Copyright
Henry Alford.

The Greek Testament : with a critically revised text, a digest of various readings, marginal references to verbal and idiomatic usage, prolegomena, and a critical and exegetical commentary : for the use of theological students and ministers (Volume 3) online

. (page 1 of 110)
Online LibraryHenry AlfordThe Greek Testament : with a critically revised text, a digest of various readings, marginal references to verbal and idiomatic usage, prolegomena, and a critical and exegetical commentary : for the use of theological students and ministers (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 110)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


'■S.




THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES







■^



^ >



V



\-



THE

GREEK TESTAMENT.

VOL. III.

THE EPISTLES TO THE GALATIANS, EPHESIANS,

PHIL1PPL\XS, COLOSSIANS, THESSALOXIANS,— TO

TIMOTHEUS, TITUS, a>d PHILEMON.



χριστώ συνεσταυοωμαί' ζω of ουκ εη εγώ, Z,rj Sf έν ίμοι γριστυς.

Gal. ϋ. 20.



THE



GREEK TESTAMENT:



WITH A CRITICALLY REVISED TEXT : A DIGEST OF

VARIOUS READINGS: MARGINAL REFERENCES TO ΛΈRBAL AND

IDIOMATIC USAGE: PROLEGOMENA:

AND A CRITICAL AND EXEGETICAL COMMENTARY.



FOR THE USE OF THEOLOGICAL STUDENTS AND MINISTERS.



HENRY ALFOKD, B.D.

MINISTER OF QIJEBKC CHAPEL, LONDON,
AND LATE FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE.



IN FOUR VOLUMES.

VOL. III.



CONTAINING



THE EPISTLES TO THE GALATIAJS^S, EPHESIANS,

PHILIPPIANS, COLOSSLiNS, THESSALONIANS,— TO

TIMOTHEIJS, TITUS, and PHILEMON.



LONDON:

EIVINGTONS, IVATEELOO PLACE;

AND DEIGHTON, BELL, AND CO., CAMBEIDGE.

1856.



LONDON :
GILIiERT AND EIVINGTON, PRINTERS,

ST. John's square.







ADVERTISEMENT.



It has been thought better to extend the number of volumes of
this work to foui\ partly on account of the great size to which
the third volume according to the former plan would have ex-
tended, and partly because the publication of this portion would
thereby have been so long delayed.



2096749



ERRATA.

Page 4, notes, right column, 2 lines from bottom, for ίστω, read Ιστιν
— 243, in inner margin of text, insert opposite line 4 from top,

μνημοΐ'ίνίτε C.
ABDEFGJK
And dele C in pages 244. 246. 248. 250. 252. 254. 256



CONTENTS OF THE PIIOLEGOMENA.



CHAPTER I.

ΤΠΕ EPISTLE TO THE GALATIANS.

SECTION PAGE

I. Its Authorship •.........,. 1

II. For wliat Readers it was written ......... 2

III. With what Object it was written ......... 3

IV. Its :Matter and Style ib.

V. Time and Place of writing .......... 4



CHAPTER II.

THE EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIAKS.

I. Its Authorship ............ 6

11. For what Readers it was written . . . . . . . .10

III. Its Occasion, Object, and Contents . . . . . . . .18

IV. At what Time and Place it was written ....... 20

V. Its Language and Style .......... 23

VI. Its Relation to the Epistle to the Colossians 26

CHAPTER III.

THE EPISTLE TO THE PHILTPPIAJTS.

I. Its Authorship and Integrity ......... 20

II. For what Readers and with what Object it was written . . . ,28

III. At what Place and Time it was written ....... 30

IV. Language and Style ........... 32

CHAPTER lY.

THE EPISTLE TO THE COLOSSIA>'S.

I. Authorship ............ 33

II. For what Readers and with what Object it was written . . . .34

III. Time and Place of writing .......... 39

IV. Language and Style : Connesion with the Epistle to the Ephesians . . ib.



CONTENTS OF THE PROLEGOMENA.



CHAPTER Λ^

THE FIUST EPISTLE TO THE THESSALONIANS.
SECTION PAGE

I. Its Authorship ............ 43

II. For what Readers and with what Object it was written . . . .44

III. Place and Time of writing .......... 4R

IV. Matter and Style 47

CHAPTER VI.

THE SECOND EPISTLE TO THE THESSALONTANS.

I. Its Authorship ............ 51

II. For what Readers and with what Object it was written . . . .52

III. Place and Time of writing 53

IV. Style 54

V. On the Prophetic Import of ch. ii. 1 — 12 ....... 55

CHAPTER VII.

ON THE PASTORAL EPISTLES.

I. Their Authorship C9

II. Time and Place of writing .......... 86

CHAPTER VIII.

ON THE FIEST EPISTLE TO TIMOTHErS.

I. To whom written . . ......... i)8

II. Occasion and Object ........... 101

CHAPTER IX.

THE SECOND EPISTLE TO TIMOTHEUS.

I. To what Place written 102

II. Occasion and Object . . , . . » . . . . . JOS

CHAPTER X.

THE EPISTLE TO TITUS.
I. To whom written ........... 106

II. The Churches of Crete 108

CHAPTER XI.

THE EPISTLE TO PHILEMON.
I. Its Authorship Ill

II. Place, Time, Occasion, and Object of writing . . . . . .113

CHAPTER XII.

Apparatus Criticus 116



PROLEGOMENA.



CHAPTER I.

THE EPISTLE TO THE GALATIANS.
SECTION I.

ITS AUTHOESHIP.

1. Of all the Epistles which bear the characteristic marks of St. Paul's
style, this one stands the foremost. See below, on its style, § iv. So
that, as Windischmann observes, whoever is prepared to deny the
genuineness of this Epistle, would pronounce on himself the sentence
of incapacity to distinguish true from false. Accordingly, its authorship
has never been doubted.

2. But that authorship is also upheld by external testimony :

(a) Irenseus, adv. Hser. iii. 7. 2, quotes the Epistle by name : " Sed in
ea quae est ad Galatas, sic ait : Quid ergo lex factorum ? posita est usque
quo veniat semen, cui promissum est &c." (Gal. iii. 19.)
Many allusions to it are found :
(/?) Polycarp, ad Phil. cap. 3.

Παύλου . . . ός και άττώι• υμΊν έγραψεν εττιστοΧας, εις άς ehy εγκύπτητε,
^υνη^ησεσθε υΙι:υΙομεΊσθαι εις την ΙοΒε'ισαν υμ'ιΐ' πίστιΐ', ήτις εστί
μήτηρ πάντων ημών (Gal. iv. 26). And again, cap. v.: fico -ίς ovy,
on θίος oh μνι^τηρίζεται .... (Gal. vi. 7.)
(y) Justin Martyr, or whoever was the author of the Oratio ad
Graecos, printed among his works, seems to allude to Gal. iv. 12, in the

words γίνεσθε ως εγώ, υπ κηγώ ημηΐ' ώς νμεΊς: and to Gal. V. 20, in
these, έχβραι, ερεις, ζήλυς, εριθε'ιαι, βυμοι, c ret δμυια τούτοις, Justin, ed.

Otto, p. 12.

(r) Besides these, there are many more distant allusions in the works
of Ignatius, Polycarp, and Justin, which may be seen cited in Lardner
and AVindischmann, and Davidson, Introd. to N. T. vol. ii. pp. 318-JO.

YoL. III.— 1] a



PEOLEGOMENA.] THE EPISTLE TO THE GALATIANS. [en. i.

SECTION II.

FOR WHAT EEADEES IT WAS WEITTEK.
1. This Epistle was written ταΊς Ικκλησίαις της Γαλατίας (ch. ί. 2).

Galatia (γαλλογρπίκ/α Strabo xii. 566, Gallogra?cia Liv. xxxvii. 8,
xxxviii. 12) was a district of Asia Minor (once part of Phrygia, Strabo
xii. 571, ii. 130), bounded N. by Paphlagonia and Bithynia, E. by
Poutus and Cappadocia (divided from both by the Halys), S. by Cappa-
docia and Phrygia, W. by Phrygia and Bithynia. Notwithstanding its
mountainous character, it was fruitful, especially near the river Halys
(Strabo xii. 567). The principal cities were Ancyra, Pessinus, and
Tavium. Ancyra was declared the capital by Augustus. The inhabit-
ants (Γαλάταί, only a later form of Κέλται, Pausan. i. 3, — also Gallo-
graici) were Gauls in origin. The Gallic tribes of the Trochmi and
Tolistoboii, with the German tribe of Tectosagi (or Toctosages), crossed
over from Thrace into Asia Minor, having formed part of the Gallic
expedition which pillaged Delphi, in the third century B.C. (cir. 280.)
In Asia they at first became mercenary troops under Nicomedes, king
of Bithynia, but soon overran nearly the whole of Asia Minor, till
Antiochus Soter and Eumenes drove them into its central portion,
aftervk-ards called Galatia. There they were at first ruled by tetrarchs,
and afterwards (when their real independence had been taken from
them by the Consul Manlius Vulso, B.C. 189, — see Livy, xxxviii. 16 —
27) by kings ; of whom the two Deiotari, father and son, are known to
us, the former as having been defended by Cicero in a speech still
extant, the latter as also a friend of the great orator's (Epp. ad Attic.
V. 17), Amyntas, the successor of this latter, was their last king: at
his death (b.c. 26) Galatia was reduced to a Eoman province. See for
full accounts, Strabo, book xiii. ch. 5 : Livy, as above : the Introduc-
tions to this Epistle in Meyer, De AVette, and AVindischmann : Winer's
Eealworterbuch, art. Galatia : Conybeare and Howson, vol. i, p. 261 ff.

2. The character of the people, as shewn in this Epistle, agrees
remarkably with that ascribed to the Gallic race by all writers '. They
received the Apostle at his first visit with extreme joy, and shewed him
every kindness : but were soon shaken in their fidelity to him and the
Gospel, and were transferring their allegiance to false teachers.

3. The Galatian churches were founded by St. Paul at his first visit,
when he was detained among them by sickness (ch. iv. 13 : see note,

1 So Csesar, B. G. iv. 5 : " infirmitatem Gallorum veritus, quod sunt in consiliis capi-
undis mobiles, et novis plerumque rebus student, nihil his committendum existimavit.''
And Thierry, Hist, des Gaulois, Introd. : " un esprit franc, impetueux, ouvert a toutes
les impressions, eminemment intelligent: mais, a cote de cela, une mobiUte extreme,
point de Constance, . . . beaucoup d'ostentation, enfin une desunion perpetuelle, fruit d'
excessive vanite." C. &. H. i. 2G2, note.

2]



§ IV.] ITS MATTER AND STYLE. [ρποχεοομενα.

and compare Acts xvi. 6), during liis second missionary journey, about
A.D. 51 (see chronol. table in Prolegg. to Acts, vol. ii.). Though doubt-
less he began his preaching as usual among the Jews (cf. Jos. Antt.
xvi. 6. 2, for the fact of many Jews being resident in Ancyra), yet this
Epistle testifies to the majority of his readers being Gentiles, not yet
circumcised, though nearly persuaded to it by Judaizing teachers. At
the same time we see by the frequent references to the O. T. and the
adoption of the rabbinical method of interpretation by allegory (ch. iv,
21 — 31), that he had to do with churches which had been accustomed
to Judaizing teaching, and familiarized with the O. T. See Meyer,
Einl. p. 3. In the manifold preparations for the Gospel which must
have taken place wherever Jews were numerous, through the agency of
those who had at Jerusalem heard and believed on Jesus, we need not
Avonder at any amount of Judaistic influence apparent even in churches
founded by St. Paul himself: nor need any hypotheses respecting his
preaching be invented to account for such a phainomenon.

SECTION III.

WITH WHAT OBJECT IT WAS "WEITTEK.

1. Judaizing teachers had followed, as well as preceded, the Apostle in
Galatia, and had treated slightingly his apostolic office and authority (cb.
i. 1. 11), giving out that circumcision was necessary (ch. v. 2 ; vi. 12).
Their influence was increasing, and the churches were being drawn
away by it (i. 6 ; iii. 1. 3 ; iv. 9 — 11 ; v. 7 — 12). Against these teachers
be had already testified in person (i. 9 ; iv. 16, where see notes, and
cf. Acts xviii. 23), — and now that the evil was so rapidly and seriously
gaining ground, he writes this Epistle expressly to counteract it.

2. The object then of the Epistle was, (1) to defend his own apos-
tolic authority ; and (2) to expose the Judaistic error by which they
■were being deceived. Accordingly, it contains two parts, the apologetic
(ch. i. ii.) and the polemic (ch. iii. iv.). These are naturally followed
by a hortatory conclusion (ch. v. vi.). See these parts subdivided into
their minor sections in the notes.

SECTION IV.

ITS MATTER AJTD STYLE.

1. The matter of the Epistle has been partly spoken of in the last
section. In the first, or apologetic portion, it contains a most valuable
historical resume of St. Paul's apostolic career, proving his independence
of human authority, and confirming as well as illustrating the' narrative
in the Acts, by mentioning the principal occasions when he held inter-
course with the other Apostles : relating also that remarkable interview
3] a 2



PKOLEGOMEKA.] THE EPISTLE TO THE GALATIAXS. [en. τ.

•with St. Peter, so important for its own sake, and giving rise to his own
precious testimony to Christian truth in eh. ii. 14 — 21.

2. The polemical portion has much in common with the Epistle to
the Romans. But this difference is observable ; that whereas in that
Epistle, the whole subject is treated, as belonging to the great argument
there handled, logically, and without reference to any special circum-
stances, — here all is strictly controversial, with immediate reference to
the judaizing teacliers.

3. In style, this Epistle takes a place of its own among those of
St. Paul. It unites the two extreme affections of his remarkable cha-
racter : severity, and tenderness : both, the attributes of a man of
strong and deep emotions. Nothing can be more solemnly severe than
its opening, and ch. iii. 1 — 5 ; nothing more touchingly affectionate than
some of its appeals, e. g. ch. iv. 18 — 20. It is therefore quite a mistake
to characterize its tone as altogether overpowering and intimidating *,
A half barbarous people like the Galatians, known for their simplicity
and impressibility, would be likely to listen to both of these methods of
address : to be won by his fatherly pleading, as well as overawed by his
apostolic rebukes and denunciations.

4. There are several points of similarity in this Epistle to the peculiar
diction of the pastoral Epistles. The student will find them pointed
out in the reff., and for the most part remarked on in the notes. They
seem to indicate, in accordance with our interpretation of ch. vi. 11, that
he wrote this Epistle, as those, with his own hand, without the inter-
vention of an amanuensis. This matter will be found more fully treated
below, ch. vii. on the pastoral Epistles.

SECTION V.

TIME AND PLACE OF WETTING.

1. We have no data in the Epistle itself, which may enable us to
determine the time when it was written. This can only be gathered
from indirect sources. And consequently, the most various dates have
been assigned to it : some, as Marcion in old times, and Michaelis, al.,
in modern, placing it first among St. Paul's Epistles : and others, as
Schrader and Kohler, last. The following considerations will narrow
our field of uncertainty on the point :

2. If the reasoning in the note on the chronological table, vol. ii.
Prolegg. pp. 26, 27, be correct,— the visit to Jerusalem mentioned Gal.
ii. 1 ff. is identical with that in Acts xv. 1 ff. It will thence follow that
the Epistle cannot have been written before that visit : i, e. (see Chron.
Table as above) not before a.d. 50.

3. I have maintained, in the notes on Gal i. 9; iv. 16, that the words

2 See Jowett, Epistles to the Romans, Tbessalonians, and Galatians, vol. i. p. 191.

4]



§ v.] TIME AND PLACE OF WEITING. [prolegomena.

there used most naturally refer to the Apostle's second visit to the
churches of Galatia, when, Acts xviii. 23, he went through τήν Γαλαηκηΐ'

χώοπΐ' .... ίπιστι/οίζωΐ' πάνται- rove μαβη-άς. If SO, this Epistle cannot
date before that visit : i. e. (Chron. Table as above) not before the autumn
of the year 54.

4. The first period then which seems probable, is the Apostle's stay
at Ephesus in Acts xix., from autumn 54, till Pentecost 57. And this
period is so considerable, that, having regard to the οΰηος τηγ^έως of ch.
i. (5, I cannot but think it almost certain that our Epistle was written
during it.

5. The next period during which it nn'ght have been written is, his
stay at Corinth, Acts xx. 2, 3, where he spent the winter of the year
57-8, and whence he wrote the Epistle to the Romans. This is the
opinion of Grot., al., and lately of Conybeare and Howson (vol. ii.
p. 13G). These latter support their view entirely by the similarity of
this Epistle and that to the Komans. '• It is," they say, "exactly that
resemblance which would exist between two Epistles written nearly at the
same time, while the same line of argument was occupying the writer's
mind, and the same phrases and illustrations were on his tongue."

6. But, granting them this position, I cannot see why it should fix
the writing at Corinth in the winter, any more than at Ephesus, say in
the year preceding. Nay it seems to me that the elementary truths
brought out amidst deep emotion, sketched, so to speak, in great rough
lines in the fervent Epistle to the (xalatians, were exceedingly likely to
have dwelt on St. Paul's mind and worked themselves out, under the
teaching and leading of the Spirit, into that grand theological argument
which he afterwards addressed, Λvithout any special moving occasion,
but as his master-exposition of Christian doctrine, to the church of the
metropolis of the world.

7. I do not hesitate then, though it must always remain a question
between these two periods, in pronouncing strongly for the former of
them : feeling that, considering the ούτως τοχεως, we can hardly let so
long a time elapse as the second would pass over, — and feeling also that
probability is in favour of strong emotion having, in the prompting of
God's Spirit, first brought out that statement of Christian truth and
freedom, which after deliberation expanded, and polished, and sj-s-
teraatized, in the Epistle to the Homans.

8. The above is the view of Hug, De "Wette, Olsh., Usteri, AViner,
Neander, Greswell, Anger, Meyer, Wieseler, and many others. — Of
course my objection to the date implied in the common subscription,
ίγυάψη ΰπυ 'Foj/u/jc•, adopted by Theodoret, Lightf., Calov., Hammond, al.,
is even stronger than that stated above. Those who wish to see the
matter discussed at more length, may refer to Davidson, Introd. ii.
p. 292 fi'., and to any of the above mentioned authors.

5]



PEOLEOOMEm.] THE EPTSTLE TO THE EPHESIAXS. [en. ii.



CHAPTER II.

THE EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

SECTION I.

ITS AUTHOESHIP.

1. The ancient testimonies to the Apostle Paul having been the
author of this Epistle, are the f'ollowLDg :

(«) Irenaeus adv. Hser. v. 2. 3 :

καθώς ό μακάριος Παϋλός φησιν, εν rrj ττρος Έώεσ/ους επίστυΧϊ}' οτι
μεΧη εσμεν τον σώματος, εκ της σαρκΰς αντον, και εκ των υστεων
αυτού (Eph. V. 30). Again i. 8. 5, τυϋτο C£ κα\ ο Παϋλος Xtyti' ττάν
γαρ το ψανεροΰμενον, ψώς εστΊΐ' (Eph. ν. 13).

Φ) Clem. Alex. Strom, iv. § 65, p. 592 Potter:

lio και εν τϊ} προς ΈφεσΙους γράψει (cf. SUpra, § 61, ψησιν 6 άπόστυΧος,
where 1 Cor. xi. 3, &c. is quoted, § 62, επιφέρει γοϋν, citing Gal. v.
16 ff. : and infra, § 66, καν ttj προς ΚοΧοσσαεΊς .... from which it
is evident that the subject of γράφει is 'St. Paul') υττοτασσΰμενυι
άΧΧηΧοις εν φόβω θεοΰ κ.τ.Χ. Eph. V. 21 — 25.

(y) ib. Pfed. i. § 18, p. 108 Potter :

ό άπόστοΧος επιστέΧΧων προς Κοριιθίυυς φησίν, 2 Cor. XI. 2

σαφέστατα Εέ Έψεσίοις γράφων άπεκαλνψε το ζητοΰμειον ώ^έ πως
λέγων* μέγρι καταντησωμεν οι πάί'τες κ.τ.Χ. Eph. iv. 13 — 15.

2. Further we have testimonies to the Epistle being received as cano-
nical Scripture, and therefore, by imphcation, of its being regarded as
written by him whose name it bears : as e. g. :

(δ) Polycarp, ad Philippenses, c. 12 :

" TJt his scripturis dictum est, ' Irascimini et nolite peccare,' et
' Sol non occidat super iracundiam vestram.' " Eph. iv. 26'.

(ε) Tertullian adv. Marcion.v. 17 (see below, p. 16).

(ζ) Irenaeus several times mentions passages of this Epistle as per-
verted by the Valentinians : e. g. ch. i. 10 (Iren. i. 3, 4) : iii. 21
(Iren. i. 3. 1) : v. 32 (Iren. i. 8. 4) : and in many other places
(see the Index in Stieren's edn.) cites the Epistle directly.

3. I have not hitherto adduced the testimony ordinarily cited from

^ Meyer, Einl. p. 24, prefers to consider both these citations as made from the O. T.
Ps. iv. 4, and Deut. xxiv. 15 (?), on the ground of the title ' Scripture ' never occurring
of the N. T. in the apostol. fathers.

6]



§ I.] ITS AUTHOESHIP. [peolegomena.

Ignatius Epli. 12, on account of the doubt which hangs over the inter-
pretation of the words '' :

ιταροδύς tare τών εις θευΐ' αναιρουμίνων, Παύλου σνμμΰσται τοϋ
ηγιασμέιυυ, τοϋ μεμαρτυρημίνου, ΰΐ,ιομακηρίστου, ον yivoiTt) μοι υπό τα
'ίχνη εϋρεθηναι οταΐ' θεού επιτύχω, υς εν ττασ// επιστοΧτ) μνημονεύει
υμών εν χριστώ 'ίησοϋ.
Ι conceive however that there can be little doubt that these expressions
ai'e to be interpreted of the Epistle to the Ephesians. First, the ex-
pression συμμΰσται seems to point to Eph. i. 9, as compared with the rest
of the chapter, — to ch. iii. 3 — 6, 9 (τις ή κοιί'ωΐ'ία τοΟ μυστηρίου). And
it would be the very perversity of philological strictness, to maintain, in
the face of later and more anarthrous Greek usage, that t'v πάστ]
έπιστυλτΊ must mean 'in every Epistle,' and not 'in all his Epistle.'
Assuming this latter meaning (see note on Eph. ii. 21), the expression
finds ample justification in the very express and affectionate dwelling on
the Christian state and privileges of those to whom he is writing, —
making mention of them throughout all his Epistle \

4. In the longer recension of this Epistle of Ignatius, the testimony
is more direct : in ch. vi. we read,

ώς Παύλος υμίν έγραφε»'' εΐ' σώμα και tv πνεύμα κ.τ.\. (Eph. IV.
4—6.)
And in ch. ix.

El ους άγαλλιώμεΐ'ος ή^ιωθην Ci ων γράψω πρηςομιΧήσαι τοΙς αγίυις
τοΙς ονσιν εν Έ^εσω, τυ'ις πιστο'ις εν χριστώ Ίησον.

5. As we advance to the following centuries, the reception of the
authorship of St. Paul is universal. In fact, we may safely say
that this authorship was never called in question till very recent
times.

6. Among those critics who have repudiated our Epistle as not

^ The chapter itself is wanting in the ancient Syriac version published by Mr. Cureton.
But this will hardly be adduced as affecting its genuineness. Hefele's view, " pius ille
monachus, qui versionem Syriacam elaboravit, omnia omisisse videtur quae ipsi et usui
suo ascetico minus congrua minusve necessaria putabat," seems to be the true one.

5 Pearson's remarks on this point are worth transcribing : " Hsec a martyre non otiose
aut frigide, sed vere, imo signanter et vigilanter dicta sunt. Tota enim Epistola ad
Ephesios scripta, ipsos Ephesios, eorumque honorem et curam maxime spectat, et summe
honorificam eorum memoriam ad posteros transmittit. In aliis epistolis apostolus eos
ad quos scribit ssepe acriter objurgat aut parce laudat. Hie omnibus modis perpetuo se
Ephesiis applicat, illosque tanquam egregios Christianos tractat, evangelio salutis firmiter
credentes, et Spiritu promissionis obsignatos, concives sanctorum, et domesticos Dei.
Pro iis saepe ardenter orat, ipsos hortatur, obtestatur, laudat, utrumque sexum sedulo
instruit, suum erga eos singularem affectum ubique prodit." Vindicise Ignatianse, pt. ii.
ch. 10, end.

6 See Orig. contra Celsum, iii. 20 ; Tert. de prsescr. hser. c. 36 ; De Monog. c. 5 ;
Cypr. Testim. iii. 7 : Ep. Ixxv.



PEOLEGOMEJiA.] THE EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS. [cii. ir.

written by the Apostle, the principal have been De Wette and Baur.
The ground on which they build their reasoning is, for the most part,
the same. De Wette holds the Epistle to be a verbose expansion of
that to the Colossians. He describes it as entirely dependent on that
Epistle, and as such, unworthy of a writer who always wrote in fresh-
ness and fulness of spirit, as did St. Paul. He believes he finds in it
every where expressions and doctrines foreign to his diction and
teaching. This being so, he classes it with the Pastoral Epistles and
the first Epistle of Peter, and ascribes it to some scholar of the Apostles,
writing in their name. He is not prepared to go so far as Baur, who
finds in it the ideas and diction of Gnostic and Montanistic times. On
this latter notion, I will treat below : I now proceed to deal with
De Wette' s objections.

7. First of all, I would take a general view of their character, and
say that, on such a general view, they, as a whole, make ybr, rather than
against, the genuineness of the Epistle. According to De Wette, a
gifted scholar of the Apostles, in the apostolic age itself, writes an
Epistle in imitation, and under the name, of St. Paul. Were the imita-
tion close, and the imitator detected only by some minute features of in-
advertent inconsistency, such a phsenomenon might be understood, as that



Online LibraryHenry AlfordThe Greek Testament : with a critically revised text, a digest of various readings, marginal references to verbal and idiomatic usage, prolegomena, and a critical and exegetical commentary : for the use of theological students and ministers (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 110)