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The 88th Division
in the World War




WOODROW WILSON
President of the United States



[5]




(c) Underwood & Underwood



NEWTON D. BAKER
Secretary of War



[6]




Phntt. Hfmu [| 1'.



GENERAL JOHN J. PERSHING
Commanding American Expeditionary Forces




French Official I



il.-rw l & Undent 1

FERDINAND FOCH
Marshal of France




Reprinted fn»m 7



SIR DOUGLAS HAH J
Field Marsha] of Great Britain



[9]




10



THE 88th DIVISION

IN THE

WORLD WAR



OK



19 14 - 19 18




Published bj
WYNKOOP HALLENBECK CRAWFORD COMPANY

Printers & Binders
iill Lafayette Stheet, New York



Price, $2.00 per Copy. Postage .V.Or extra.



i>






Publishers' Note



Tliis, the official History of the 81!th Division, is published by authority of
the < lommanding General of the Division, who, under date of June :!. I'M."., made
the following announcement:

HEADQUARTERS

88th Division

U. S. A.

The Wvnkiiup IIallenbeck Crawford Company has been authorized to
publish the official History of th" 88th Division, which will contain in picture and
in texl the achievements of the Division — its training, its service overseas, its
return home and demobilization. \ complete- roster of all officers and men who
served in the Division overseas will form a part of the History.

Ml members of the Di\ ision are assured that this History will, in every way,
be a worths volume, and all arc urged to secure a copy of what will be the record
of 01 f the most interesting chapters in their life's history.

WILLIAM WEIGEL,

Major-General, I ■'. S. .1.



The publishers undertook this work in view of the interest and enthusiasm

evinced h\ tl fficers and men of the Jiiith Division, from the Stales of Iowa.

Minnesota, Illinois. Michigan. Wisconsin, the Dakotas and neighboring Stales;
and upon the assurances of co-operation and support from them and thai then
was a tremendous demand for a book giving in pictures ami text the accomplish-
ments of the 88th Division.

It is a pleasure to acknowledge, with appreciation, the co-operation of all

those who have made its issuance possible, espec'ally

William Weigel, Major-General, Commanding General.

Fay W. Rrabson, Colonel. General stuff. Chief of Staff.

C. S. Ruck, Major, idjutant:

Tom D. Nelson, Captain, Assistant '.'-:'.

Edgar J. Larson. Captain.

Jacob Hofto, Captain.

\\ . T. BURNS, 1st Lieutenant.

William Dahrow, 1st Lieutenant.

L. R. Fariall, tst Lieutenant.

WVNKOOP HALLEM5ECK CRAWFORD CO.
July 1", 1919.



Copyright 1919 by Wynkoop Halleobeck Crawford Company

[12]



AUG 13 1919
9 550




[13



CONTENTS

tu cu w

Organization and Training at Camp Dodge 27

Biography of Major-General William Weigel, U. S. A 37

Arrival in France — Training and Life in the Trenches 39

After the Armistice 77

Two Years of American Accomplishment Since War Was Declared . . 107
Roster Ill



INTRODUCTION

THIS short story of the Eighty-Eighth Division's participation in the world
war was prepared mainly to give the men of the Division a few facts which
would enable them in future years to recall the many pleasant recollections
which they will surely have of their service in the United States and France. No
attempt has been made to give a detailed account of the many noble things accom-
plished by each organization or individual. The book is simply a story of what the
Division as a whole accomplished; accompanied by photographs and maps.

The Division passed through three big stages in its career, therefore, the book is
divided into four main parts: First part, organization and training at Camp Dodge,
Iowa, and the trip to France; second part, arrival in France, training, and life in the
trenches; third part, the period after the Armistice, which includes training, athletics,
entertainment, the trip home and demobilization; fourth part, complete rosier of all
officers and men who served with the Division in France.

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE 88TH DIVISION

September 4, 1917, to July 2U, 1918

The 88th Division, a National Army Division, was organized September I.
1917, at Camp Dodge, Iowa, from men drafted from the states of Minnesota, Iowa,
the Dakotas and Illinois.

Later when these first drafts had been transferred in large measure to Camps
Cody, Bowie, Doniphan, Pike, Travis and Cordon, newly drafted men from these
origipal states, together with men from Missouri and Nebraska, constituted the bulk
of the Division.

The Division was officered largely by reserve officers from the First Training
Camp at Fort Snelling, Minnesota, and from the Second Training Camps at Forts
Sheridan, Snelling and Benjamin Harrison.

July 25, 1918, to September 4, 1918
July 25, 1918, the Division began moving from Camp Dodge overseas, and was
assembled in the 21st Training Area with headquarters at Semur, < !ote d'< >r, France,
less the 163d Artillery Brigade, which was sent to the artillery training school at
Clermont Ferrand in the south of France and never rejoined the Division.

September 5, 1918, to September 13, 1918
On September 5, 1918, Major-General William Weigel, who had just been pro-
moted from Brigadier General in command of the 56th Infantry Brigade of the 28th
Division, U. S. A., which had taken part in the Second Maine offensive, was assigned
as Commander of the 88th Division. The Division was assigned to the VI American
Corps, First Army, for training in open warfare.

September U, 1918, to September 27, 1918

September 14, 1918, the Division moved by rail to the Hericourt, Haute-Saone

Training Area near Belfort, France. Its position in support enabled the 29th American

Division to be withdrawn from the Center Sector of Haute-Alsace and sent to take a

prominent part in the Meuse-Argonne offensive, where, crossing the river Meuse at

[15]



Samogueux.it advanced to the high ground east of Consenvoyeand captured the enemy
artillery observation points and massed artillery there. This maneuver enabled the
American divisions west of the Meuse River to advance without having their right
flank held up by artillery tire from these heights. Thus, by releasing the 29th Di\ i>icm
from the Haute-Alsaee Sector, the 88th Division contributed, not indirectly, to the
winning of the important Meuse-Argonne offensive.

On leaving the 21st Training Area at Semur, Cote d'Or on September 14, 1918.
the 88th Di\ ision was transferred to the VII American Army Corps (with headquarters
at Remiremont) for administrative purposes.

September 23, 1918, to November 1. 191$

On September 23. 1918, advanced elements of the 88th Division moved into
the Center Sector of Haute-Alsace. which was being temporarily held by the 38th
French Division that had relieved the 29th American Division. These advanced
elements, totaling eight officers and four hundred men. were augmented until on
October 7. 1^18. Division Headquarters of the 88th Division was moved to Montreaux
Chateau. Haute-Alsace: and on October 15. 1918. the command of the Center Sector
of Haute-Alsace passed from the 38th French Di\ ision to the 88th American Div ision.
which formed part of the 40th French Army Corps of the VII French Army, while
remaining under the VII American Army Corps for administrative purposes.

To i-ach the sector, the infantry and engineers of the Division had been forced
to make long marches — sometimes 25 kilometers a day — on congested roads, pulling
with them their heavily loaded machine gun carts, coinl at and field wagons, in cases
the average weight pulled per man being 250 pounds.

Furthermore, the Division had been forced to go without essential supplies,
because all available transportation was being used to the maximum in the Argonne
drive. On arrival in France, the Division had been required to turn in all its field
ranges, overcoats, and all except one blanket per man: and means of cooking had to be
improvised, or secured by purchase from the French or by the utilization of small
French stoves in billets, supplemented by the extensive use of camp kettles and
watereans. Until October 6. 1918. there were only two ambulances in the Division —
and they had to serve the French troops in the area also.

Meantime, on September 20. 1918. a wide-spread epidemic of influenza set in.
and in eight days there were 1.370 cases in one regiment alone. This epidemic in-
creased until October 14. 1918. on which date there were eighty deaths. All told
there were 0.845 cases of influenza and 1,041 cases of pneumonia reported, from which
1 It deaths resulted.

After arrival in sector, much additional marching was made necessary by reasi on
of the withdrawal of French divisions and the re-arrangement of their forces on the
north and south of the Center Sector of Haute-Alsace. On October 24. 1918. the
Division took over the Fullereu subsector. of the South Sector of Haute-Alsace, mak-
ing a total of approximately nineteen kilometers of front line held by the 88th Division.

While in this Haute-Alsace sector, energetic patrolling, often in force, in con-
nection with the French division in the sector and later when the 88th American
Division alone occupied the sector, kept the enemy constantly on the alert, held in
the south many German planes, considerable artillery, and several divisions which
had remained in this sector of the German line for a long time. All this force, conse-
quently, was held out of the Meuse-Argonne offensive, and again the 88th Division

[16]



contributed, less indirectly, to the success of thai offensive. In this (Haute-Alsace)

sector, several night rauls were carried out 1>\ the 88th Division anil a Dumber nl'
prisoners were captured, enabling the identification of the opposing divisions to be
kept up-to-date. German "stormstruppen" troops, assigned to the <lnt> of roving
from one sector to another between the Voges and the Sw iss Holder, also made several
raids on the lines of the 88th Division, both at nighl and in the daytime. These
enemy raids were accompanied by gas projector attacks and hv intense artillery
bombardments, but at no time were the < lerman raiding parties able to enter the lines
held by the Di\ ision.

On November 2, 1918, the 88th Division began to withdraw from the Haute-
Alsace sector, and on November 1, 1918, turned over command of the sector to the
l.'vlth French Division; 88th Division Headquarters being established temporarily
on the outskirts of Belfort.

November 2, t918, to Wovember II. t918

.Meanwhile, on November 1, 1918, the 88th American Division was trans-
ferred to the Second American Army (with headquarters at Toil), and on November
6, 1918, began moving the advance brigade to the I.agney \rea. north of Toul. where
it was placed in the IV Army Corps (American) Reserve, which corps had head-
quarters at Wienville, preparatory to taking active part in the Meuse-Argonne offen-
sive. The balance of the Division was placed in Second American Army Reserve,
with 88th Division Headquarters at Lagney.

Again, the presence of the 88th Division, this time on the Meuse-Argonne front,
made possible during the clays immediately preceding the armistice the delivery up
to the very hour of the armistice of even more powerful blows by other elements of
American divisions released by the arrival of the 88th Division in Corps Reserve.
The plans of the Second Army for the contemplated attack east of the Mozelle River,
effective November 1 1, 1918, and which was to strike the ( ierman line between M ETZ
and SARREBRUCK, provided for the 88th Division an important part in what
could have been a very important phase of the Metz coup. The signing of the armis-
tice on November 11, 1918, stopped this new offensive and effectively put an end
to the lighting.

The achievements of the 88th Division have been measured only by ils oppor-
tunities.

Men Trained fob Three Months oh Mom. i\ the 88th Division vni> then
Transferred to Other Divisions vnh Miscellaneous Organizations



X umber of Men


Transferred In


Approximate Time


1,500


30th Division


March 28, 1918


2,300


33d Division


March 20. 1918


3,000


?> 1th Division


October 22. 1917


3.780


35th Division


\pril 1 20. 1918


8,300


82d Division


April 1. 1918


8. ()()()


87th Division


November 17. 10 17


7,500


90th Division


May 16, 1018


11,110


\l iscellaneous


Sept., 1917, to Aug., 1918



48,490 Total of transferred men.
[IT




1!!




14




20




21




MAJOR GENERAL C. C. BALLOU
Commanding General, 163rd Depot Brigade



22]




BRIGADIER GENERAL R. N. GETTY
Commanding General, 175th Infantry Brigade in the U. S.



[ 23 j




BRIGADIER GENERAL S. M. FOOTE
Commanding General, 163rd Artillery Brigade



[24]




COLONEL CHAS. S. LINCOLN

Chief of Staff, 8Klh Division in the I . S.



25







- ^

The Headquarters Staff of the 88th Division grouped around Major-Genera I Willam Weigel. First How,
Left In Right: Captain R. B. Rathbun, Capt. •/. //. Quigley, Major F. 11. O'Leary, Major W. A. Graham,
Lieut. -Colonel I.. A. Tamils. Lieut. -Colonel W. ./. O'Laughlin, Colonel F. W. Brabson, Major-General
William Weigel, Lieut. -Colonel B. C. Clark. Major A. T. Wallace, Colonel J. R. Shook and Lieut. -
Colonel F. Fields. Second Row. Left to Right: Lieutenant M. F. Kinkead, Captain F. Iluber, Major
L. S. Smith. Captain F. W. Arnold. Lieutenant 11. A. Colgan, Major Percy Bordwell, Captain G. E.
Wilkinson, Lieutenenl II. Burnett, Lieutenant P. Vbdable, Lieutenant IV*. P. Darrow, Lieutenant A. B.
Kachel and Lieutenant II. ./. Burns. Third Row, Left to Right: Lieutenant R. A. Shay, Lieutenant
R. J. Quinloven, Captain T. D. Nelson, Lieutenant E. D. Flynn, Lieutenant E. A. Conway, Captain
F. M. Herman, Major II. Hanson. Lieutenant M. II. Latendresse and Lieutenant C. C. Armstrong.
Lagney, Meurthe el Moselle, France, November 15, 1918.





Left to Right- Lieut. Colonel T. B. McGhee. A. C

of S. G-3: Colonel Fav W. Brabson, C. of S.

Lieut. Colonel Bennett C. Clark, A. C. 'of

S. G-l: Lieut. Colonel Eric Fisher

Wood, A. C. of S. G-2.



Left to Right— Major W. W. Parris, Asst. G-3;

Isl Lieut. W. T. Burns, Secy., G. S.; Major

Russell B. Rathbun, Asst. G-l; Capt.

Tom D. Nelson, Asst. G-2.



[26;



ORGANIZATION AND TRAINING

At Camp Dodge




-jOLLOWING the passage of the Selective Service Vcl
and the registration June 5, 1917, of approximately
10,000,000 men. the problem of housing the new army
had been solved only on paper. The plan adopted by
the War Department called for sixteen National \im>
cantonments having a capacity of approximately 40,000
men each, and ground for drill, maneuvers and target
ranges adequate for the training needs of such a number.
On the 18th of June, l l M7. the War Department
announced by General Order that an infantry (the 88th)
Division would be organized at ("amp Dodge, near Des Moines, Iowa. The site
selected for Camp Dodge was ten miles northwest of Des Moines, the state capital
of Iowa. It had for many years been the camping ground of the Iowa National
Guard. On June 29, 1917, when Major N. A. Butler, the constructing quartermaster,
first rode over the cantonment site, there were no buildings except 12 company mess
halls, which were used by the National Guard organizations during their annual en-
campments there. There was also the arsenal of the Iowa National Guard, a concrete
building of considerable size, located on the railway; and a small brick house, which
was utilized as a Headquarters Building for several months.

Limited as they were by the lack of adequate railroad facilities, the construction
of Camp Dodge was no less remarkable than that of the other fifteen camps. A single
track electric railway between Des Moines and Perry, Iowa, in no way adapted to the
heavy freight traffic and almost totally lacking in passenger cars for more than civilian
patronage, made the transportation of materials extremely difficult. By November
21th, all buildings authorized to that date for the camp were completed with the
exception of the theatre and two officers' quarters at the Base Hospital. The 12')
individual heating plants for officers' quarters and medical buildings, the sewer
system with a total length of 131,052 feet, all water mains, having a total length of
170,355 feet, the pumping stations, wells and million gallon reservoir, the electric
lighting system, the telephone system and road work were all completed. There were
many changes and additions to the original plans, but these are incidental to the
history of the division.

An important feature of the cantonment which contributed in a large way to
the welfare of the men was a part of the camp, centrally located, and known as the
Civic Center. Here a government-built and managed theatre seating 3,000 persons,
a Y. W. C. A. Hostess House, a Y. M. C. A. Auditorium, a Lutheran Brotherhood




H



\







. S: ■;




.



[28]



Building, a Knights of Columbus Auditorium and a library erected lis the American
Library Association, provided facilities for education, recreation and amusement
of all kinds.

The history of the 88th Division may be said in have commenced on the 25th
of August, 1917. at which time, in compliance with a War Department order, Major
Genera] Edward II. Plummer arrived al Camp Dodge and assumed command. He
was directed to organize a division according to the following table:

Division Headquarters

Headquarters Troop

337th Machine Ci n Battalion

I 75th Infantry Brigade

349th Infantry

.'150th Infantry

338th Machine <ii\ Battalion

176th Infantry Brigade

351st Infantry

352d Infantry

339th Machine Gun Battalion

163d Field Artillery Brigade

337th Field Artillery

338th Field Artillery

339th Field Artillery

313th Trench Mortar Battery

313th Engineers

313th Train Headquarters and Military Police

313th Ammunition Train

313th Supply Train

313th Sanitary Train

In addition to the division organizations, the 163d Depot Brigade «a< established
to which, later, all incoming drafted men were attached before being permanently
assigned to the division. The Depol Brigade served also to lake care of men physi-
eally unfit for combatant branches of the service, and to hold specialists, such a?
psychologists, chemists, etc.. [lending their assignment to special services. The camp,
at this time, was only a row of partly completed wooden barracks, withoul water
supply or lights.

Headquarters were established in an old brick house near the southern end of
camp and the following assignments made for division stall':

Major Sam M. Parker, Division Adjutant

Major Cary I. Crockett, Division Inspector and Acting Chief of Si all'

Fl. Col. Henry C. Bonnycastle, Division Quartermaster

Ft. Col. Jay B. Shook. Division Surgeon

Major Clarence G. Front, Division Sanitary Inspector

Major Clyde L. Eastman, Division Signal Officer

Major Win. A. Graham, Division Judge Advocate

1st Ft. George V Northrop, Division Statistical Officer

2d Ft. Michael M. Kinkead, Division Statistical Officer

2d Ft. Nazard M. Coursolle, Division Statistical Officer

[29]



In addition to these the following assignments were made among general and
field officers who had reported:

Brig. Gen. Charles C. Ballou, 175th Infantry Brigade (never joined Brigade)

Brig. Gen. William D. Beach, 176th Infantry Brigade

Brig. Gen. Stephen M. Foote, 163d Field Artillery Brigade

Brig. Gen. Bobert N. Getty, 163d Depot Brigade

Col. George E. Houle, 349th Infantry

Col. Clyde E. Hawkins, 352d Infantry

Col. George B. Greene, 337th Field Artillery

Col. Samuel C. Vestal. 339th Field Artillery

Col. Harrison J. Price (later Brigadier General) and Col. Girard Sturtevant,

163d Depot Brigade
Col. James P. Harbeson, Division Trains
Lt. Col. John J. Ryan, 319th Infantry
Lt. Col. Rush S. Wells, 350th Infantry
Lt. Col. James F. McKinley, 351st Infantry
Lt. Col. Francis W. Honeycutt, 338th Held Artillery
Lt. Col. Robert R. Wallach, 313th Ammunition Train
Lt. Col. Robert P. Howell, 313th Engineers
Major R. R. Ellis, 351st Infantry
Major Horace N. Munro, 350th Infantry
Major Henry A. Meyer, 352d Infantry
Major Arthur J. Lynch, 319th Infantry
Major Peter J. Hennessey, 319th Infantry
Major William J. O'Loughlin, 337th Machine Gun Battalion
Major George R. Somerville, 338th Machine (kin Battalion
Major Thomas H. Cunningham, 339th Machine Gun Battalion

The First Beserve Officers Training Camp which closed at Fort Snelling, Minne-
sota, August 15, 1917, supplied the division with its first assignment of junior officers,
who had all arrived at Camp Dodge by August 29th. A definite plan was adopted
in assigning these officers to commands: the first and second companies from Fort
Snelling were used to officer the 319th Infantry, the third and fourth companies
the 350th Infantry, the fifth and sixth companies the 351st Infantry, the seventh
and ninth companies the 352d Infantry and the eighth company the three machine
gun battalions. Likewise, the officers from the three batteries were assigned to the
163d Field Artillery Brigade, the 313th Ammunition Train and the 313th Trench
Mortar Battery. Thus officers who had been in the same company at the training
camp were to a large extent kept together. This distribution made, 200 of the
remaining officers were relieved and ordered to the 33d (National Guard) Division
at Houston, Texas, September 2d, 1919, and fifty-two to the 42d (National "Bainbow"
Guard) Division, at Mineola, Long Island, N. Y., September 1st.

The officers' enthusiasm over their new work was the predominating note,
together with an insistent desire to get "over there" as soon as possible. The pros-
pects for Germany were not at that time as bright as they had been earlier and as
they became later, and much of the anxiety to sail for France was due to a fear that
the war might end soon. This fear was a factor in causing many to decide to choose
to go to other divisions.

By the 5th of September, 1917, the Division had been organized — almost complete
in officers — but without enlisted personnel. On that date the first draft men began
to arrive, from Minnesota, Iowa, North Dakota and Central Illinois. Coming from

[301



their comfortable homes, most of them without any conception of military life, the\
did not know what to expect, and the first impressions were not reassuring nor com-
forting.

September 8, 1917, Lt. Col. Charles S. Lincoln, General Staff, reported al < lamp
Dodge and was assigned to duly as Chief of Staff. With the exception of the period
the following winter when he went to France with General Plummer, he held this
position until October, 1918, when he became a victim of Spanish Influenza during

the Division's stay at Hericourt (Haute Sa ). France. He recovered sufficiently

after several weeks to go to the Riviera, where lie regained his health. He did not
return to the Division, but became Deputy (i-l al General Headquarters, Chaumont,
and finally G-l of the A. E. K. During Colonel Lincoln's absence in France, the
winter of 1917-18, his duties were performed by Lt. Col. H. L. Cooper.

By September 9th, practically all the five per cent draft contingent had reported
at Camp Dodge, but the quota amounted only to 2. .'550 men. About this time, there
began to arrive in frequent detachments non-commissioned officers and privates
from cavalry and infantry organizations of the Regular Army. These regular army
soldiers proved an important adjunct to the training staff, but however competent
the instructors might have been, too much cannot be said of the splendid spirit dis-
played by the men who came with the draft. It was a matter of constant remark
how they took hold of their work and how suddenly they emerged from untrained
citizenry into alert, intelligent, well-set-up soldiers.

Training was at first the same as for all American soldiers, with stress on physical
drill. School of the soldier and school of the squad without arms became the daily
routine, but it was never allowed to become a drudgery. The new turn showed them-
selves apt and intelligent. In a remarkably short time, the men had been whipped
into shape and these formed the foundation of a skeleton division of select non-com-
missioned officers and privates who could be ready, in turn, to train the men of the



Online LibraryHenri II de Bourbon CondéThe 88th Division in the World War of 1914-1918 → online text (page 1 of 53)