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that its action must follow: it is these lines of _possible action_
that, by intercrossing, mark out the net of experience of which each
mesh is a fact. No doubt, a town is composed exclusively of houses, and
the streets of the town are only the intervals between the houses: so,
we may say that nature contains only facts, and that, the facts once
posited, the relations are simply the lines running between the facts.
But, in a town, it is the gradual portioning of the ground into lots
that has determined at once the place of the houses, their general
shape, and the direction of the streets: to this portioning we must go
back if we wish to understand the particular mode of subdivision that
causes each house to be where it is, each street to run as it does.
Now, the cardinal error of Spencer is to take experience already
allotted as given, whereas the true problem is to know how the allotment
was worked. I agree that the laws of thought are only the integration of
relations between facts. But, when I posit the facts with the shape they
have for me to-day, I suppose my faculties of perception and
intellection such as they are in me to-day; for it is they that portion
the real into lots, they that cut the facts out in the whole of reality.
Therefore, instead of saying that the relations between facts have
generated the laws of thought, I can as well claim that it is the form
of thought that has determined the shape of the facts perceived, and
consequently their relations among themselves: the two ways of
expressing oneself are equivalent; they say at bottom the same thing.
With the second, it is true, we give up speaking of evolution. But, with
the first, we only speak of it, we do not think of it any the more. For
a true evolutionism would propose to discover by what _modus vivendi_,
gradually obtained, the intellect has adopted its plan of structure, and
matter its mode of subdivision. This structure and this subdivision work
into each other; they are mutually complementary; they must have
progressed one with the other. And, whether we posit the present
structure of mind or the present subdivision of matter, in either case
we remain in the evolved: we are told nothing of what evolves, nothing
of evolution.

And yet it is this evolution that we must discover. Already, in the
field of physics itself, the scientists who are pushing the study of
their science furthest incline to believe that we cannot reason about
the parts as we reason about the whole; that the same principles are not
applicable to the origin and to the end of a progress; that neither
creation nor annihilation, for instance, is inadmissible when we are
concerned with the constituent corpuscles of the atom. Thereby they tend
to place themselves in the concrete duration, in which alone there is
true generation and not only a composition of parts. It is true that the
creation and annihilation of which they speak concern the movement or
the energy, and not the imponderable medium through which the energy and
the movement are supposed to circulate. But what can remain of matter
when you take away everything that determines it, that is to say, just
energy and movement themselves? The philosopher must go further than the
scientist. Making a clean sweep of everything that is only an
imaginative symbol, he will see the material world melt back into a
simple flux, a continuity of flowing, a becoming. And he will thus be
prepared to discover real duration there where it is still more useful
to find it, in the realm of life and of consciousness. For, so far as
inert matter is concerned, we may neglect the flowing without committing
a serious error: matter, we have said, is weighted with geometry; and
matter, the reality which _descends_, endures only by its connection
with that which _ascends_. But life and consciousness are this very
ascension. When once we have grasped them in their essence by adopting
their movement, we understand how the rest of reality is derived from
them. Evolution appears and, within this evolution, the progressive
determination of materiality and intellectuality by the gradual
consolidation of the one and of the other. But, then, it is within the
evolutionary movement that we place ourselves, in order to follow it to
its present results, instead of recomposing these results artificially
with fragments of themselves. Such seems to us to be the true function
of philosophy. So understood, philosophy is not only the turning of the
mind homeward, the coincidence of human consciousness with the living
principle whence it emanates, a contact with the creative effort: it is
the study of becoming in general, it is true evolutionism and
consequently the true continuation of science - provided that we
understand by this word a set of truths either experienced or
demonstrated, and not a certain new scholasticism that has grown up
during the latter half of the nineteenth century around the physics of
Galileo, as the old scholasticism grew up around Aristotle.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 96: The part of this chapter which treats of the history of
systems, particularly of the Greek philosophy, is only the very succinct
résumé of views that we developed at length, from 1900 to 1904, in our
lectures at the Collège de France, especially in a course on the
_History of the Idea of Time_ (1902-1903). We then compared the
mechanism of conceptual thought to that of the cinematograph. We believe
the comparison will be useful here.]

[Footnote 97: The analysis of the idea of the nought which we give here
(pp. 275-298) has appeared before in the _Revue philosophique_ (November
1906).]

[Footnote 98: Kant, _Critique of Pure Reason_, 2nd edition, p. 737:
"From the point of view of our knowledge in general ... the peculiar
function of negative propositions is simply to prevent error." Cf.
Sigwart, _Logik_, 2nd edition, vol. i. pp. 150 ff.]

[Footnote 99: That is, we do not consider the sophism of Zeno refuted by
the fact that the geometrical progression _a_(1 + 1/_n_ + 1/_n_2 +
1/_n_3 +,... etc.) - in which _a_ designates the initial distance between
Achilles and the tortoise, and _n_ the relation of their respective
velocities - has a finite sum if _n_ is greater than 1. On this point we
may refer to the arguments of F. Evellin, which we regard as conclusive
(see Evellin, _Infini et quantité_, Paris, 1880, pp. 63-97; cf. _Revue
philosophique_, vol. xi., 1881, pp. 564-568). The truth is that
mathematics, as we have tried to show in a former work, deals and can
deal only with lengths. It has therefore had to seek devices, first, to
transfer to the movement, which is not a length, the divisibility of the
line passed over, and then to reconcile with experience the idea
(contrary to experience and full of absurdities) of a movement that is a
length, that is, of a movement _placed upon_ its trajectory and
arbitrarily decomposable like it.]

[Footnote 100: Plato, _Timaeus_, 37 D.]

[Footnote 101: We have tried to bring out what is true and what is false
in this idea, so far as spatiality is concerned (see Chapter III.). It
seems to us radically false as regards _duration_.]

[Footnote 102: Aristotle, _De anima_, 430 a 14 [Greek: kai hestin ho men
toioutos nous tô pynta ginesthai, ho de tô panta poiein, ôs hexis tis,
oion to phôs. tropon gar tina ka to phôs poiei ta dynamei onta chrômata
energeia chrômata].]

[Footnote 103: _De caelo_, ii. 287 a 12 [Greek: tês eschatês periphoras
oute kenon estin exôthen oute topos.] _Phys._ iv. 212 a 34 [Greek: to de
pan esti men hôs kinêsetai hesti d' hôs ou. hôs men gar holon, hama ton
topon hou metaballei. kyklô de kinêsetai, tôn moriôn gar outos ho
topos].]

[Footnote 104: _De caelo_, i. 279 a 12 [Greek: oude chronos hestin hexô
tou ouranou]. _Phys._ viii. 251 b 27 [Greek: ho chronos pathos ti
kinêseôs].]

[Footnote 105: Especially have we left almost entirely on one side those
admirable but somewhat fugitive intuitions that Plotinus was later to
seize, to study and to fix.]

[Footnote 106: See page 10.]

[Footnote 107: Descartes, _Principes_, ii. § 29.]

[Footnote 108: Descartes, _Principes_, ii. §§ 36 ff.]

[Footnote 109: In a course of lectures on Plotinus, given at the Collège
de France in 1897-1898, we tried to bring out these resemblances. They
are numerous and impressive. The analogy is continued even in the
formulae employed on each side.]

[Footnote 110: "Le Paralogisme psycho-physiologique" (_Revue de
métaphysique et de morale_, Nov. 1904, pp. 895-908). Cf. _Matière et
mémoire_, Paris, 1896, chap. i.]




INDEX

(Compiled by the Translator)


Abolition of everything a self-contradiction, 280, 283, 296, 298
idea of, 279, 282, 283, 295, 296.
_See_ Nought

Absence of order, 231, 234, 274.
_See_ Disorder

Absolute and freedom, 277
reality, 99, 228-9, 269, 358, 361
reality of the person, 269
time and the, 239, 240, 298, 340, 344

Absoluteness of duration, 206
of understanding, xi, 47, 152, 190, 197, 199

Abstract becoming, 304-7
multiplicity, 257-9
time, 9, 17, 20-2, 37, 39, 46, 51, 163, 318-9, 336, 352-3

Accident and essence in Aristotle's philosophy, 353
in evolution, 86-7, 104, 114-5, 127, 169, 170, 252, 254-5, 266, 267,
326-7

Accidental variations, 55, 63, 68, 69, 74, 85-6, 168

Accumulation of energy, function of vegetable organisms, 253, 255

Achilles and tortoise, in Zeno, 311, 312-3

Acquired characters, inheritance of, 76-9, 83-4, 87, 169, 170, 173, 231

Act, consciousness as inadequacy of, to representation, 144
form (or essence), quality, three classes of representation, 302-3

Action, creativeness of free, 192, 247
and concepts, 160, 297
and consciousness, xiii, 5, 143-4, 145, 179-80, 207, 262
discontinuity of, 154, 307
freedom of, in animals, 130
as function of nervous system, 262-3
indivisibility of, 94, 95, 308-9
and inert matter, 96, 136, 141-2, 156, 187, 198, 226, 366
instinct and, 136, 141
instrument of, consciousness, 180
instrument of, life, 162
instrument of matter, 161, 198-9
as instrument of consciousness, 180
and intellect. _See_ Intellect and action
intensity of consciousness varies with ratio of possible, to real, 145
meaning of, 301-3
moves from want to fulness, 297, 298
organism a machine for, 252, 254, 300
and perception, 5, 11, 12, 93, 188, 189, 206, 227-30, 300, 307, 368
possible, 12, 13, 96, 144, 145, 146-7, 159, 165, 179-81, 188, 264
and science, 93, 195-6, 198-9, 329-30
and space, 203
sphere of the intellect, 155
tension in a free, 200, 207, 238, 240, 301-2

Activity, dissatisfaction the starting-point of, 297
of instinct, continuous with vital process, 139, 140
life as, 128-9, 247
mutually inverse factors in vital, 248
and nervous system, 110, 130, 132-3, 134-5, 180, 252, 261-3
organism as, 174
potential. _See_ Action, possible
tension of free, 200, 202, 207-8, 223-4, 237, 239, 300-1
and torpor in evolution, 109, 111, 113, 114, 119-20, 129-30,
135-6, 181, 292
vital, has evolved divergently, 134
_See_ Divergent lines of evolution

Adaptation, 50-1, 55, 57-8, 59, 70, 101, 129, 133, 192, 255, 270, 305-6
and causation, 102
mutual, between materiality and intellectuality, 187, 206-7
and progress, 101-2

Adequate and inadequate in Spinoza, 353

Adjectives, substantives and verbs, 303-4, 315

Aesthetics and philosophy, 177

Affection, Role of, in the idea of chance, 234
in the idea of nought, 281-3, 289, 293, 295, 296
in negation, 286-7

Affirmation and negation, 285-6, 293

Age and individuality, 15-6

Albuminoid substances, 121-2

Alciope, 96

Alexandrian philosophy, 322, 323

Algae in illustration of probable consciousness in vegetable forms, 112

Alimentation, 113-4, 117, 247

Allegory of the Cave, 191

Alternations of increase and decrease of mutability of the universe, 245-6

Alveolar froth, 33-4

Ambiguity of the idea of "generality" in philosophy, 230-1, 320-1
of primitive organisms, 99, 112, 113, 129-30

Ammophila hirsuta, paralyzing instinct in, 173

Amoeba, in illustration of imitation of the living by the unorganized, 33-6
in illustration of the ambiguity of primitive organisms, 99
in illustration of the mobility characteristic of animals, 108
in illustration of the "explosive" expenditure of energy characteristic
of animals, 120, 253

Anagenesis, 34

Anarchy, idea of, 233, 234.
_See_ Disorder

Anatomy, comparative, and transformism, 25

Ancient philosophy, Achilles and tortoise, 311-2
Alexandrian philosophy, 322-3
Allegory of the Cave, 191
Anima (De), 322 _note_
Apogee of sensible object, 344, 345, 349
Archimedes, 343-4
Aristotle, 135, 174-5, 227-8, 314, 316, 321, 323, 324, 328-33, 347, 349,
353, 356, 370
Arrow of Zeno, 308-13
ascent toward God, in Aristotle, 323
Astronomy, ancient and modern, 334-6
attraction and impulsion in, 323-4
becoming in, 313-4, 317
bow and indivisibility of motion, 308-9
Caelo (De), of Aristotle, 322 _note_, 324 _note_
and Cartesian geometry, 334-5
causality in, 323, 325-6
change in, 313-4, 317, 328-9, 342-3
cinematographical nature of, 315
circularity of God's thought, 323-4
concentric spheres, 328
concepts, 326-7, 356
"conversion" and "procession" in, 323
degradation of ideas into sensible flux, 317-8, 321, 323-4, 327, 328,
343-5, 352-3
degrees of reality, 323-4, 327
diminution, derivation of becoming by. _See_ Degradation of Ideas, etc.
duration, 317-9 _note_, 323-4, 327-9
Eleatic philosophy, 308, 314
Enneads of Plotinus, 210 _note_
essence and accident, 354
essence or form, 314-5
eternal, 317-8, 324-6
Eternity, 317-8, 320, 324, 328-9
extension, 210 _note_, 318, 324, 327
form or idea, 314-20, 322, 327, 329-31, 352
geometry, Cartesian, and ancient philosophy, 334
God of Aristotle, 196-7, 322-4, 349, 352, 356
[Greek: hylê], 353
Idea, 314-22, 352-3
and indivisibility of motion, 307-8, 311
intelligible reality in, 326
intelligibles of Plotinus, 353
[Greek: logos], of Plotinus, 210 _note_
matter in Aristotle's philosophy, 316, 327
and modern astronomy, 333-4, 335
and modern geometry, 333-4
and modern philosophy, 226-7, 228-9, 232, 281-2, 344-5, 346, 349-51, 364,
369
and modern science, 329-30, 336, 342-3, 344-5, 357
motion in, 307-8, 312-3
necessity in, 327
[Greek: noêseôs noêsis], 356
non-being, 316, 327
[Greek: nous poiêtikos], 322
oscillation about being, sensible reality as, 317-8
Physics of Aristotle, 227-8 _note_, 324 _note_, 330-1
Plato, 48, 156, 191, 210 _note_, 316-8, 321-4, 327, 330, 348, 349
Plotinus, 210, 316, 323, 326 _note_, 349, 352-4
procession in Alexandrian philosophy, 323
[Greek: psychê], 210 _note_, 350
realism in, 232
refraction of idea through matter or non-being, 317
sectioning of becoming, 318-9
sensible reality, 314, 316-8, 321, 327-9, 352-3
[Greek: sôma], 350
space and time, 317-9, 320
Timaeus, 318 _note_
time in ancient and in modern science, 330-1, 336-7, 341-4
time and space, 317-9, 320
vision of God in Alexandrian philosophy, 322
Zeno, 308, 313

Ancient science and modern, 329-31, 336-7, 342-5, 357

Anima (De), of Aristotle, 322 _note_

Animal kingdom, 12, 105-6, 119-21, 126, 129, 131-2, 134-6, 137-8, 139, 179,
184-5

Animals, 105-47, 167, 170, 181, 183, 187, 212, 214, 246, 252, 253, 254,
262-5, 267, 271, 293, 301
deduction in, 212
induction in, 214
and man, 139-43, 183, 187, 188, 212, 263, 264, 267
and man in respect to brain, 183, 184-5, 263-5
and man in respect to consciousness, 139-43, 180, 183, 187, 188, 192,
212, 263-8
and man in respect to instruments of action, 139-43, 150-1
and man in respect to intelligence, 137-8, 187, 188, 191-2, 212
and plants, 105-39, 124-6, 143, 145, 146-7, 168-70, 181-2, 253, 254, 293
and plants in respect to activity of consciousness, 109, 111, 113,
119-21, 128-9, 132, 134-6, 142-3, 144, 181-2, 293
and plants in respect to function, 117-8, 121-2, 127
and plants in respect to instinct, 167, 170
and plants in respect to mobility, 109, 110, 113, 129-30, 132-3, 135, 181
and plants in respect to nature of consciousness, 134-5

Antagonistic currents of the vital impetus, 129, 135-6, 181, 184, 250,
258-9

Anthophora, 146-7

Antinomies of Kant, 204, 205

Antipathy. _See_ Sympathy, Feeling, Divination

Antithesis and thesis, 205

Ants, 101, 134, 140, 157

Ape's brain and consciousness contrasted with man's, 263

Aphasia, 181

Apidae, social instinct in the, 171

Apogee of instinct in the hymenoptera and of intelligence in man, 174-5
_See_ Evolutionary superiority

Apogee of sensible object, in philosophy of Ideas, 343-4, 349

Approximateness of the knowledge of matter, 206-7

Approximation, in matter, to the mathematical order, 218.
_See_ Order

Archimedes, 333-4

Aristotle. _See_ Ancient Philosophy, Aristotle

Arrow, Flying, of Zeno, 308-9, 310, 312-3

Art, 6-7, 29 _note_, 45, 89, 177

Artemia Salina, transformations of, 72, 73

Arthropods in evolution, 130-5, 142

Articulate species, 133

Articulations of matter relative to action, 156, 367
of motion, 310-1
of real time, 332-3

Artificial, how far scientific knowledge is, 197, 218-9
instruments, 138, 139, 140-1

Artist, in illustration of the creativeness of duration, 340-1

Ascending cosmic movement, 11, 208, 275, 369

Ascent toward God, in Aristotle, 323

Association of organisms, 260.
_See_ Individuation
universal oscillation between association and individuation, 259, 260.
_See_ Societies

Astronomy and deduction, 213
and the inert order, 224
modern, in reference to ancient science, 334-6

Atmosphere of spatiality bathing intelligence, 204

Atom, 240, 254, 255
as an intellectual view of matter, 203, 250
and interpenetration, 207

Attack and defence in evolution, 131-2

Attention, 2, 148-9, 154, 184, 209
discontinuity of, 2
in man and in lower animals, 184.
_See_ Tension and instinct, Tension as inverted extension,
Tension of personality, Sympathetic appreciation, etc.,
Relaxation and intellect

Attraction and impulsion in Greek philosophy, 323, 324

Attribute and subject, 148

Automatic activity, 145
as instrument of voluntary, 252
order, 224, 231-4.
_See_ Negative movement, etc., Geometrical order

Automatism, 127, 143-4, 174, 223-4, 261, 264


Background of instinct and intelligence, consciousness as, 186

Backward-looking attitude of the intellect, 47, 48, 237

Baldwin, J.M., 27 _note_

Ballast of intelligence, 152, 230, 239, 369-70

Bastian, 212 _note_

Bateson, 63

Becoming, 164, 236, 248-9, 273, 299-304, 307-8, 313-4, 316, 337-8,
342-3, 345, 363
in ancient philosophy, 313-4, 317
in Descartes's philosophy, 346
in Eleatic philosophy, 313-4, 315
in general, or abstract becoming, 304, 306-7
instantaneous and static views of, 272, 304-5
states of, falsely so called, 164, 247-8, 273, 298-301, 307-8
in the successors of Kant, 363.
_See_ Change, New, Duration, Time, Views of reality

Bees, 101, 140, 142, 146, 166, 172

Beethoven, 224

Berthold, 34 _note_

Bethe, 176 _note_

Bifurcations of tendency, 54.
_See_ Divergent lines of evolution

Biology, 12, 25, 26, 31-2, 43, 168-9, 174-5, 194-6
evolutionist, 168-9
and philosophy, 43, 194-6
and physico-chemistry, 26

Blaringhem, 85

Bodies, 156, 188, 189, 300-1, 360.
_See_ Inert matter as a relaxation of the unextended into the
extended defined as bundles of qualities, 349

Bois-Reymond (Du), 38

Boltzmann, 245

Bombines, social instincts in, 171

Bouvier, 142 _note_

Bow, strain of, illustrating indivisibility of motion, 308-10

Brain and consciousness, 5, 109, 110, 179-80, 183-4, 212 _note_, 252,
261-4, 270, 354, 356, 366.
_See_ Nervous System in man and lower animals, 183, 184, 263-5

Brandt, 66 _note_

Breast-Plate, in reference to animal mobility, 130, 131.
_See_ Carapace, Cellulose envelope

Brown-Séquard, 80-2

Bulb, medullary, in the development of the nervous system, 110, 252

Busquet, 259 _note_

Bütschli, 33 _note_

Buttel-Reepen, 171 _note_

Butterflies, in illustration of variation from evolutionary type, 72


Caelo (De), of Aristotle, 322 _note_, 324 _note_

Calcareous sheath, in reference to animal mobility, 130-1

Calkins, 16 _note_

Canal, in illustration of the relation of function and structure, 93

Canalization, in illustration of the function of animal organisms, 93,
95, 110, 126, 256, 270

Canvas, embroidering "something" on the, of "nothing," 297

Caprice, an attribute not of freedom but of mechanism, 47

Carapace, in reference to animal mobility, 130-1

Carbohydrates, in reference to the function of the animal organism, 121-2

Carbon, in reference to the function of organisms, 107, 113, 114, 117,
254, 255

Carbonic acid, in reference to the function of organisms, 254, 255

Carnot, 243, 246, 256

Cartesian geometry, compared with ancient, 334

Cartesianism, 345, 356, 358

Cartesians, 358. _See_ Spinoza, Leibniz

Carving, the, of matter by intellect, 155

Categorical propositions, characteristic of instinctive knowledge, 149-50

Categories, conceptual, x, xiii, 48, 147, 148-9, 165, 189-90, 195-7, 207,
220-1, 257-60, 265, 358, 361.
_See_ Concept deduction of, and genesis of the intellect, 196, 207, 359.
_See_ Genesis of matter and of the intellect
innate, 147, 148-9
misfit for the vital, x, xiii, 48, 165, 195-9, 220-1, 257-9
in reference to the adaptation to each other of the matter and form of
knowledge, 361

Cats, in illustration of the law of correlation, 67

Causal relation in Aristotle, 325
between consciousness and movement, 111
in Greek philosophy, 324-5

Causality, mechanical, a category which does not apply to life, x, xiv, 177
in the philosophy of Ideas, 323-6

Causation and adaptation, 101, 102
final, involves mechanical, 44

Cause and effect as mathematical functions of each other, 20, 21
efficient, 238, 277, 323
efficient, in Aristotle's philosophy, 324
efficient, in Leibniz's philosophy, 353
final, 40, 44, 238
final, in Aristotle's philosophy, 324
by impulsion, release and unwinding, 73
mechanical, as containing effect, 14, 233, 269
in the vital order, 95, 164

Cave, Plato's allegory of the, 191

Cell, 16, 24, 33, 162, 166, 167, 260, 269
as artificial construct, 162
in the "colonial theory," 260
division, 16, 24, 33
instinct in the, 166, 167
in relation to the soul, 269

Cellulose envelope in reference to vegetable immobility and torpor, 108,
111, 130

Cerebral activity and consciousness, 5, 109-10, 180-1, 183-4, 212 _note_,
252, 253, 261, 264, 268, 270, 350, 351, 354, 355, 366
mechanism, 5, 252, 253, 262, 264, 366

Cerebro-spinal system, 124. _See_ Nervous system

Certainty of induction, 215, 216

Chance analogous to disorder, 233, 234.
_See_ Affection
in evolution, 86-7, 104, 114-5, 126, 169-70, 171, 252, 254, 255, 266,
267, 326-7.
_See_ Indetermination

Change, 1, 7-8, 18, 85-6, 248, 275, 294, 300-304, 308, 313-4, 317, 326,
328-9, 343-4, 344-5
in ancient philosophy, 313-4, 316-7, 325-6, 327-9, 343, 345
in Eleatic philosophy, 314
known only from within, 307-8

Chaos, 232.
_See_ Disorder

Character, moral, 5, 99-100

Charrin, 81 _note_

Chemistry, 27, 34-6, 55, 72, 74, 98, 194, 226, 256, 260

Child, intelligence in, 147-8
adolescence of, in illustration of evolutionary becoming, 311-3

Chipped stone, in paleontology, 139

Chlorophyllian function, 107-9, 114, 117, 246, 253

Choice, 110, 125, 143-5, 179, 180, 252, 260-4, 276, 366
and consciousness, 110, 179, 260-4

Chrysalis, 114 _note_

Cinematograph, 306-7, 339-40

Cinematographical character of ancient philosophy, 315-6
of intellectual knowledge, 306, 307, 312-8, 323-4, 331-3, 346
of language, 306-7, 312-5
of modern science, 329-31, 336-7, 341-3, 345, 346, 347

Circle of the given, broken by action, 192, 247
logical and physical, 277
vicious, in intellectualist philosophy, 193, 197, 320
vicious, in the intuitional method is only apparent, 192, 193

Circularity of God's thought in Aristotle's philosophy, 324
of each special evolution, 128

Circulation, protoplasmic, imitated, 32-3
in plants and animals, 108

Circumstances in the determination of evolution, 101-2, 128-9, 133, 138,
142, 150-1, 167, 168, 170-1, 193, 194, 252, 256



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