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against Christianity as inconsistent with divine

I. Of these, perhaps the most common among
men of the world in oreneral is its exclusive-


ness ; that as the Apostle Peter said to the
Jews : '' In none other," except Jesus Christ,
'' is there salvation ; for neither is there any
other name under heaven that is given among
men wherein we must be saved." ^"^ This, in-
deed, is the teaching of Christ Himself and of
the New Testament generally, so that it is not
without reason that in the XVIIIth Article of
Religion of the Church of England the opinion
is condemned as unchristian : *' That every man
shall be saved by the law or sect which he pro-
fesseth, so that he be dilio^ent to frame his life
according to that law and the light of nature."
But, first of all, if we realize the infinite magni-
tude of the divine sacrifice by which mankind
has been redeemed from sin and death, the con-
clusion is unavoidable, that such a sacrifice would
not have been made had any other method been
sufficient without it. Redemption through the
incarnation and death of the only begotten Son
of God is, in the nature of things, a U7iiqtie act ;

"Acts IV. 12 ; St. Mark XVI. 16 ; St. John III. 18-36 ; i Tim.

n. 4. 5.


and Christianity is, therefore, of necessity, ex-
clusive, if it is true. On the other hand, the
blessings which have been procured for man
through the Son of God takinor into himself our
humanity, and bearing the sins and sorrows of ^
mankind, and which can only be made our own
(as we have seen) ^^ through that faith which in
spirit identifies us with the Redeemer's work ;
blessings which Holy Scripture describes as
being heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ,
partakers of divine glory and joy, seated with
Christ on His throne, as He is seated with His
Father on His throne, are such as it is also im-
possible, in the nature of things, that any one
of God's creatures (much more one that is sin-
ful and fallen) could ever obtain, except through
such a method as the incarnation and cross of
Christ. So that the redemption, as regards
both the work itself and its results to man, alto-
gether is unique, and, on that account, also ex-
clusive ; for the same reason as the unity of
the Godhead is exclusive of a second God.
But it must be remembered that Holy Scripture
says nothing definitely as to the future state of
those who have had no knowledge in this life
of the Gospel of Christ. It only assures us, by

"Lect. III. § 13.


all its teaching, both in the Old Testament and
in the New/^ that the Judge of all the Earth will
be both just to all without exception and without
partiality, and at the same time merciful and
compassionate beyond all that our imaginations
can conceive. It contains also some hints as to
the Gospel being " preached even to the dead," ^^
which, though they give us no encouragement
to speculate on a subject lying outside the work
of God which we are called to fulfil in this
world, are nevertheless sufficient to remind us
that the extent of the redeeming love of God
in Christ infinitely exceeds both our knowledge
and the sphere of our understanding.

II. Another objection to Christianity, or
rather against one partial aspect of it, is that it
makes God's love not universal, but special and
partial, and therefore unjust. I have referred
to this in Lecture I., but some further remarks
are necessary. For undoubtedly our Lord
Himself speaks of His people as ''given to
him by the Father out of the world," and as
not having themselves chosen Him, but being
chosen by Him. And St. Paul^^ teaches Chris-
tians that *' God chose us in Christ before the

^* See especially Rom. II. 6-i6.
" I Pet. IV. 6, and III. 19, 20. " Ephes. I. 4, 5.


foundation of the world, that we should be holy,
and without blemish before him in love ; having
foreordained us unto adoption as sons through
Jesus Christ unto himself, according to the
good pleasure of his will." Of the truth that
the supremacy of the will of God does not mean
the disannulling of our own will, but that all
religion implies that the finite will is no less a
reality than the divine, I have already spoken.
But there is a further consideration which must
be taken into account, in reference to the lan-
guage of Holy Scripture on this profound and, to
a finite mind, necessarily incomprehensible sub-
ject. We must always bear in mind that God,
who (to use the language of the prophet Isaiah),
" inhabiteth eternity," sees every man, not as
we finite beings see him, but in the eventualities
of the future no less clearly than in the actuali-
ties of the past and the present. It is not
merely that the future is foreseen, but to that
mind to which all is present, and in which the
succession of time has not the kind of existence
that it has in the finite mind, the first germ and
the matured fruit are seen at once, one in the
other. This religious doctrine of the divine
foreknowledge is of course wholly beyond our
understanding, yet it is a truth which no one



who believes In the existence of an Infinite and
eternal God can question, and it is totally dif-
ferent from necessitarianism or fatalism ; nor
does the will of God from all eternity, accord-
ing to His foreknowledge, that we should be
saved from sin and made partakers of His
glory, in the least interfere with the action of
our own will. Morally and spiritually, this truth
of our election before the foundation of the
world by the everlasting love of God, is an un-
speakable comfort and source of strength to
those who believe on Christ, '' both because it
doth greatly establish and confirm their hope of
•eternal salvation to be enjoyed through Christ,
and also because it doth fervently kindle their
love toward God."^^ Intellectually, the doctrine
is *' unthinkable," because infinite being itself
is unthinkable ; but no man in his senses prac-
tically believes that the divine foreknowledge
of future events makes human action unneces-
sary or unprofitable. The truth has been, no
doubt, both perverted and abused ; yet in itself
it is nothing else than one of those mysteries of
infinite being which are incomprehensible by
every finite mind ; and the particular form
which it assumes in Christianity, as election by

" Article XVII.


the grace of God from all eternity, arises en-
tirely from the fundamental principle that the
Love of God is His Being and therefore

III. Of all the popular objections to Christi-
anity that which has most weight with many
minds is, that the doctrine of everlasting punish-
ment in another life seems a contradiction of the
love of God. But we have found in our exami-
nation of this whole subject that there are two
conclusions that are inevitable. The first is,
that the fundamental principle that God is Love
must involve also the opposite that His hatred
of sin — the contradiction of love — is as infinite
as God's Being itself is. His infinite love, and
His infinite holiness, are nothing else than two
opposite aspects of the same eternal and al-
mighty Being. The second is that love, which
alone is spiritual and eternal life, cannot be pro-
duced in man, even by omnipotence, without
the concurrence of his own will. And if the
complete manifestation of the love of God in
giving His only begotten Son as a propitiation
for our sins fails to conquer the rebellious will,
and we continue ^^ in a state of wilful sin, ''after

" Heb. X. 26, EjiovaiGj? ajLiapravovTGjv r]jjL(^v fxera ro
Xa^Siv Trjy iTtiyvoodiv zr/? aXijdeia?, " Notice the present


we have received the knowledge of the truth,"
there remaineth no more a sacrifice for sins;
there is no other method remaining by which the
soul can be quickened into life when love has
failed. In this passage from the epistle, to which
I have more than once referred, because it de-
fines more clearly and exactly than any other pas-
sage in Holy Scripture those cases which are
proved to be beyond the reach of divine love,
we must notice that it is assumed that the man
has *' received the knowledge of the truth," and
therefore has had sufficient trial whether he will
accept the love of God or will refuse it. And
the word here used for knowledge {IniyvoDOii)
implies not a mere historical knowledge of the
fact, which may never have presented to the
conscience the spiritual meaning of the sacrifice
of Christ; but it assumes the "■ actual direction
of the spirit to a definite object and a real grasp-
ing of the same." ^ Such are the cases in which
both apostolic authority and our Lord Jesus
Christ Himself declare that man has finally
identified himself with his sin, so as to be by the

not the aorist participle. It is not of an act or of any number
cf acts of sin that the writer is speaking, which might be repented of
and blotted out ; but of a state of sin, in which a manis found when
that day shall come" — Alford.

" Delitsch quoted by Alford.


determination of his own will beyond the reach
of infinite love, because that love itself has be-
come, through his wilful rejection of the light of
life and love after it has shined upon him, the
consuming fire of divine jealousy. Who they
are that have thus, of their own will, chosen
darkness and death rather than light and life,
God alone can determine in that day when the
secrets of all hearts shall be made known be-
fore men and angels, and when He shall judge
every man (as St. Paul reminds us ^°) on the
principles, not of the Law by which all arealike
condemned, but of the Gospel which reveals
God as Infinite Love. In the assurance of
that infinitely righteous and infinitely powerful
love, we may well shut up all inquiries as to the
eternal future of other men, and to it may con-
fidently entrust our own. The one truth that
God is Love, not only when rightly understood,
is seen to be the source of all the doctrines of
Christianity, but also, if continually present to
our mind, will teach and enable us to apply
every Christian doctrine in its true proportion
and relation.

" Rom. II. 16.









November i, 1883.


. Kenyon College Choir.

Rev. Edward Benson, A.M., Senior
Professor, Kenyon College.

Rev. Abraham Jaeger, D.D., Pro-
fessor, Theological Seminary.

Rev. Cyrus S. Bates, D.D., Pro-
fessor,. Theological Seminary.

Rev. Fleming James, D.D., Pro-
fessor and Pastor.

Rt. Rev. G. T. BedeU, D.D., of

The Te Deum .

The Epistle .

The Gospel .

The Creed

Founders' Memorial


Prayer for the Institutions.

Hymn 232 at 3D Verse.

(Rt. Rev. Henry Cotterill, D.D.,
The Lecture ... -I Bishop of Edinburgh, Scotland.

( (Lecture read by Pres't Bodine.)

Hymn 494.

Offertory for Founders' Scholarship.

Matriculation of the Theological Seminary.

Matriculation of Kenyon College.

Address The Bishop of the Diocese.

( The Bishop, the President, and
The Holy Communion

( The Bishop,
\ the Pastor.



We remember before God this day the Founders of
these Institutions : Philander Chase, the first Bishop
of Ohio, clarufn ef venerahile nomen, whose foresight, zeal,
unwearied patience, and indomitable energy devised these
foundations, and established them temporarily at Worth-
ington, but permanently at Gambler ; he was the Foun-
der of the Theological Seminary, Kenyon "College, and of
the Grammar School ; — Charles Pettit McIlvaine,
the second Bishop of Ohio, rightly known as the second
Founder of these Institutions, whose decision of charac-
ter and self-devoted labors saved them at two distinct
crises of difficulty ; he builded Bexley Hall for the use of
the Theological Seminary, Ascension Hall for the use of
Kenyon College, Milnor Hall for the use of the Grammar
School, and he completed Rosse Chapel on the founda-
tions laid by Bishop Chase.

We remember before God this day pious and generous
persons, contributors, whose gifts enabled the Bishops of
Ohio to lay those foundations, and who are therefore to
be named among the Founders. We make mention only
of those who have departed to be with Christ, and now
rest in Paradise.



Among the many, we name only a few whose gifts are
noticeable because of the influence of their character and
position :

Henry Clay, whose introduction of Bishop Chase to
the Admiral Lord Gambier, of England, initiated the
movement in 1823 ; the Archbishop of Canterbury; the
Lord Bishops of London, Durham, St. Davids, Chester,
Lichfield ; the Deans of Canterbury and Salisbury ;
Lords Kenyon, Gambier, Bexley, Sir Thomas Acland ;
Reverend Edward Bickersteth, Henry Hoare, Marriott,
Pratt, William Wilberforce, Thomas Wiggin, Thomas
Bates ; the Dowager Countess of Rosse, who aided
liberally the Chapel which afterward bore her name;
Hannah More, who also bequeathed a Scholarship
which bears her name ; and five hundred and thirty
others whose names are recorded in the memorial pre-
pared by the Rev. Dr. Bronson at the order of the

We remember before God the liberality of William
Hogg, from whom this domain was purchased under the
advice of Henry B. Curtis and Daniel S. Norton, with the
consent of Henry Clay ; the grantor contributing one
fourth of its market value.

In 1838, John Quincy Adams, the President of the
United States ; Mrs. Sigourney ; Arthur Tappan, who
originated the Milnor Professorship ; St. George's
Church, New York, which established a Scholarship ;
Rev. Drs. Milnor, Tyng, Bedell, Sparrow, Keith, Rev. I.


Morse, Dudley Chase, Albert Barnes, John Trimble,
William Jay, Abbott and Amos Lawrence, Peter Stuy-
vesant, Richard Varick, and nine hundred and ninety
others whose names are recorded.

These were the first Founders of these Institutions.

Among those who aided Bishop Mcllvaine we men-
tion before God to-day,— in 1832, Bishop White, Rev.
Manton Eastburn and the Ascension Church, the Rev.
Dr. Cutler and St. Ann's Church, Brooklyn, the Rev.
Drs. Muhlenberg and Wing, Peter A. Jay, James Len-
nox, Robert Minturn, Henry Codman, Robert Carter,
Matthew Clarkson, Charles Hoyt, I. N. Whiting, and
four hundred and sixty others whose names are re-

And in 1835, in England, Daniel Wilson, Bishop of
Calcutta; the Bishops of London, Winchester, Salis-
bury, and Lichfield ; the Duchess of Kent, the Duch-
ess of Gloucester, the Princess Augusta, the Duchess
of Beaufort, the Earl of Carnarvon, Rev. Thomas
Hartwell Home, Charles Brydges, John Fox, Jerram,
Jowett, Baptist Noel, Dr. Plumtre, Charles Simeon,
Henry Thornton, Sir Thomas Baring, Henry Roberts,
architect, who gave the plan and working model for
Bexley Hall ; with four hundred and eighty-three others
whose names are recorded.

These are the second Founders of these Institutions.
We mention before God to-day the gifts of Bishop
Gadsden, Bishop Johns, Colonel Pendleton, John Kil-


gour, the Kinneys, Dr. Doddridge, Charles D. Betts,
who founded a fund for the purchase of theological
books ; Rev. C. C. Pinkney, who contributed for fit-
ting up a Laboratory ; J. D. Wolfe, who contributed to
found the Lorillard and Wolfe Professorships ; John
Johns, M.D., of Baltimore, who left a valuable legacy
to the Institutions ; Stewart Brown, William H. Aspin-
wall, and others who contributed to the building of
Ascension Hall ; Thomas H. Powers, Lewis S. Ashurst,
John Bohlen and sister, and others who founded
a Professorship in memory of the late Dr. Bedell of
Philadelphia ; Mrs. Spencer, Mrs. Lewis, who partly
founded a Professorship, Rev. Dr. Brooke ; Rev. Messrs.
Lounsberry and E. A. Strong, whose efforts brought
many valuable contributions to these Institutions ; W.
W. Corcoran, President Andrews, Rev. Alfred Blake,
and nine hundred and forty others who are also to
be counted among the Founders of these Institutions.

And last, the Philanthropist, the intimate friend of
Bishop Mcllvaine, who in token of that friendship
founded a Professorship, that now bears his name, bears
the name of George Peabody.

We mention before God to-day, with reasons that
none can better appreciate than this community, which
mourns their loss, two of our own citizens who are well
entitled to a place in the record of Founders — R. S.
French, who, with the assistance of friends in Gambler
and Mount Vernon, provided the full set of nine bells


and the clock, and placed them in the tower, with power
to ring the Canterbury chimes ; Martinbro AVhite, who
was for twenty years Agent and Treasurer of these
Institutions, a man of singular probity and purity, whose
character and work, whose fidelity to his trust, whose
honesty as well as honorable dealing during difficult
times when these foundations were being laid, entitle
him not only to a place in our grateful recollection,
but to a place among the chief Founders of these

The donors to these Institutions who are still living
(many of whom have gathered on this day) unite with us
in praising God for the privilege of building upon founda-
tions which were thus so strongly laid.

Among them we mention with gratitude:— of England,
William E. Gladstone, Member of Parliament (at
present Prime-Minister), Rev. Canon Carus, and J. Pye
Smith ;— of the United States, Rev. Drs. Dyer and Burr,
Professor Francis Wharton, A. H. Moss, M. M. Granger,
John Gardiner, Rev. Archibald M. Morrison, who
founded the Griswold Professorship ; Peter Neff, Jr., who
gave the Telescope and Transit Instrument ; the Rev.
Drs. Muenscher and Bronson, and several hundred others
whose names are recorded.

The third Bishop of Ohio, with the aid of AVilliam H.
and John Aspinwall, James M. Brown, Samuel D. Bab-
cock, WilHam B. Astor, and other members of the Ascen-
sion Church of New York, builded the Church of the


Holy Spirit for the use of all the Institutions ; through
him Mrs. Bowler founded the Professorship which bears
her husband's name, R. B. Bowler, who gave a philosophi-
cal apparatus, and who, with Larz Anderson, Henry Pro-
basco, William Proctor, and others, founded the Mcll-
vaine Professorship ; Jay Cooke founded the Professor-
ship which bears his father's name ; Frank E. Richmond
founded the Hoffman Library Fund ; Stewart Brown
builded the tower of the Church, to bear the name of his
son, Abbott Brown. By the same Bishop and his wife
the Organ was placed in the Church as a memorial of the
second Bishop of the Diocese, and the Episcopal chair
as a memorial of the great Founder; members of the
Church in Philadelphia completed the endowment of
the Bedell Professorship, among them chiefly William
Welsh, John Bohlen and his sister, and Thomas H. Pow-
ers, who also left a Fund in the hands of the Vestry of
Christ Church, Germantown, for a perpetual supply of
specified books for students in Bexley Hall ; and Robert
H. Ives and his wife, who stated that, desiring not to
trammel the Trustees, they placed their fund in the Treas-
ury without conditions.

In 1875 the Trustees determined to found a " Trustees'
Professorship," which is partially completed.

All these, and seventy others, are also to be ^counted
among the Founders.

We mention with gratitude the successful efforts of the
present President of Kenyon College to complete the en-


dowments, and the gifts which have resulted therefrom,
namely, from R. B. Hayes, President of the United
States, Peter Hadyen, Dr. I. T. Hobbs, Rev. William
Horton, Thomas McCulloch, Samuel L. Mather, William
J. Boardman, A. C. Armstrong, H. P. Baldwin; from
John W. Andrews a donation in lands for the founding
of Scholarships in memory of his son ; from Mrs. Alfred
Blake donations for the purpose of founding a Scholar-
ship to bear her husband's name ; from Columbus De-
lano the Hall which bears his name ; from Mrs. Ezra
Bliss a Gymnasium which is being built ; and from
Henry B. Curtis Scholarships which from generation to
generation will foster sound learning. These also, with
thirty others, the latest givers to our Institutions, are to
be counted among the Founders.

The congregaiiojt rising.

For all these generous gifts of the living, and for the
memory of the dead who were the Founders of these
Institutions, we give hearty thanks to God this day ;
ascribing the praise of their benefactions to His almighty
grace, and the glory to His most holy Name, who is the
God of our fathers and our God, the Father, the Son, and
the Holy Ghost, one adorable Trinity for ever and
ever. Amen.

prayer for the institutions.

O God the Holy Ghost, fountain of all wisdom, source
of all grace, be present always, we beseech Thee, with


these Institutions to direct and bless. Established in the
faith of the Gospel, endowed for the service of divine
truth, may they ever rest under Thy gracious benediction.
We pray Thee to use them for the glory of Christ in His
Church, and to make them pure fountains of heavenly
knowledge, holy principles, and godly learning. We be-
seech Thee to give to those who teach in them wisdom
and patience, discreetness and zeal for God; and to those
who are taught, aptness to learn, docility, submission
without servility, and manly gentleness. O Holy Spirit,
make these Thy servants studious, truthful, pure, obedient
to all who are in authority, and temperate in all things;
so that, by Thy grace, the same mind may be in them
which was in Christ Jesus our Lord, and their character
be formed in His holy likeness. Prosper Thou, O Lord,
the work of our hands upon us ! Give to Thy people a
liberal heart toward these Institutions. May the memory
of those whose gifts have enriched us be ever precious in
our sight, as it is blessed of God ! And may the good
name of these Institutions be handed down from genera-
tion to generation for the comfort of Thy Church, and
the glory of Thy Majesty, Who art, with the Father and
the Son, the One God whom we adore for ever and ever.



To God the Father, God the Word, and God the Holy
Spirit, we pour forth most humble and hearty supplica-


tions ; that He, remembering the infirmities of our minds,
the limits of our knowledge, and the pilgrimage of this
our life, in which we wear out days few and evil, would
please to open to us new refreshments out of the fountain
of His goodness and wisdom. This also we humbly and
earnestly beg, that human things may not prejudice
such as are divine ; neither that from the unlocking of the
gates of sense, and the kindling of a greater natural light,
any thing of incredulity or intellectual night may arise
in our minds toward divine mysteries. But rather that
by the cleansing of them through the study of truth, and
the purging them from fancy and vanities by the entrance
of wisdom, yet subject and perfectly given up to the
Divine oracles, there may be given unto our faith the
things that are faith's ; through Him whom truly to know
is everlasting life ; and to whom, with Thee O Father, and
Thee enlightening Spirit, we ascribe glory and praise world
without end. Amen.

J -^-y



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