Henry Barnard.

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pragmatic sanction of some stiff-necked examiner — have to " get np ** all the
anastomosing routes of St. Paul's several joumeyings, have to follow those
rebelUona Israelites in all their wanderings through the desert , to draw the
line round them when in Palestine ; going from Dan to Beersheba, and " metjng
out the valley of Succoth"; or, finally, have to cover a lai^e sheet of foolscap
with a progressive survey of the spread of Christianity during the three first
centuries:— and he wUl easily enter into our feelings. To return to the class-
room The geographical lesson, though of daily infiiction. was accurately cir»
comscribed in its duration. Old time kept a sharp look-out over his blooming
danghters, and never sufibred one hour to tread, upon the heels or trench upon
the province of a sister hour. Sixty minutes to all, and not an extra miniite
to any, was the old gentleman's impartial rule ; and he took care to see it was
Btiictly adhered to. As the clock struck ten, geography waa shoved asido by
the raoae of mathematics. A sea of dirty water had washed out in a twinkling
all tiaces of the continent of Europe, and the palimpset slate presented a clean
fiwe for whatever figures might next be traced upon IL

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The hour for Euclidizing was arrived, and anon the bkick parallelogram was
intersected with numerous triangles of the Isosceles and Scalene pattern ; but,
notwithstanding this promising dtlmtf we did not make much quicker progress
here than in the previous lesson. How should we, who had not only the diffi-
culties inseparable from the subject to cope with, but a much more formidable
difficulty — ^viz., the obstruction which we opposed to each other's advance, by
the plan, so unwisely adopted, of making all the cl&ss do the same thing, that
they might keep pace together. It is a polite piece of folly enough for a
whole party to be kept waiting dinner by a lounging guest, who chooses to ride
in the purk when he ought to be at his toilet ; but we were the victims of a
much greater absurdity, who lost what might have proved an hour ti ]Toiitahlo
work, out of tenderness to some incorrigibly idle or Boeotian boy, who could
not get over the Pons Asinorum, (every proposition was a pout to some asi'uva
or other,) and so made those who were over stand still, or come back to help
him across. Neither was this, though a very considerable drawback, our only
hindrance — the guides were not always safe. Sometimes he who acted in that
capacity would shout " Eureka " too soon ; and having undertaken to lead the
van, lead it astray till just about, as he supposed, to come down upon the proof
Itself, and to come down with a Q. E. D. : the master would stop him short,
and bid him — as Coleridge told the ingenious author of Guesses at Truth — *' to
guess again." But suppose the "guess *' fortunate, or that a boy had even suc-
ceeded, by his own industry or reflection, in mastering a proposition, did it
follow that he would be a clear expositor of what he knew ' It was far other-
wise. Our young Archimedes — unacquainted with the terms of the seit nee,
and being also (as we have hinted) lamentably defective in his knowledge of
the power of words — would mix up such a ** farrago " of irrelevancies and rep-
etitions with the proof, as, in fact, to ren<ler it to the majority no proof at all.
Euclid should be taught in his own words, — just enough and none to spare :
the employment of less must engender obscurity ; and of more, a want of neat-
ness and perspicacity. The best geometrician amongst us would have cut but
a bad figure by the side of a lad of very average ability brought up to know
Euclid by book.

Another twitch of the bdl announced that the hour for playing at triangh-s
had expired. In five minutes the slate was covered with bare of minims and
crotchets, and the music lesson begun. This, in the general tone of its delivery,
bore a striking resemblance to the geographical one of two hours before; the
only difference being that " ut, re, me," had succeeded to names of certain
cities, and " fa, so, la," to the numlwr of their inhabitants. It would be as
vain an attempt to describe all the noise we made as to show its rationale op
motive. It was loud enough to have cowed a lion, stopped a donkey in mid-
tray — to have excited the envy of the vocal Lablache, or to have sent any
pnma donna into hysterics. When this third hour had been bellowed away,
and the bell had rung unheard the advent of a fourth— pr«fo^in came Mons.
D— ^, to relieve the meek man who had acted as coryphaius to the music class ;
and after a little tugging, had soon produced from his pocket that without
which you never catch a Frenchman — a tkhme. The theme being announced,
we proceeded (not quite tant bien que mal) to scribble it down at his dictation,
and to amend its orthography afterwards from a corrected copy on the slate.
Once more the indefatigable bell obtruded its tinkle, to proclaim that Herr Roth
was coming with a Fable of Gellert, or a chapter from Vater Pestalozzi's sezioilS

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norel, Gumcd und Lina, to read and expoand, and catechise npon. This last
lesson before dinner was always accompanied by freqnent yawns and other an-
repressed symptoms of fatigue ; and at its conclnsion we all rose with a shont
4nd roshed into the corridors.

On resnming work in the afternoon, there was even less attention and method
observed than before. The classes were then broken up, and private lessons
were given in accomplishments, or in some of the useful arts. Drawing dogs
and cows, with a master to look after the trees and the hedges ; whistling and
spitting through a flute; playing on the patience of a violin; turning at a
lathe ; or fencing with a powerful maitre <f Armes ; — such were the general
occupations. It was then, however, that we English withdrew to our Greek

and Latin ; and, under a kind master. Dr. M , acquired (with the exception

of a love for natural history, and a very unambitious turn of mind) all that
really could deserve the name of education.

We httve now described the sedentary life at the chateau. In the next paper

the reader shall be carried to the gymnasium ; the drill-ground behind the lake ;

to our small menageries of kids, Guinea-pigs, and rabbits ; be present at our

* ball and skating-bouts in winter, and at our bathings, fishings, f rog-spearings,

and rambles over the Jura in summer.

We regret not to have seen the second installment of this English boy's
Heminiscences of Student Life at Tverdun. If written, it was not pub-
lished in the magazine in which the first appeared. The student does
not appear to have appreciated or have profited by Pestalozzi^s origi-
nal methods, which are herein so well set forth. He was not caught
young enough and had become too hardened in the onyitalized and
mere memory processes of the English public schools.


We find in the reminiscences and life of another English visitor, who
became bot;Ji student and assistant at Yverdun, a more hearty apprecia-
tion of the great educator^s personal character, and the fruitful results
of his sojourn in the old feudal castle and in the somewhat noisy family
and not very wisely administered institution of Pestalozzi. We close
this chapter with an extract from a pamphlet issued by He v. Charles
Hayo, LL.D., in 1826, giving the substance of several lectures deliv-
ered by him in the Royal Institution in Albemarle Street (founded by
that great practical educator and countryman of ours, Count Rumford —
Benjamin Thompson, of Walpole, Mass.), on the principles of Pesta-
lozzi^s educational system. Dr. Mayo and his daughter introduced into
England the Pestalozzi improved methods of infant and child instruc-
tion, which were pursued in the Model and Training Schools, of the
Home and Colonial Society in London, and which Mr. Sheldon intro-
duced a quarter of a century later into the Model and Training Institu-
tion of Oswego, N. Y.

Some years ago an Irish gentleman, traveling through Yverdun, in the Pays
de Vaud, was prevailed on to spend a couple of hours in the Institution of
Pestalozzi. The first class he inspected was carried on in a language not Tamil*
iar to him, yet was he much struck with the intelligence and vivacity portrayed
in the features of the pupils. But when, the following hour, he witnessed the

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power of the method in its application to arithmetic, he discorered in the Bchol-
AFB a clear conception of number and its relations, a precision and rapidity in
mental calculation, and an animation and interest in their employment, which
convinced him that a secret had been discovered by Pestalozzi, and he was
tesolved, if possibre, to penetrate it. The proposed visit of two hours termin*
ated at the expiration of three months ; nor was his admiration of the method
confined to a bare speculative reception of the principles ; he transplanted into
his own country tlie practical truths he had learned in Switzerland, and though
Providence has interrupted the course of his more extended labors, he still, iu
the bosom of his own family, applies the lessons of Pestalozzi, and teaches his
children to revere his name. It was not a theoretical examination of the method
that effected this conviction and animated to these exertions ; it was a personal
view of the practical influence of the system, in scenes lit up by the genius and
warmed with the benevolence of Pestalozzi himself. Could I transport you in
thought to the scenes where Pestalozzi lived, and taught, and suffered with his
scholars, the heart would feel even before the understanding discerned the
beauty, the truth of his principles. A skeleton view of his system might lead
you to a cold approbation of his views, but it must be the living, the breathing •
portraiture of the man that must awaken your love, and dispose you to imitate
what you have learned to admire. I have seen him surrounded by his pupils,
have marked tlie overflowings of his tenderness; I have read in a thousand
traits of good-nature the confirmation of his history. I have witnessed the
affecting simplicity, the abandon with which he speaks of all he has done and
essayed to do for humanity. Could I convey to others the sentiments I feel for
him, Pestalozzi would be loved and honored as he deserves. Three years of
intimate connection with him, every day marked with some proof of his affec*-
tion, may \%ell have knit ray heart to his ; and among the most cherished recol-
lections of the past is, that Pestalozzi honored me with his friendship, and
thanked me for cheering his decline.

HRiniT (lobp) brougham.

Among the English visitors to Pestalozzi, whose testimony to the
originality and value of his methods as well as to the disinterested
character of the man, before the Education Committee of 1818, car-
ried immense weight wherever the proceedings of the English parlia-
ment were known, was Henry Brougham. He commenced in 1816 that
public agitation of the claims of the people to better schools which
culminated in the legislation of 1870.

It was Pestalozzi and men of hid type who inspired the Great
Commoner of England, as Henry Brougham was called before a title
had confounded him with a group of much inferior men, with hia
exalted estimate of the schoolmaster in his peaceful vocation.

" His calling is high and holy ; his fame is the property of nations ; hia
cenown will fill the earth in after ages in proportion as it sounds not far off in
his own time. Each one of these great teachers of the world, possessing his
soul in peace, performs his appointed course, — awaits in patience the fnlfillment
of the promises, — resting from Ms labors, bequeaths his memory to t&e genera-
tion whom his works have blessed, — and sleeps under the humble bat not inglo*
lions epitaph, commemorating one in whom mankind fost a friend^ and no man
got rid of an enemy.'*

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April 27, 1809.


Pestalozzi's principles of education and instmction and his pro-
ceedings, gprowing out of them, and the means for their application are
founded entirely upon the phenomena of his existence as a created

Man as he is represented to us is a union of three chief attributes ;
body, soul, mind ; to cultivate these harmoniously and as a whole is his
object Pestalozzi goes from this existence of man into the phenomena,
that is, from that which he is by the sum of his powers and according
to his destiny (its suitable culture). Hence he takes man into consid-
eration according to this sum of his powers as a bodily, intellectual and
•motional being, and works upon him in this sum of his powers and for
their harmonious development and culture, from which first arises
that whole which is called man.

Pestalozzi, therefore, works not merely upon the bodily powers and
their development, not only upon the culture of the mind and its devel-
opment, nor only upon the soul and its development (although he is
accused of doing so), nor merely upon two of these at once, as body and
mind, or body and soul, or soul and mind. No ! Pestalozzi develops
man, works upon man in the totality of his powers.

Man in his manifestations must run through three principal epochs,
according to his powers ; that of the body, that of the soul, that of the
mind ; he runs through them not separated, or singly, so that he first
runs through that of the body, then that of the soul, and at last that of
the mind ; no, these epochs are convertible in the man developed in per-
fectly undisturbed natural relations ; their circular course returns ever
again, and the more so the more perfect the man becomes — until the
limits of his powers as well as of their development fall away and are
removed, and the continuous whole — man — stands before us.

It would be highly unjust, therefore, to say of Pestalozzi that he de-
veloped men, the powers of men, each power separately at three differ-
ent epochs, first the body, then the soul, and then the mind, since he
really takes them all into view at once in harmonious and brotherly
union, and although he seems, perhaps, for the time t^ be treating
merely the physical powers, he is observing and taking into considera-
tion equally the influence of this treatment upon mind and soul.

He has man as a whole in his eye, as an unseparated and inseparable
whole, and in all that he does and wishes to do for him and his culti-
vation, he does it for him as a whole. At no time does he act only for
49 1

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the development of one power, leaving the others without nourishment;
for example, he never is acting for the mind alone and leaving uncon-
sidered, unsatisfied and uncared for and in inaction the body and the
soul ; all the powers are cared for at all times.

But often one or other of the three great divisions of man's nature
stands forth and apparently dominates the others.

Pestalozzi takes into view man according to and in his ntanifestation,
according to the laws of nature and those which are grounded in the
mind of man, when he works specially upon the predominant power ;
it is not done in an isolated and divided way, but in order to work
through his treatment upon the other equal but slumbering and rasting
powers. So, for example, in one and the same epoch upon the senses,
through these upon the body, and through these again upon the fieel-
ings, and so in a perpetual round.

Pestalozzi takes man according to his manifestation. But man does
not manifest himself alone, for and through himself; he manifests
himself under conditions determined by nature and by his mother, and
both these united — that is, by love.

So the man becomes child, that is, the sum and substance of the love
of the father and mother.

Pestalozzi then wishes to develop and cultivate the man in his mani-
festation as child, through the conditions under which he appears, that
is, the love of the father and mother. We think of the father and
mother as united by love in order to exalt the child, t. e., the sum of
their love, into an independent being by means of education.

Can there be a truer, more careful nurse and developer of this love
made visible, this independent essence, this child, than the father and
the mother, than the two united by mutual love, to which the child
owes his existence — indeed, whose sum and substance the child is ?

Pestalozzi thus wishes only what nature and the being of man
wishes ; he wishes that man in his manifestation as child shall be de-
veloped by his father and mother, and in their mutual love be culti-
vated throughout and educated according to his capacities as a corporeal,
feeling and intellectual being.


The existence of mind and soul in the child is expressed merely by
simple life.

Mind and soul appear limited by and in the mass, the body — for
still all parts in the body are one ; the mind and the senses by which
the world without works through the body upon the mind and soul are
not yet distinguishable.

The body of the child is still a ma«s ; it appears so tender and frail,
so much too material and awkward for the mind and the soul of the
child, yet slumbering and weak, to work through it.

By degrees the senses, feeling, sight, etc., develop and separate.

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The child feels the wannth of the mother's hreast and the breath of
her loving lips ; it smiles (the first appearance of the toul^ the first sign
of the soul's existence).

The child perceives the mother ; it feels her nearness, her distance,
etc. ; the chU^or^ks (the first appearance of mind — the first sign of its

At the moment of the beginning of this separation of the senses, the
true mother works upon the unfolding and development of the child
according to its various capacities ; the love of the mother makes the
child feel, see, hear.

Thus are developed, without giving any account of themselves —
yielding only to holy feeling, to the demands of their nature — the
sense* of the child, which are the paths to its mind and soul.

Here is the third point, where Pestalozzi takes into account the par-
ents — where he appeals to them with the view of exalting the being of
their love to the higher life, to conscious independence — where he gives
them means and guidance to develop and cultivate the capacities of
their child.

What Pestalozzi wishes as means of development he had pointed out
in his jBook for Motkersy which many have misunderstood and which
is yet the highest which can be given to man, the most loving feeling
could create, the highest and best gift which he could bestow in the
present circumstances upon his brethren and sisters.

What Pestalozzi expresses in that book are only suggestions of what
lies in his soul, as a great, glorious, living and unspeakable whole.

His soul felt the joys of heaven in his intuition of the perception of
the father and mother following the call of nature by the education of
their children. Overpowered by this heavenly joy, he sat down and
wrote, not for word-catchers and quibblers — no ! he wrote for parents,
for fathers, for mothers, who he thought would conceive and feel as he
did, to whom he only needed to point out what they should do, what
they coald do, and how they could do it.

The highest object of recognition, of the intuition of mind and soul
to man, is humanity.

Pestalozzi took pleasure, in his Book for Mothers, in pointing out to
man what he wished ; and, in order to point out all that he wished,
could he choose anything higher and more perfect than man, whose
body is destined for the earth and whose being is destined for heaven ?
That he chose the highest, the most perfect thing, is now made a re-
proach to him 1

But is there a more glorious, more exalted, more beautiful, more
worthy object of observation and recognition than man ? — ^and is not
the body the house of our spirit, which is destined for eternity and for
communion with Grod ? Can it, as he himself says, be contrary to nat-
ure to learn to know it eaHy^ to respect it early^ to rejoice in it early,
that it may be made holy for us ? Can it, as they charge Pestalozzi,

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be contrary to nature to orient one's self early in the hoase where
one dwells?

As I stand before you, it cannot be my aim to contradict the objec-
tions of Pestalozzi*s opposers, who for the most part misunderstand
him, since I am merely striving to represemt literally the essence of
Pestalozzi's fundamental efforts according to his own representation ;
I merely say that a great part of the objections made to these efforts
consists in this; that Pestalozzi, for various reasons, errs very much
when he enlists the child himself in the first cognition and develop-
ment of himself and the man, and even starts from the body of the

But how can it be a crime; how can it be against nature to re-
spect the body early, to learn early to know the body and its use, the
use to which we all owe everything, by which alone we leani to know
the world without, which helps us to sustain and battle for our life, as
it helps us to recognize God, to do good, and to rescue our brothers and
sisters with strong arms from the brink of perdition ?

Truly, whoever wishes to teach the child to respect his body must
respect himself ; if he wishes to learn to know it, he must know him-
self ; whoever wishes to instruct in the use of it, must know it himself,
all this must come to his consciousness ; whoever works to make the
child feel the sacredness of his body, to himself it must be sacred I

Indeed, no man could understand Pestalozzi who had not in his soul,
when this elementary book first fell into his hands, that which Pesta-
lozzi felt to be exalted in humanity ; to him those principles were dead
forms without sense or significance, and afterwards one person, perhaps
without examination, repeated the judgment of another who seemed to
him well-informed.

But were all these men parents to whom Pestalozzi spoke ? Noble
Princess, if I were not afraid of wearying you, I could say much upon
the excellence and the principles of Pestalozzi, of the man himself ; I
only permit myself to express one thing of which I am deeply per-
suaded in my own mind.

Many a young man and boy, powerful by the nature of their collec-
tive capacities, would not have lost his powers in the bloom of his youth,
if his parents or teachers had followed in his education the principles
laid down by Pestalozzi in his Book for Mothers.

Many a young man would have known how to be a useful and esti-
mable subject, in the years of bis ripeness and understanding, if his
body could have fulfilled the requisitions of his mind and heart.

Pestalozzi's Book for Mothers is only a suggestion of what ha wishes
to do ; he wrote significantly ; " or a guide for mothers in the observa-
tion of their children, and to teach them to speak.''

But man is not the only thing upon earth ; the whole outward world
is the object of his recognition, and the means for his development and

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Pestalozzi said, therefore, and still says : << As I have shown you that
you can bring man by degrees through gradual development of the
child to the conscious inspection and recognition of tbe world without,
so bring every other object of the world without to his inspection and
recognition, every object which approaches the child, which lies in his
circle, in his world, as he himself lies in this world 1 "

Scarcely does it seem possible that herein can lie anything contrary
to nature, difficult to be recognized, or difficult to be carried out, and
yet the opponents of Pestalozzi find more than all this in it. Pestalozzi's
opponents reproach him strongly tiiat he merely speaks of this obser-
vation and recognition.

But we observe ^ith all our senses, and how could Pestalozzi believe
that any one would accuse him, when he used the word observation, of
meaning simple observation with the eyes ?

The Book /or Mothers is to teach the mother, in the first place, to
develop and to cultivate the senses of tbe child both singly and in their

Online LibraryHenry BarnardThe American journal of education → online text (page 8 of 102)