, but now dwelling at Capernaum,' Mark i
39. Grotius. L^htfoot, Har. Ev. Whitby.



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mmm^



ST. JOHN. CHAF. I. 11

V. 45. -^ndeth Nathanael — ] He was probably
chosen an apostle by the name of Bartholomew, ^o
is constantly in the Gospels joined to Philip ; and
John xxi. 2. Nathanael of Cana in Galilee is named
with other disciples, who were all apostles. Bartho-
lomew may signify the son of Tholomeus ; as Bar-
jona, the son of Jonah. Hammond.

V. 45. — the Law and the Prophets — '] as Deut.
xviii. 18. and throughout the Prophets, Isaiah, Mala-
chi, and Daniel.

V. 46. ^^-out qf Nazareth ?] So Luke iv. 28. and
note on Matt. ii. 23. (and John vii. 52.) Whitby
Paraph.

V. 47. ^-Israelite indeed — ] So Plutarch, L. de
Iside : 'la-iaxog oig aXijflo)^. Grotius. He had pro-
bably oflFered his private prayer under the fig-tree,
without hypocrisy or ostentation : hence the praise
bestowed by Christ. Lightfoot; who conjectures,
from John xxi. 2. that the other disciple, mentioned
ver. 35, 40. might be Thomas.

To abide under the shade of trees was not uncom-
mon, as in Zech. iii. 10.

V. 47. — is no ffuitef^ an tCW, Gen. xxv. 27. ot
Jacob.; Gr. aTXa^rro^* Aquila, aTrXou^' elsewhere
cacoLKogy Job viii. 20. Ps. xxv. 21. Prov. viii. 6. He is
thus praised, as freely expressing his doubts of Naza-
reth, yet coming to inquire without prejudice, Ps.
xxxii; 2. Grodus.

V. 49. — the King of Israel^ Customary namei
denoting the Messiah, from Ps. ii. Mgtt. xiv. SS.
xxvi. 63, xxi. 5. xxvii.. 11, 42. Mark xv. 12^
Grotius.

V. 51. Verily f verily — ] Ufwjv, ajxijv. The word



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12 ST. JOHN. CHAP. I.

Amen is frequent in the O. Test. : but there it is
always (except in one passage) either precatory, or
imprecating punishment on transgression, as the case
is. In the LXX, yevoiro, or ysvoiro ouroog, Deut. xxvii.
3 Kings i. 36. " So be it." In strictness the word
imports truth ; as Isa. Ixv. 16. ** by the God pH,"
i. e. the God of truth. Christ, in the N. Test, uses
it affirmatively. Compare Mark xii. 43. with Luke
xxi. 3. Being also called in the Rev. iii, 14.
•' Amen ;*' not only as the faithful witness, 2 Cor.
i. 20. but as truth itself. When, as in St. John's
Gospel, he repeats it, probably it implies, " I'his is
truth ; and I also am the truth, who declare it.'* See
Lightfoot, Har. Ev.

V. 51. — heaven opetij and the angels — ] open to
receive me at my ascension. Acts i. 9, 10. Ham-
mond. Or ; the ministry of angels manifested in
his miracles ; as implied Matt. viii. 8. He alludes
to Jacob's dream. Gen. xxviii. 12. where the ministry
of angels was also signified. Le Clerc.

V. 51. -^angels ascending and descending^r^ as in
the dream or vision of Jacob. Thus are the types
of the O. Test, fulfilled in the New. The same
ministry of angels will be manifest to the true be-
liever in the passion and resurrection, and, particu-
larly when the heavens opened, in the ascension of
Christ. Or, figuratively ; oLxapn being rather '* from
this time," and thus Syr. et Vulg. their ministry will
appear in his powerful works and miracles, even from
this time. Lightfoot^ Har. Ev. So Whitby. Yet
dir dpn may be '* hereafter," and extend, as Matt,
xxvi. 64. even to the glorious appearance of angels at
the day of judgment. Doddridge,



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\



13






'3



CHAPTER 11.



V. 1. Jnd the third day — ] See note on ch. i. 43.
the third, day from Simon's coming to Christ ;
Grotius, Whitby: or, from Christ's arriving in
Galilee ; Macknight : rather, from the testimony
of the Baptist, «ch. i. 35. See Epiphan. xara ra)i/
avoijTojy. Beza. Lightfoot, Har. Ev. in his notes on



Online LibraryHeneage ElsleyAnnotations on the four gospels and the Acts of the Apostles : compiled and arranged for the use of students → online text (page 1 of 26)