Henrietta M Lilley.

The second school year; a course of study with detailed selection of lesson material, arranged by months online

. (page 2 of 9)
Online LibraryHenrietta M LilleyThe second school year; a course of study with detailed selection of lesson material, arranged by months → online text (page 2 of 9)
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cITort to l\(M'|) it comfortable.

(SoffH! house in course of fU'(!ction can Ix; used as an
illustration and closely watched.

QuKSTioN. — Why do wcs ucmmI a home? Protection
against cold, storm, and licat.

Our hom(;s arc comforts; wh;it iJicy (;ost.

1. First work. — Selectt tin; local ion, plan the house.

2. Matorinl.

a. Stone, kind and use.

h. LntnlxM", kinds.

c. Bricks.

(1. Mortar and phiHtei'.
:}. Mow r(;quired to do the work. Masons, carpen-
ters, painters, roof(M's, plast(U'(;rfl.
4. The work.

a. Kxcavation.

h. Foundation, dressing stones.



AIUJL'T HOMKS 23

c. Fnimework.

d. Roof.

e. Floors.

/'. Insid(! woi'k.

g. (yhininey.
5. Rooms ill tlio liousw, their use.
G. Furniture; of what made ; where ohtained; use.

7. Work of the home; cooking; sewing.

8. (.'hjthing; woohin and cotton goods; leather.

9. Liglit, oil, gas, electricity.
10. Heat.

a. By coal in a grate.

b. By a coal furnace.
r. Hy gas.

(I. Hy steam or liot wat(;r.

III. X I'M in: It
We can not go very far in the Nature Study work
until we are met with Lhe question, how much, how
long, or how many, and numlxu- must come in to settle
the question. Numher is best used when it makes
some necessary conce{)t clearer. In the work on butter-
flies such questions will present themselves:

1. How many alight on jirotective colors?

2. ll<nv many out of ten were yellow?

3. ilow numy more do you see on a bright day than

on a dark one ?

Insects

1. On a certain branch of a mai)le tree how many

leaves are eaten by insects?



24 SEPTEMBER NUMBER WORK

2. How many are used for homes of insects?

3. What part of 12 leaves are used by insects ?

4. Try also the horse chestnut, oak, pine, birch
and compare.

5. In the collection of fruit, how many pieces are
injured ?

6. What part is injured?

7. How many of the primary colors can you find in
the fruits ?

8. How many of the primary colors can you find in
the fall flowers ?

9. Wliat do you find to be the most common color
for the flowers in this locality?

10. In a collection of 20 flowers how many of them
are yellow ?

11. What is the temperature in the sun to-day?
What is it in the shade ? How many degrees cooler is
it in the shade ?

12. How much cooler is it to-day than it was yester-
day ? Than it was one week ago to-day ?

Very often the only complete way to answer nature's
questions is by actual measurement: as the length of
the wings of the butterfly ; the growth of a twig in a
season; the height of a plant. Another tool of
measurement is needed — the ruler. It will not always
be convenient to carry a ruler in the hand, so it will
be necessary to carry a very nearly perfect picture of
it in the mind. To have this so, very frequent drills



MEASUREMENTS BY INCHES 27

in the judgment of distance and height are necessary.

I. The inch will be taken as the first unit of measure.

They will first find the inch on the ruler. A string
is needed one inch long. Who can cut such a string ?
The child must first use his own judgment of the
length and then verify with the ruler.

We want to make a color chart. Cut a piece of red
paper one inch long; a blue, a violet, etc. These
must be accurately cut to be mounted for color drills.

Work on J and J inch is now taken up. In order
to know these fractions of an inch, they must do much
actual work using them. Many little drawing exercises
w^ill be used to aid in this work.

Review horizontal, vertical, and oblique lines. A
few suggestive problems are given on the Line Chart.

1. How long is line A? B? C?

2. Which line is the longer A or — ?

3. How long is D ?

4. How many A's are in D ?

5. I is how much longer than B ?

6. B and — will make a line as long as J.

7. What two oblique lines will make a line as long
asK?

8. C, D and J of J will make a line how long ?

9. How many G's in C ?

10. How many H's in B ? in F ?

11. How many B's will it take to make a line as long
as J?



^8 SEPTEMBER NUMBER WORK

Much time must be given for the children to actually
measure and judge distances.

Find the length of the stem of this leaf; the blade;

the new growth on the twig. After the judgment is

expressed the test must be applied and the correction

made.

To Make a Book

We need a book to keep the drawings in.

Heavy paper or card-board is to be used.

The directions for doing this will be given orally or
perhaps be written plainly on the board, to be followed
closely by the workers.

1. Draw a horizontal line five inches long.

2. At the ends of this line, drav/ vertical lines
downward eight inches.

3. Connect these lines with a horizontal line. This
makes one of the backs.

4. Follow the above directions and make another
back. Cut them out.

5. 2|- inches from the top, on the long edge of the
paper, make a dot.

6. 2J inches from the bottom, along the same edge,
make another dot.

7. Cut two strings 3J inches long to tie the backs
together.

II. The foot as a unit of measure.
Fix the foot clearly in the minds of the class, by
drawing lines, cutting strings, or holding the hands one



MEASUREMENTS BY FEET 29

foot apart. Produce sticks, boxes and many things
for the class to judge their length.

The height of the children will be taken. The
class will estimate the height of a child ; then one will
do the measuring, or the height will be marked on the
wall and each can measure himself.
Question : —
Who is the taller, John or Mary ?
How much taller is Mary ?
Who is the tallest person in the class ?
How much shorter is Mary than he ?
The record of the height of the class will be kept
and compared with the record taken near the close of
the school year. Measure things in the room. The
door. How much greater is the height than the width ?
How long and how wide must a curtain be to fit the
window ?

How long and how wide must a glass be to fit the
book-case door ? '

Out-Door Work

Measure the goldenrod.

Which usually grows taller, goldenrod or aster ?

How long are the roots of the goldenrod ?

Compare the length of the roots with the branches
of the goldenrod.

How much taller does the sunflower grow than the
goldenrod ?



30 SEPTEMBER NUMBER WORK

llow far is it from the ground to the first branch of
the maple tree ? Oak ? Pine ?

Pentagon and Octagon

A pentagon can be made by placing a square above
a square. The octagon will be drawn and cut from
colored paper. Octagons and pentagons of different
sizes will be made. Such questions can be used as:

1. What is the perimeter of the pentagon ?

2. What is ^ the perimeter V

3. One side is what part of the perimeter ?

4. How many 2 inches are in the perimeter ?
III. The yard as a unit of measure.

Give much opportunity for using the yardstick.

Teach 3 feet = 1 yard. I yard = 1 foot, f yard
= 2 feet. 2 yards = 6 feet.

Give much exercise in reducing a number of feet to
yards or yards to feet. Give problems in selling goods,
at a certain price, by the yard. Toy money can be
used and drill in making change can be given.
Out-Door Work

1. How long is the tennis court ? How wide ?

2. How many yards is it from the maple to the pine
tree?

3. Mark off on the ground a square or rectangle
that could be used for a certain building.

Scale Work
Draw to the scale of one inch to the foot.



MEASUREMENTS BY YARDS 31

Draw to the scale of one-lialf inch to the foot.
Outline of Dumber Lessons for September
The numbers 10, 11, 12.

1. Quick work.

2. All combinations and separations including frac-
tional parts.

3. Problems connected with nature work.

4. Work on lines — the inch.

5. To make a book.
0. Work on the foot.

7. Height of pupils.

8. Out-door work on the foot.

9. Work on pentagon and octagon.

10. Work on the yard.

11. Out-door work on the yard.

•IV. Language.
Language should be used to develop that thought
which produces the best and highest growth of the
human being. Pupils should be trained to the auto-
matic use of good oral and written expression. In the
first months they must be encouraged to talk freely
and express themselves honestly. Tact is required, on
the part of the teacher, that she may correct all errors
in such a way and at such a time that the pupils will
not become self-conscious. The point to be kept
before their minds is that they must tell their story' so
all may understand.



32 SEPTEMBER LANGUAGE WORK

Correct written language is acquired also by repeat-
edly seeing and using the form in his desire to express
thought. Each lesson will have something in it that
the child wants to tell. During the development of
the lesson the new and important words are presented
and repeately referred to, that they may be ready for
use in the written work. The words are not to be
copied from the blackboard but be so learned that they
form a part of his vocabulary.

In the second year there will be no copy work. The
written work will consist of independent effort. The
child will be asked to tell something on his paper. In
the first week of September such stories are written
by the children.

This is September.

I see yellow and blue butterflies.

The goldenrod is yellow.

We see the pretty asters.

There is dew in the mornings.

The grass is green.

Apples are ripe.

There are many caterpillars.

We see robins, blue birds, red birds, and sparrows.

The reading naturally grows out of the science and
literature work. The children describe in a simple
way the lesson that has been presented and tell the
same on paper. This then is printed and brought back
to them to read. This reading matter is always fresh
and on the subject studied in the room.



stories and printed lessons 3d

Printed Lessons
AVe visited the maple and the pine trees.
We also saw the birch and the horsechestnut.
The pine tree is pointed at the top.
The pine tree has needles.
Trees need soil to make them grow.
They need water and sunshine too.
We weighed one ounce of fresh leaves.
We dried and weighed them again.
They did not weigh a half ounce.
The roots get food and water for the tree.
The tree is good for shade.
Insects make cradles out of the leaves.

The Little Pine Tree

A little pine tree was in the woods.

It had no leaves. It had needles. '

The little tree did not like needles.

The tree said: " I want leaves too. I want gold
leaves."

At night a fairy came and gave it gold leaves.

A man came along and took the gold leaves.

Then the tree wanted glass leaves.

The wind blew and the glass leaves were broken.

Then the tree said: " I do not want gold leaves. I
do not want glass leaves.

'' I want green leaves like the other trees."

The fairy gave it its wish.



34 SEPTEMBER ART WORK

A goat came along and ate the leaves.

Then the tree said: " Please give me my needles; I
like them best of all."

— Stepping Stones to Literature. — Arnold.

Animal Life. — Bass.

An Ant's Story.

A Butterfly.

A Grasshopper.

V . A R T s
Writing

The bold round vertical script is the sytem adopted
by the school. Nothing but this plain, accurate writ-
ing must bo put before the children. Writing is one of
the best modes of expression. That children may
express themselves well they must be able to write
rapidly and legibly.

A little exercise will be given each day in writing
some observation made. There was dew on the grass
this morning. A west wind is blowing.

All the writing during the day must be the best
effort of the child.

In blackboard writing freedom of movement is most
easily gained and is therefore the best for little chil-
dren.

Drawing

The teacher : —

In the literature and history work drawing is of the



WRITING, DRAWING, PAINTING 35

greatest importance. A pine tree and other trees
around it drawn well on the blackboard means much
more to the child than a statement that the pine tree
grew in a forest. Little children do not get much from
the abstract, but they can be made to live and sympa-
thize with the life thai is plainly pictured to them.
Every story should be fully illustrated.
The child :—

a. The pupils will draw their own pictures on the
board, not a copy of the teacher's.

b. They will draw what they saw in the Out-door
lesson.

€. The insects.

d. The tongue of the butterfly.

€. The wings of the butterfly.

/. Fruits and leaves.

Painting
As we look out on the great nature picture, the first
thing that appeals to us is color, — the green grass and
trees, the blue sky. In the nature study the aim is
to have a picture of the year through the study of the
different months. It is through color that the many
phases of life most clearly show themselves. The pic-
ture that the child has of the forest or field is, great
masses of green and not the single leaf, the single tree,
or the blade of grass. So his first attempts at paint-
ing will be a landscape.



36 SEPTEMBER ART WORK

a. Picture of the river hill, or of the school yard^

b. Butterfly on a flower.

c. Coloring on upper and under parts of a wing.

d. Goldenrod and asters.

e. The trees under study.
/. The fruits.

Modeling

This is one of the earliest modes of expression.,,
because the material is so easily worked. Long before-
the child entered the school, he worked in sand and
soft clay. He has made his little world many times in
the sand. He has made high mountains, broad fields
and mighty rivers over which his steamboats ply. He
will not be deprived of this means of self-development
as he enters school. In the story of Daphne he will
model the river, the cave, and the mountains in the
distance.

The modeling in clay is the best way to express
judgments received through touch.

The form of an apple can best be told by the use of
clay. Model other spherical fruits studied.

Music

Music has worked its way into the primary schools
and has done so much in entertaining and refining
children that its place is secure. It is the delight of
the children to sing. They say: "Let's sing about
the grasshopper, or the robin." Through these songs



MODELING, MUSIC 37

the children are made to love one another more and to
be more thoughtful of the hepless little animals about
them.

Voice culture forms a very important part of the
musical training. Owing to the delicate condition of
the larynx of the child, he must sing softly and easily.
He is incapable of producing powerful tones that shall
also be beautiful in quality.

Suggestive Songs : —

Grasshopper Green.

The Goldenrod. ^

Theory : —

1. Scale work.

2. Interval work.

3. Teach staff, scale measure, whole note, half

note, rest.

4. Read exercises from chart.

0. Sing easy exercises.

6. Exercises for pure tones.
Pictures : —

1. Animal pictures.



OCTOBER



[. Xature Study

October is the time of plant preparation for winter.

Every plant has one desire, if we may speak of it as
such, namely, to scatter its seeds, that other plants of
its kind may grow. They could not hope for life if
they all fell within a few feet of the mother plant. In
their eagerness to grow they would so crowd each other
that few would be able to survive. So plants have
devised many curious ways of scattering their seeds.
The thistle unfurls its white sail to the wind, clouds
of milkweed and dandelion with their silky sails are
swept over the fields. The burdock seeds with their
sharp little hooks cling to our clothing and to the
dog's hair or the sheep's fleece. Many little pods
open and the wind scatters the treasures.

Along with the work a collection will be made and
mounted on a chart, to show the different means of
disemination. There is never any lack of specimens,
for the interest is so great that all want to help fill the
chart.

The trees have been warned that they cannot work
(38)



XATURE STUDY 39*

much longer, so, like wise people, they begin early to
prepare for the change. It has been bountifully stored
all summer, and now the reserve passes from the per-
ishable leaf and stem to the root. The buds contain
the treasure which is snugly nestled within a scaly
coat.

In the special work on wheat a very instructive
chart can be made showing by pictures, drawings, and
paintings the whole story of the plant, through the
processes of harvesting and milling to the bread.
Along with this study there will also be observed the
development of the plow from the crude stick for
breaking the ground to the most improved plow of
to-day. The thrashing will be followed from the time
the grain was separated by oxen-treading, through the
flail age, to the improved reaper and binder.

So with the milling. This can be done by the class.
Question. — How could you grind this wheat into flour ?
The two stones will be suggested, which was the
primitive method. People learned a better way and
now they make flour which is very fine and very white.
Seeds axd their Dissemixation^

Review parts of the flower, petals, sepals, and
especially the pistil for the seeds.

Show the connection between flow^er, fruit, and
seed. Use bean, tomato, or pumpkin.

Examine the flowers in the vicinity with this ques-
tion in mind. How are the seeds scattered ?



40 (XJTOHEK NATUIIE STUDY

I. Tlu. seed.

1. Slijipe.

2. Siz«i.
:). (Jolor.

4. Oovoring.

5. I'artH.

n. Means of Disscuniriiition.

1. Wings.
a. Maple.
/;. Liiulen.

2. Sails.

a. Milkweed.
h. (J<)ld(!ur()d.
f. Thistle.

d. Dandelion.

e. Aster.
:\. Hooks.

a. lieggar ticks.
h. Hnrdoek.

III. How the treasnre gets out of the hox,

1. Wheat from the ehaff.

2. Corn from the husk.
)i. Seeds from the a])|)le.

4. Nut from tlic shell.

5. Seed from the melon.
(). Bean from the hull.

IV. Uses of seeds.

1. 'i\) reproduce the j)lant.



win: AT 4]

'Z. h\)()d for nism.
?i. K(»()(i for aiiimtilH.
4. IVIo(li(;im'.

V. Planting of seeds.

1. Plante.'i by man.

2. Planted hy otlior agcjnc.ies.

']. vSceds ])lanto(l in llio Spring.
4. Seeds planted in tln^ ViiW.

VI. Gathering of seeds.
Wheat

The children are to tnake tfieir own discoveries and
do the work. 'I'lny must lind a Wiiy to loosen tt.e
ground, pulverize it, and plant the seed. F^ead them
from ttjtir suggestions to ttie plow used by the
uncivilized man and then show the best plow of the
age ami its advantages. Make a liarrow out of nine
sticks with nails driven throuLdi to make the teeth.

Plant the wheat as tlie (;lass suggests.

Show tlu! advantages of th(» drill. Ijet the (diildren
make (lour by pcninding wheat between two stones.
Put this through a sieve.

Mak(; Hour by grinding the wheat in a eolTee mill,
then using a wire; sieve and tin; bolting (doth.

Speak of tin; roller mills and visit tluMu to sec; the
advantages, ('orjipare tin; lloui- made in these dilTcr-
ent ways.

I. Nef;«;ssity of planting wheat.
FI. Tijne (jf plunting.



42 OCTOBER NATURE STUDY

III. Preparation of the ground.

1. Clearing (possibly).

2. Plowing.

a. Long ago.
6. Now.

3. Harrowing.
a. Long ago.
h. Now.

IV. Planting the wheat.

1. By hand.

2. By drill.

V. Protection through the winter.

VI. Harvesting.

1. Time of year.

2. Machines used in the work.
a. Sickle.

h. Cradle.

c. Reaper.

d. Binder.

VII. Threshing.

1. Means.

a. Driving oxen over grain.

h. Flail and windmill.

c. Threshing machine.

2. Products.
a. Grain.
h. Straw.
c. Chaff.



NUTS 43

VIII. Milling.

1. Primitive mill.

2. Roller mill.
IX. Uses of wheat.

Flour — Food for man.
Screenings — Food for animals.
Bran — Food for animals.
Speak of the great wheat fields in the west and their

harvesting.

Nuts

Chestnut, hickory nut, walnut, butternut, beechnut^
and acorn.

I. Color of nuts.

1. When unripe.

2. When ripe.

II. Covering.

1. Kind.

2. Use.

III. Use to the tree.

1. Find the plantlet.

2. How will it get to the soil V

IV. Use to animals and man.
V. Gathering of the nuts.

VI. Compare with imported nuts, pecan, peanut,
almond, cocoanut.

Preparation of the Tree for Winter

1. Falling seeds.

2. Drying of leaves.



44 OCTOBER NATURE STUDY

3. Disappearance of sap.

4. Maturing of fruit.

5. Hardening of wood.

6. Xewly formed buds.

The children will notice the effect of the decrease of
heat upon the flowers, grass, garden plants and trees.
Trips will be made to the trees under special observa-
tion, oak, birch, pine, horse chestnut, and maple.

I. The Leaf.

1. How it breaks from the twig.

2. The scar on the twig.

3. The use of the leaves to the tree.

4. The use of the leaves to the ground.

5. Why they change color and drop off.

II. The Buds.

1. New — old.

2. Position in relation to the leaf.

3. The coats.

a. Glue — its use.

b. Scales — -arrangement and use.

c. Cotton — its use.

4. The number of buds to leaf.

III. The Twig.

1. The bark — layers.

2. New growth lateral.

3. New growth terminal.

4. Compare length of new growth on different

sides of a tree.



PREPARING FOR WINTER: EVAPORATION 46

5. Compare twigs of different trees.

6. Account for the shape of a tree by the lateral

or terminal growth.

Evaporation

I. Recall old knowledge on the subject.

1. The mud dries up.

2. The dew soon disappears.

3. The clothes on the line dry.

4. The ink in the well dries.

II. Aids to evaporation.

1. Sun.

2. Light.

3. Heat.

4. Air- wind.

5. Extent of surface.

Experiment. — Put the same quantity of water in
different shaped vessels and under different conditions.
Put some in shallow pans, high vessels, corked bottles,
and some in the sun, in the dark, and some under heat.

III. Apply to Nature.

Where does water evaporate fastest, on the pave-
ment, shallow pond, or in a well ?

IV. Add heat and notice the rate of evaporation.

V. Condensation.

Catch the steam on a cold plate.

VI. Apply to the river.
Notice the fog.



46 (xrroiJKit NATurtio htudy

y\\. 'V\\r. slory of u droj) of wator.
'I'm; Rain DROP

OruM! a lil,ll<; ruiiHlro[) slarUid from Uk; (jIoikJh to go
to tli(; (iartli to h(!0 what it could seo ihore.

Wliil(; on its way it becamt; very cold and froze.

Uut th(; freozing did not hurt it.

As it traveled on its jouriKjy it met some other
froz(!ri dropH.

I^efore h)ng tliero were enough frozcin raindrops to
make a snowflakc!.

Now th(^ snowllake startcid on its journey and soon
mcst olfier Hnowlhikes.

By and by lii(^ air waa full of them.

'Ilie grouncJ was soon covered with snow.

The sun was not shining, so the snowflakfis lay to-
gether very ha[){)y.

liut th(5 next day th<i sun came outaruJ melt(}(J these
rtakes.

Some of the water soakfMJ into i,he ground atid some
ran olT into str(;arns.

'l'h(! wat(jr at last rc^acluMl tin* o(;ean.

From the oceaii it was taken hac^k to the clouds, the
same {)la<;e that it started from.

11. Literature

The scien(;e lessons cultivate the observation of the
child, whihi th(5 (lower and seed myths keep the
imagination a(!tivo. They must go hand in hand help-



i.rj'KitA'riJitK 47

in^ each othor. Thr; (ihildrfMi have talkcui about Uh;
fieeds, they liavc; watc.h(i(i with (hili^lit their lirr!-lik(^
movements throu^fi tin; air, ainJ now thtty arc* rea(Jy to
h(!ar their Htory. Tlie o|)eriiii^' Ichsohh for the day
will b(; from tlu; Parable of thf; Sower jukJ from the
Story of itiith the (j leaner.
Storien on Seeda.

1. Seedlings on the VVin^. — Cat T<iil.H.

2. The Little Brown Seed. — C'a^ TaiU

3. Treasure JioxeH. — Jane Andrewn.

4. Quereug Alba. — Jane Andrewn.

5. The Wee Wee Man.— rV/7. TaiU
Wheat.

rriyche'H Tanks.
Nut.H.

CheHtnut \U)\fii.—ChiUV h World.

Ttie Aeorii arnJ tlnj ('heritnut.
IVeen.

The Anxious [j(;af.
hha'poratixm.

The Vapor Family.— ('V. TwUm.

Aqua. — Htory JIo ar.

What the Fire Sprites (Jid.— CV/i Tailn.

Tni-; Story ov I'sycmk

Psyche was the mr)Ht beautiful maid(jn in all Greece.

Althougfi every one prai3(;d her beauty slie was not

flelfisb but was v(!ry helf)fiil in her fath(»r's palace,

working and spinnir)^. ller fame w(;nt abroad until



48 OCTOBER LITERATURE

the goddess Venus heard of her and was jealous of a
mortal whose beauty was said to excel hers. The
goddess sent Cupid to punish Psyche for daring to
compare with her in beauty. Cupid took a vase of
sweet water and one of bitter water and started to find
the maiden. He found her asleep and looking more
bej3,utiful than he had dreamed, lie poured some of
the bitter water on her and in doing it touched her
with one of his arrows, and she awoke. He could not
bear to harm her, so poured all of the sweet water over
her golden curls, so that Venus's charm could do her
no liarm; then he went away. But the goddess was


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Online LibraryHenrietta M LilleyThe second school year; a course of study with detailed selection of lesson material, arranged by months → online text (page 2 of 9)