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^ See Mgr Batiffol Etudes d'hist. et thiol, positive cap. ii ; and the
articles of the Abbe A. d'Al^s ' TertuUien et Cailiste ' in Revue d'hist.
ecclis. xiii (1912).



376 Early History of the Church and Mmistry vi

adopt it ^ ; and there is some reason to suppose that
Origen later on changed his opinion. As to Idolatry,
the policy worked out in concert by Carthage and Rome
in the Decian crisis, offering reconciliation to libellatki
after penance proportionate to the gravity of the lapse
in each individual case, and to sacrtficati only at the end
after a lifelong penance^, was generally adopted after
some hesitations^, and the rigourists, who refused all
reconciliation to the lapsed, were drained off into the
Novatianist sect, which later on enlarged its programme
and denied the right of the Church to absolve any
mortal sin. Wilful Homicide, it may be supposed,
was a case that had but rarely to be dealt with. Of
the only two canons which refer to it, the 22 nd of
Ancyra offers absolution after a lifelong penance in
the second class ; the 6th of Eliberis, where the case
contemplated is that of murder by means of magic,
refuses absolution even at the end, explicitly on the
ground that the murder is aggravated by ' idolatry.'

{c) Not only in this case, but in 1 8 others of the
21 cases in which, as we have seen, the Council of
Eliberis sets no term short of the end, reconciliation
is refused even in fine. This may indicate the survival
of a rigourist tradition in a Catholic community. Or
it may mean that special severity was felt to be neces-
sary in the deplorable moral condition of the Spanish
Church which the canons as a whole reveal. However
this may be, the sins so dealt with are specially
aggravated offences ; one is an instance of deliberate
and gratuitous idolatry* ; another, of grave sin persisted
in to the end, leaving no time for penance (64); four
are cases of aggravated sins of the flesh or sins against
marriage (8, dG., 71, 72) ; two are cases of relapse,

1 S. Cypr. Ep. Iv 26. ^ 7^,^ j^ j^^

^ S. Dion. Al. ap. Eus. H.E. vii 5 §§ i sq.

* Can. I. Gratuitous because not committed under pressure of perse-
cution. I accept Mgr Duchesne's dating of the Council as earUer than the
outbreak of the Great Persecution {Melanges Renier, 1887, pp. 159 sqq.).



VI Terms of Communion i^jj

falling under the general rule of ' one exomologesis '
(7, 47) 4 two are condemned as implying scandal given
to the Church (18, 6^) \ four are marked explicitly as
double offences, involving two capital sins (2, 6, 12,
6^) ; and the remaining four (13, 17, 73, 75), though
not explicitly marked as double, seem to be of the
same character.

Elsewhere than in Spain, there appear to be only
two other cases in which final reconciliation was refused,
both of them cases of sins persisted in to the end.
The 2nd canon of Neocaesarea refuses absolution to a
woman who has married her deceased husband's brother,
except ' by way of indulgence ' (Sm r^v (f)i\av6pco7riap)
if she promise in case of recovery to dissolve the
union ; and the 22nd canon of Aries forbids the recon-
ciliation of apostates who, having never in time of
health ' sought for penance,' ' ask for communion ' in
time of sickness^.



IV

To sum up the results we have reached.

First, the conditions of admission to the communion
of the Church, expressed or implied in the process of
initiation, were the following. The final and immediate
condition was what was described as * Baptism'-,; that is
to say. Baptism in the narrower sense, * the laver of
regeneration,' administered in the name of the Father

^ So the Carthaginian Council of 251 had refused reconcihation to
Decian sacrificati who sought it only when ' in peril ' of death (S. Cypr.
Ep. Iv 23). In Egypt, on the other hand, S. Dionysius had given orders
that all should be absolved in extremis if they prayed for it (Eus. H.E. vi

44 §4)-

2 ' Baptism ' commonly meant baptism and confirmation, regarded as
two moments in a single action (e.g. Tert. de baptismo : Origen in Rom.
V 8, de princip. i 3 § 2 : S. Cypr. Ep. Ixiii 8). It was only when it was
necessary to distinguish them, as in the discussion of heretical baptisms,
that they were distinguished and ntnmiqiie sacramentiini was used (S.
Cypr. Epp. Ixxii i, Ixxiii 21 : Sentt. epp. 5).



37^ E^irly History of the Church and Ministry vi

and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, or, admissibly,
in the Name of Jesus Christ, together with Confirmation,
' the renewal of the Holy Ghost,* conferred by prayer
and the imposition, mediate or immediate, of the hand
of the bishop ^ This condition was so far qualified, that
one who died a martyr for the Faith before receiving
the Baptism of the Church was held to be baptized in
his own blood ^ ; while a person baptized in emergency
and out of reach of the bishop, and dying before he
had opportunity to be confirmed, was reckoned to have

^ (i) In the summary description of Baptism in Didache 7 tliere is no
mention of confirmation. As to this it may be remarked that, if the
Didache represents any real stage in the growth of the Church and if the
' apostles and prophets ' are the link between the Apostles and the
Episcopate, the administration of Confirmation belonged to the ' apostles
and prophets ' and did not therefore come within the scope of the Didache,
which is a directory for the local community, (ii) In S. Justin Martyr's still
shorter account (^^o/.i 61) thereis also no express mentionof Confirmation.
On this three things may be remarked, (a) Confirmation was not so con-
spicuous an action as to call for explicit mention in a summary apologetic
account addressed to pagans ; while {b) it may well be that the prayer
'for the newly baptized' among the 'common prayers' which immediately
followed the neophyte's entry into the church after his baptism (c. 65) is
in fact his Confirmation ; and (c) in the Liturgy following baptism, the
kiss of peace, which is not mentioned in the account of the ordinary
Sunday Liturgy (c. 67), immediately follows the prayers — and as we have
already seen, in the HippolyteanO;'£?cr the bishop kisses the neophyte after
Confirmation (see p. 349 above: cf. S. Cypr. Ep. Ixiv 4 ; a survival remains
in the Pax tecum of the Gelasian Sacramentary and the later Roman rite),
(iii) According to a letter of S. Cornelius (Eus. H.E. vi 43 § 15), Novatian,
after being clinically baptized in sickness, did not seek Confirmation on
his recovery. From the fragments of the letter which survive it is perhaps
not quite certain whether Cornelius means that Novatian was ordained
without previous Confirmation. But anyhow his ordination was strongly
opposed by all the clergy and many of the laity on the ground of his clinical
baptism, and it was only conceded at last as an exceptional case to the
petition of the then pope {ib. § 17 -fj^iwae a-vyxojprjOiii'aL avru tovtov fj.bvov
Xei-poTovTJffai) ; and it seems unlikely, especially in view of the ' rule of the
Church,' to which Cornelius refers (§ 15), that the Pope would weaken his
case by not confirming Novatian before ordaining him.

2 See above, p. 331 note i. For catechumens dying before they could
be baptized see S. FirmiUan in S. Cypr. Ep. Ixxv 21 and Cone. Ehb. can. 77.
Firmihan apparently does not, as does the Council, regard their faith and
intention as an equivalent for baptism, but as bringing them ' no small
gain.'



VI Terms of Communion 379

died ' a perfect Christian '1. As a preliminary condition
and to secure that he received baptism with the right
will and disposition, viz. with repentance and faith 2,
the candidate was required publicly to ' renounce un-
godliness and worldly lusts,' and to make ' the good
confession ' of the Faith of the Church * before many
witnesses.' And lastly, in order that he might be the
better able to fulfil this condition with understanding
and sincerity, he spent two or three years of instruction
and discipline in the status of a catechumen ; and to
this status he was admitted only on condition of shewing
that his motives for seeking admission were honest, and
of consenting to abandon all unchristian manners of
life ; while at the end of each of the two periods into
which the catechumenate was divided his life and his
progress were scrutinised, and his further promotion
was dependent on the result of the scrutiny.

Secondly, continuance in the enjoyment of the ius
communkationis was conditional upon the continued
observance of the obligations implied and accepted in
Baptism. For certain offences, notably Idolatry, Heresy,
Schism, and grave moral lapses like Homicide, Unclean-
ness, and Fraud, the Christian, in some instances ipso
facto^ in others by a judicial process, was excommuni-
cated, that is, he was excluded from the Communion
of the Eucharist and from all his Christian rights and
was reckoned as ' a heathen man and a publican.'

But, thirdly, except for some few offences, and then
only in some churches and during a certain period, he
was not excluded from the hope of restoration. On
giving evidence of penitence and purpose of amendment,
he was on his own petition received back in the status
of a Penitent. As a Penitent, for a period, longer or

^ de rebaptismate 4 ' quod hodierna quoque die non potest dubitari esse
usitatum et enenire solitum, ut plerique post baptisma sine inpositione
manus episcopi de saeculo exeant et tamen pro perf ectis fideUbus haben tur. '

* de rebaptismate 4 ' paenitcnti atque credenti.' Cf. p. 316 above.



380 Early History of the Church and Ministry vi

shorter according to the gravity of his offence, during
which he was bound still by his bearing and manner of
life to give evidence of his 'conversion,' he had, while
still deprived of the Communion of the Eucharist, once
more a recognised place in the congregation and for at
least some part of the period some share in its worship.
At the end of his appointed time of penance, he peti-
tioned for complete restoration, once more professing
his repentance ; and if in the judgement of the Church
his conversion was real and satisfactory, he was absolved
by prayer and the imposition of the hands of the bishop
and the clergy, and so regained his status as one of ' the
faithful.'



B

THE MINISTRATION OF THE
SACRAMENTS

We have already had occasion to notice incidentally
the place of the ordo^ the episcopus et clerus^ in the adminis-
tration of Baptism and Confirmation, the Eucharist, and
Penance. It remains to consider this more in detail,
and to enquire who was held to be the proper ' minister '
of each of the Sacraments — whose intervention, that is,
was necessary in order to guarantee the authority of the
Church and secure the validity of the action.

For this purpose it will be convenient, first, to
enquire as to each order of the ministry what was the
authority, in relation to the administration of the sacra-
ments, either explicitly conferred in ordination, or
understood to be included in its commission and norm-
ally exercised by it ; and then, reviewing the adminis-
tration of each of the sacraments in turn, to observe how
far competence in this respect belonged to others besides
those who normally exercised it.



VI Ministration of the Sacraments 381

I

I. The Bishop then, as the highpriest^, has plenary
competence in respect of all the Sacraments, and is the
normal minister of them all. To apply to the sacra-
ments in general what S. Firmilian of Caesarea says of
baptism in particular, 'the authority' to administer them
* was given to the apostles and to the churches which
they, sent by Christ, established, and ' therein ' to the
bishops who succeeded them by ordination in their
stead '^. Accordingly in the earliest form of episcopal
consecration that remains ^, petition is made for the bishop
that he may * shepherd thy holy flock and do thee high-
priestly service, blamelessly ministering night and day,
and without ceasing may propitiate thy face and offer
thee the oblations of thy holy Church,' as the minister
of the Eucharist ; ' and by the highpriestly Spirit he may
have authority to remit sins according to thy precept '
and 'to loose every bond according to the authority
which thou didst give to the apostles,' as the minister
of Absolution ; and may ' confer orders* according to thy

^ Tert. de bapt. 17 'summus sacerdos, qui est episcopus ' : S. Hippol.
Philosoph. praef. § 6 to e;/ "EiKKKrjcylq. Trapabodkv dyiov Hveufxa, ov TvxofTes
wp&Tepoi oi airocToKoi ixeriSocnxv tois opOdoi ireiriaTevKbaiv • Siv Tj/xets (the
bishops) diddoxoi TvyxdvovTes t^s re auTrjs X'^P''''"^ ixerixovTe^ apxifpcTeias
re Kal didaaKaXia^ Kal (ppovpol rijs 'EKKX-qaias XeXoyLff/x^voi ktX. : Didasc.
ii 26 § 3 'isti enim primi sacerdotes uestri,' § 4 'primus uero sacerdos uobis
est leuita episcopus.'

2 ap. S. Cypr. Ep. Ixxv 16 'potestas ergo peccatorum remittendorum
apostolis data est et ecclesiis quas illi a Christo missi constituerunt et
episcopis qui eis ordinatione uicaria successerunt ' : cf . 7 ' quando omnis
potestas et gratia in ecclesia constituta sit, ubi praesident maiores natu qui
et baptizandi et manum inponendi et ordinandi possident potestatem.'

^ S. Hippol. Order i : see above p. 279.

* AiSbvai KXrjpovs. The origin of this use of KXrjpo^ is perhaps to be
found in Acts i 17 eXaxe rbv KX-qpov t^s biaKOvlas ravT-q^ (paralleled in v. 25
by Xa^eh tov rbirov ttjs diaKovias ravTTjs). Elsewhere (i) it seems to occur
first in Irenaeus, where 6 kX^Pos means the 'portion,' 'estate,' 'office,' of the
episcopate in a particular church : Haer. iii 3 § 3 5w5e/cdT(f) Tbinf rbv rij^
iwicTKoirrjs d-rrb tQ>v diroarbXuv Karix^i. nXripov ; and so, the position of the
bishop in a local succession : i 27 § i evarov KXripov ttjs tincrKoTriK^i 5io-



382 ^arly History of the Church and Ministry vi

commandment,' as the minister of Ordination. This,
as it is the earliest, is also the most explicit of all ancient
consecration-prayers in its enumeration of the functions
of the episcopate 1 ; but the enumeration is incomplete.
Looking elsewhere, we may take a few typical docu-
ments and observe what is taken for granted as to the
contents of the episcopal authority.

5ox'5s - ^X<"'''05- S° ^1^° Eusebius H.E. iv 10, vi 29 § 2, vii 2. Cf. Tert.
de virg. vel. 9 ' sacerdotalis officii sortem.' (2) More commonly nXvpo^
means a 'portion,' 'estate.' 'order,' in the ministry generally r Clem. Al.
Quis dines 42 kXtjpv 'iva yi nva KXrjpJicrwv : Origen horn, xi in lev. 3 airb
KXrjpov rifos TrpoKa6el;6fjL€voi : S. Peter Al. can. 10 roirs dirb KX-rjpov avro-
fioXrjffavras: S. Hippol. Philos. ix 12 § 22 iv kXtjpc^} ehai, 'to be in orders,'
Order 4 § 3 [the confessor] ' is worthy of every /cX^pos ' : Gaius ap. Eus.
H.E. V 28 § 12 oi iv KXripiji, 'the clergy' : S. CorneUus ap. Eus. H.E.
vi 43 § 17 eis KXrjpov TLva yeviaeai, ' to be ordained to an order' : de re-
bapiismaie 12 • clero aliquo honoratus ' : Liber pontificalis xv [Victor] • fecit
sequentes cleros,' ' instituted minor orders ' ? : S. Hippol. n.s. Ka9laTa<x6aL
eh K\7]povs, of bishops, presbyters, and deacons, ' to be ordained to [their
several] orders' ; and with the order defined, S. Comehus u.s. toO
etncFKOTrov rod iindivTOS airQ ttjp x^^P"- "^ irpea-jSurepiov KXijpov. Thus
StddvaL K\-fjpovs would seem to be the precise equivalent of ' to confer
orders.' (In i Pet. v 3 kX^pol appears to mean the ' charges,' in the
sense of the flocks, committed to the ' pastors ' : cf. Eus. H.E. x 4 § 61
Tuv avTi^ k€kXt]pwij.€vuv \pvxQv : and S. Athan. Apol. c. Arian. 6 rbv KXrjpov
rod Qeou, Kad' 6u iraxOv ^ts, of a bishop's charge, is in part analogous.)
(3) '0 KXrjpos, clerus, is ' the clergy': Tert. de monog. 12 {clerus is the sum
of the ecclesiaslici or dines) : S. Hippol. Philos. ix 12 § 14x7/1' Karaaracnv tov
KXrjpov : S. Cypr. passim : Cornehus u.s. : Cone. Ancyr. can. 3, Nicaen.
ca^. I — 3^ Arelat. i can. 13 ' ordo cleri ' ; and the members of it are clerici,
S. Cypr. Epp. xxix, &c. : Cone. Ehb. can. 27, 50, &c. : Constantine ap.
Eus. H.E. X 7 § 2. KXrjpovv in this connexion is used for ' to appoint '
or 'ordain,' Clem. Al. supra : Gaius ap. Eus. H.E. v 28 § 10 iirlaKoiros
KX-qpwdrivai ; and KX-qpovaOai for ' to have allotted to one,' S. Iren. Haer. iii
3 § 3 T7JI' i-maKOTrrjv KX-rjpovTai. KXtj/xtj? : so Eus. H.E. iii 2, 4 § 8, 5 § 2, 36
§ 2, iv I.

1 This prayer has had a long history. With some addition or modifica-
tionitpa-ssedmioihe Apostolic Constitutions, theCanojts of Hippolytus, and
the Testament of the Lord. From the Apostolic Constitutions it was adopted
into the Coptic consecration of bishop (Denzinger Rit. orient, ii p. 23) and
patriarch {ibid. 48) and the Maronite consecration of a bishop {ibid. 200) ;
and from the Testament, into the consecration of the Maronite patriarch
{ibid. 220) ; and it is still in use in these rites. The prayer of Clem. Horn.
iii 72 (S. Clement's consecration by S. Peter), which is also in use in the
consecration of the Coptic bishop and patriarch (Denzinger ii pp. 22, 46),
specifies, of the bishop's prerogatives, only the authority to bind and loose.



VI Ministration of the Sacraments 383

The Didascalia apostolorum is a Syrian manual of
Church Ufe, addressed chiefly to the Christian people
and the bishop, directing each how rightly to fulfil their
well-understood functions, and reminding them of their
obligations. And there, the Bishop is the ' highpriest,'
who ' loosed you from your sins, regenerating you by
water '^ ; ' through whom, in your baptism, by the im-
position of the bishop's hand the Lord witnessed ' to
your sonship and * gave you the Holy Ghost ' and * you
were sealed '^ ; ' through the bishops the oblations are
offered to the Lord God for remission of sins '3, it is
the bishop who gives thanks over the bread and the
chalice^, and ' makes us partakers of the Holy Eucharist
of God ' ^ ; it is the bishop who * has authority to judge
in behalf of God ' and ' whose place is as the place of
Almighty God,' since it is to the bishops that it was said
Whatsoever ye shall hind on earth shall be bound in heaven
and the rest, and it is for them, who have so * received
the authority of remission of sins,' to ' lay hands ' on
' those who have sinned ' and to ' give remission '^ ; and
lastly, while the treatment of Ordination in detail does
not come within the scope of the Didascalia^ the bishop
is to select those whom he thinks worthy and to make
them presbyters, deacons, or sub-deacons'^. Thus it is
assumed that the Bishop is the minister of Baptism,
Confirmation, the Eucharist, Absolution, and Ordi-
nation.

In the West, the writings of S. Cyprian yield the
same result. The Bishop ' cleanses and hallows ' the
water of baptism and himself baptizes ^ ; the baptized
' by the prayer and imposition of the hands ' of the
bishop ' receive the Holy Ghost and are consummated

1 Didasc. ii 26 §§ 3, 4 : 33 § 2 ; cf. iii 12 § 3.

2 Ibid, ii 32 § 3. 33 §§ I, 2 3 /5j^ ii 26 § 2, 54 § I.
* Ibid, ii 58 § 3. 6 Ibid, ii 33 § 2.

« Ibid, ii II § 2, 18 §§ I sq., 34 § 4, 41 § 2.

1 Ibid, ii 34 § 3, iii 12 § i.

^ S. Cypr. ad Fortunat. praef. 4, Epp. Ixix 8, Ixx i.



384 Early History of the Church and Ministry vi

with the Seal of the Lord ' ^ ; the bishop ' serves the altar
and the sacrifices, ' ^ and ' discharging the office of Christ '
* offers a true and perfect sacrifice in the Church to God
the Father, ' ^ in his ' prayer ' at the altar * asking for ' the
sound estate of the people ' and commemorating the
names of the dead in ' the sacrifice for their repose ' ^ ; ' in
virtue of the force of his episcopate and the authority
of his chair ' and in the exercise of * the authority of his
office ' the bishop administers discipline and deposes or
excommunicates^, ' with ' him the penitent ' makes his
exomologesis of conscience "^, and, * by the imposition of
the hands of the bishop and clergy, receives the ius
communicationis'^ \ after election by the 'suffrage' of the
clergy and people of a vacant see and the 'judgement '
of the neighbouring bishops, a new prelate is conse-
crated by the bishops^, and, with the approval of clergy
and people, himself ordains the persons so approved to
other orders of the ministry^". Again then the Bishop
is the minister of Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist,
Penance, and Ordination.

Once more, we may examine the canons of the
Councils, Eastern and Western, of the first quarter of
the 4th century, and observe what are the functions
incidentally ascribed to the Bishop. And here, after
Baptism, the bishop ' perfects ' the neophyte ' by bene-
diction' or 'imposition of hands' in Confirmation"; he
' offers,' and a provincial bishop must be provided with
' an opportunity ' to celebrate the Eucharist when he

1 S. Cypr. Epp. Ixxiii 9.

2 Ibid. Ixxii 2.

* Ibid. Ixiii 14 : cf. Ivii 3.

* Ibid, i 2 • sacerdotum prece ' ; Ixv 2 ' precem Domini ' : Ixvii 2 ' pre-
cibus' : de laps. 25 'precis nostrae et orationis.'

^ Epp. i 2, Ixvii 2. ^ Ibid, iii i, 3.

' de laps. 28. ^ Ep. xvi 2 : cf. xv i, xvii 2.

8 Ibid. Iv 8, Ixvii 2, 3, 5.

1" Ibid, xxix, xxxix 4 sq., of ordinations of minor clerics : Cyprian
does not happen to mention any ordinations of presbyters or deacons.
11 Cone. Elib. can. 38, 77.



VI Ministration of the Sacraments 385

comes to the City ^ ; the bishop excommunicates, and
the penitent must ' do his penance with ' his bishop
and from him receive his reconciUation - ; the bishop,
himself consecrated by at least three comprovincial
bishops ^, ordains deacons and presbyters *.

2. The Presbyters are the ' counsellors of the
bishop,' with him forming the ' council of God,' ' the
council and senate of the Church.' They are the
bishop's ' symmystae ' and his ' compresbyters ' ^. And
this relation of the presbyters to the bishop is sym-
bolized by their place in the congregation. The bishop
' presides,' enthroned on his cathedra, in relation to the
presbyters occupying ' the chief seat '*^ ; while the pres-
byters sit beside him ' in the presbyterium ' ' ' round
about the throne'^, as prelates ' of the second throne'^,
in relation to the people sharing ' the chief seat,'
forming with the bishop the ' ecclesiastici ordinis con-
sessus ' and the * garland ' on the head of the church ^°.

1 Cone. Arelat. i can. 19 ' de episcopis peregrinis qui in urbem solent
uenire, placuit iis locum dari ut offerant.'

2 Cone. Elib. can. 32, 53. ^ Cone. Arelat. i can. 20, Nic. can. 4.

* Cone. Aneyr. can. 13, Nie. can. 19.

^ Didasc. ii 28 § 4 avfi^ovXoL rod ewiSK6trov...(yvve5piov /cat ^ovXri ttjs
iKKX-rjalas : S. Ignat. Trail. 3 crwiSpiov GeoO : Apost. Ch. Order 18 (rvfj-fj-iKyrai.
Tov eiTLffKoiTov '. iox avixTTpecr^vTepoi, compresbyteri, see S. Dion. Al. ap. Eus.
H.E. vii II § 3, 5 § 6 : S. Cypr. Epp. i 1, xlv 2, &e. : Eus. H.E. v 16 § 5.

* Didasc. ii 57 § 4 ' et in medio inter eos situm sit episcopi solium ' :
S. Ignat. Magn. 6 TrpoKaOr]fj.€vov rod iwLaKOTrov : Origen in Mat. xv 26
TTpoedpla eTTKTKowLKou dpovov (cf. Eus. H.E. ii 17 § 23) : for trpwro-
Kadedpia see Clem. Al. Strom, vi 13 (106. 2), Orig. in Mat. xvi 22, Eus.
H.E. V 28 § 12 : cathedra, S. Cypr. Ep. xvii 2, &c.

^ £)i£^fl5c. ii 57 § 4 'et cum eo sedeant presbyteri ' : cf. S. Cypr. Epp.
xxxix 5, xl, xlv 2 : Eus. H.E. x 4 §§ 44, 66 : Origen horn, xi in ler. 3
Kadi^eadai iv wpecT^vrepiu) : Cone. Aneyr. can. 18.

* Apoc. iv 4. For the correspondence between the arrangement of
the church and that of the ideal church of the Apocalypse, see Apost.
Ch. Order 18 : cf. Clem. Al. Strom, iv 8 (66. 1), vi 13 (107. 2).

* Eus. H.E. x 5 § 23 tQv eK tov Sevr^pov dp'wov.

^" YlpuTOKadeBplra.!., Hermas Pastor vis. iii 9 § 7 : cf. Origen in Mat.
xvi 22. Tert. de exhort, cast. 7 : cf. S. Cypr. Ep. xl. S. Ignat. Magn. 13
dftOTrXo/fou irvevfxaTiKov aTe(p6.vov tov irpea^vTepiov vfiCiv : Didasc. ii 28 § 4
T^s iKKXr/ffias (TTiipavos.

2 C



386 Karly History of the Church and Miinstry vi

In administration, then, they form a college with the
bishop ; and as in the Hippolytean prayer for the conse-
cration of a bishop it is asked that the bishop may
' shepherd thy holy flock,' so in the prayer for the
ordination of a presbyter it is asked that they may ' help
and govern thy people,' and the specific gift for which
petition is made is * the Spirit of counsel ' ^. But the
presbyters are also ' conjoined with the bishop in the
sacerdotal office ' ^ and have ' sacerdotal functions ' ^ as
his * fellow-ministers ' * : with him they form a collective



Online LibraryHenry Barclay SweteEssays on the early history of the church and the ministry → online text (page 35 of 42)