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said that he had no fault to find with my paddling in the
stern, but I complained that he did not paddle according
to his own directions in the bows.

Opposite the Sunkhaze is the main boom of the
Penobscot, where the logs from far up the river are col
lected and assorted.

As we drew near to Oldtown I asked Polis if he was
not glad to get home again ; but there was no relenting
to his wildness, and he said, " It makes no difference to
me where I am." Such is the Indian's pretense always.

We approached the Indian Island through the narrow
strait called "Cook." He said, "I 'xpect we take in
some water there, river so high, never see it so high at
this season. Very rough water there, but short; swamp
steamboat once. Don't you paddle till I tell you, then
you paddle right along." It was a very short rapid.
When we were in the midst of it he shouted " paddle,"
and we shot through without taking in a drop.

Soon after the Indian houses came in sight, but I
could not at first tell my companion which of two or


three large white ones was our guide's. He said it was the
one with blinds.

We landed opposite his door at about four in the
afternoon, having come some forty miles this day.
From the Piscataquis we had come remarkably and
unaccountably quick, probably as fast as the stage or
the boat, though the last dozen miles was dead water.

Polis wanted to sell us his canoe, said it would last
seven or eight years, or with care, perhaps ten ; but we
were not ready to buy it.

We stopped for an hour at his house, where my com
panion shaved with his razor, which he pronounced in
very good condition. Mrs. P. wore a hat and had a silver
brooch on her breast, but she was not introduced to us.
The house was roomy and neat. A large new map of
Oldtown and the Indian Island hung on the wall, and
a clock opposite to it. Wishing to know when the cars
left Oldtown, Polis's son brought one of the last Bangor
papers, which I saw was directed to "Joseph Polis,"
from the office.

This was the last that I saw of Joe Polis. We took
the last train, and reached Bangor that night.



THE prevailing trees (I speak only of what I saw) on the
east and west branches of the Penobscot and on the upper part
of the Allegash were the fir, spruce (both black and white),
and arbor-vitse, or "cedar." The fir has the darkest foliage,
and, together with the spruce, makes a very dense "black
growth," especially on the upper parts of the rivers. A dealer
in lumber with whom I talked called the former a weed, and
it is commonly regarded as fit neither for timber nor fuel. But
it is more sought after as an ornamental tree than any other
evergreen of these woods except the arbor-vitse. The black
spruce is much more common than the white. Both are tall
and slender trees. The arbor-vitse, which is of a more cheer
ful hue, with its light-green fans, is also tall and slender, though
sometimes two feet in diameter. It often fills the swamps.

Mingled with the former, and also here and there forming
extensive and more open woods by themselves, indicating, it
is said, a better soil, were canoe and yellow birches (the
former was always at hand for kindling a fire, we saw no
small white birches in that wilderness), and sugar and red

The aspen (Populus tremidoides) was very common on
burnt grounds. We saw many straggling white pines, com
monly unsound trees, which had therefore been skipped by
the choppers; these were the largest trees we saw; and we


occasionally passed a small wood in which this was the pre
vailing tree; but I did not notice nearly so many of these trees
as I can see in a single walk in Concord. The speckled or
hoary alder (Alnus incana) abounds everywhere along the
muddy banks of rivers and lakes, and in swamps. Hemlock
could commonly be found for tea, but was nowhere abundant.
Yet F. A. Michaux states that in Maine, Vermont, and the
upper part of New Hamphsire, etc., the hemlock forms three
fourths of the evergreen woods, the rest being black spruce.
It belongs to cold hillsides.

The elm and black ash were very common along the lower
and stiller parts of the streams, where the shores were flat and
grassy or there were low gravelly islands. They made a pleas
ing variety in the scenery, and we felt as if nearer home while
gliding past them.

The above fourteen trees made the bulk of the woods which
we saw.

The larch (juniper), beech, and Norway pine (Pinus resi-
nosa, red pine) were only occasionally seen in particular
places. The Pinus Banksiana (gray or Northern scrub pine),
and a single small red oak (Quercus rubra) only, are on islands
in Grand Lake, on the East Branch.

The above are almost all peculiarly Northern trees, and
found chiefly, if not solely, on mountains southward.


It appears that in a forest like this the great majority of
flowers, shrubs, and grasses are confined to the banks of the
rivers and lakes, and to the mea'dows, more open swamps,
burnt lands, and mountain-tops; comparatively very few


indeed penetrate the woods. There is no such dispersion even
of wild-flowers as is commonly supposed, or as exists in a
cleared and settled country. Most of our wild-flowers, so
called, may be considered as naturalized in the localities where
they grow. Rivers and lakes are the great protectors of such
plants against the aggressions of the forest, by their annual
rise and fall keeping open a narrow strip where these more deli
cate plants have light and space in which to grow. They are
the proteges of the rivers. These narrow and straggling bands
and isolated groups are, in a sense, the pioneers of civilization.
Birds, quadrupeds, insects, and man also, in the main, follow
the flowers, and the latter in his turn makes more room for them
and for berry-bearing shrubs, birds, and small quadrupeds.
One settler told me that not only blackberries and raspberries
but mountain maples came in, in the clearing and burning.

Though plants are often referred to primitive woods as
their locality, it cannot be true of very many, unless the woods
are supposed to include such localities as I have mentioned.
Only those which require but little light, and can bear the
drip of the trees, penetrate the woods, and these have com
monly more beauty in their leaves than in their pale and
almost colorless blossoms.

The prevailing flowers and conspicuous small plants of
the woods, which I noticed, were: Clintonia borealis, linnsea,
checker berry (Gaultheria procumbens), Aralia nudicaulis
(wild sarsaparilla), great round-leaved orchis, Dalibarda
repens, Chiogenes hispidida (creeping snowberry), Oxalis
Acetosella (common wood-sorrel), Aster acuminatus, Pyrola
secunda (one-sided pyrola), Medeola Virginica (Indian cu
cumber-root), small Circcea (enchanter's nightshade), and
perhaps Cornus Canadensis (dwarf cornel).


Of these, the last of July, 1858, only the Aster acuminatus
and great round-leaved orchis were conspicuously in bloom.

The most common flowers of the river and lake shores were :
Thalictrum cornuti (meadow-rue) ; Hypericum ellipticwn, muti-
lum,and Canadense (St. John 's- wort) ; horsemint; horehound,
Lycopus Virginicus and Europceus, var. sinuatus (bugle-weed) ;
Scutellaria galericulata (skullcap); Solidago lanceolata and
squarrosa, East Branch, (goldenrod); Diplopappus umbel-
lotus (double-bristled aster) ; Aster Radula ; Cicuta maculata
and bulbifera (water hemlock); meadow-sweet; Lysimachia
stricta and ciliata (loosestrife); Galium trifidum (small bed-
straw); Lilium Canadense (wild yellow lily); Platanthera
peramcena and psycodes (great purple orchis and small purple
fringed orchis); Mimulus ringens (monkey-flower); dock
(water); blue flag; H ydrocotyle Americana (marsh pennywort);
Sanicula Canadensis (?) (black snake-root) ; Clematis Virgini-
ana (?) (common virgin 's-bower) ; Nasturtium palustre (marsh
cress); Ranunculus recurvatus (hooked crow-foot); Asclepias
incarnata (swamp milkweed); Aster Tradescanti (Trades-
cant's aster); Aster miser, also longifolius ; Eupatorium pur-
pureum, apparently, lake shores, ( Joe-Pye-weed) ; Apocynum
Cannabinum, East Branch, (Indian hemp); Polygonum cili-
node (bindweed) ; and others. Not to mention, among inferior
orders, wool-grass and the sensitive fern.

In the water., Nuphar advena (yellow pond-lily), some
potamogetons (pond-weed) , Sagittaria variabilis (arrowhead),
Sium lineare(?) (water-parsnip).

Of these, those conspicuously in flower the last of July, 1857,
were: rue, Solidago lanceolata and squarrosa, Diplopappus
umbellatus, Aster Radula, Lilium Canadense, great and small
purple orchis, Mimulus ringens, blue flag, virgin 's-bower, etc.


The characteristic flowers in swamps were : Rubus triflorus
(dwarf raspberry); Calla palustris (water-arum); and Sar-
racenia purpurea (pitcher-plant). On burnt grounds: Epi-
lobium angustifolium, in full bloom, (great willow-herb) ; and
Erechthites hieracifolia (fire-weed). On cliffs: Campanula
rotundifolia (harebell); Cornus Canadensis (dwarf cornel);
Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi (bear-berry); Potentilla tridentata
(mountain cinquefoil); Pteris aquilina (common brake). At
old camps, carries, and logging -paths: Cirsium arvense (Canada
thistle); Prunella vulgaris (common self-heal); clover; herd's-
grass; Achillea millefolium (common yarrow); Leucanthemum
vulgare (whiteweed); Aster macrophyllus ; Halenia deflexa,
East Branch, (spurred gentian); Antennaria margaritacea
(pearly everlasting) ; Actcea rubra and alba, wet carries, (red and
white cohosh) ; Desmodium Canadense (tick -trefoil) ; sorrel.

The handsomest and most interesting flowers were the
great purple orchises, rising ever and anon, with their great
purple spikes perfectly erect, amid the shrubs and grasses
of the shore. It seemed strange that they should be made
to grow there in such profusion, seen of moose and moose-
hunters only, while they are so rare in Concord. I have never
seen this species flowering nearly so late with us, or with the
small one.

The prevailing underwoods were: Dirca palustris (moose-
wood), Acer spicatum (mountain maple), Virburnum lanta-
noides (hobble-bush), and frequently Taxus baccata, var.
Canadensis (American yew).

The prevailing shrubs and small trees along the shore were :
osier rouge and alders (before mentioned); sallows, or small
willows, of two or three kinds, as Salis humilis, rostrata, and
discolor (?); Sambucus Canadensis (black elder); rose; Vi-


burnum Opulus and nudum (cranberry-tree and withe-rod);
Pyrus Americana (American mountain-ash) ; Corylus rostrata
(beaked hazelnut) ; Diervilla trifida (bush honeysuckle) ; Pru-
nus Virginiana (choke-cherry); Myrica gale (sweet-gale);
Nemopanthes Canadensis (mountain holly); Cephalanthus
occidentalis (button-bush); Ribes prostratum, in some places,
(fetid currant).

More particularly of shrubs and small trees in swamps:
some willows, Kalmia glauca (pale laurel), Ledum latifo-
lium and palustre (Labrador tea), Ribes lacustre (swamp
gooseberry), and in one place Betula pumila (low birch). At
camps and carries: raspberry, Vacdnium Canadense (Canada
blueberry), Prunus Pennsylvania (also alongshore) (wild red
cherry), Amelanchier Canadensis (shad-bush), Sambucus pu-
bens (red-berried elder). Among those peculiar to the moun
tains would be the Vacdnium Vitis-IdcBa (cow-berry).

Of plants commonly regarded as introduced from Europe,
I observed at Ansel Smith's clearing, Chesuncook, abun
dant in 1857 : Ranunculus acris (buttercups) ; Plantago major
(common plantain); Chenopodium album (lamb's-quarters) ;
Capsella Bursa-pastoris, 1853, (shepherd 's-purse); Spergula
arvensis, also north shore of Moosehead in 1853, and else
where, 1857, (corn-spurry) ; Taraxacum Dens-leonis re
garded as indigenous by Gray, but evidently introduced there
(common dandelion) ; Polygonum Persicaria and hydro-
piper, by a logging-path in woods at Smith's, (lady's-thumb
and smart-weed) ; Rumex Acetosella, common at carries, (sheep
sorrel); Trifolium pratense, 1853, on carries, frequent, (red
clover) ; Leucanthemum vulgare, carries, (whiteweed) ; Phleum
pratense, carries, 1853 and 1857, (herd's-grass) ; Verbena has-
tata (blue vervain); Cirsium arvense, abundant at camps,


1857, (Canada thistle); Rumex crispus(?), West Branch,
1853 (?), (curled dock); Verbascum Thapsus, between Ban-
gor and lake, 1853, (common mullein).

It appears that I saw about a dozen plants which had ac
companied man as far into the woods as Chesuncook, and
had naturalized themselves there, in 1853. .Plants begin thus
early to spring by the side of a logging-path, a mere vista
through the woods, which can only be used in the winter, on
account of the stumps and fallen trees, which at length are
the roadside plants in old settlements. The pioneers of such
are planted in part by the first cattle, which cannot be sum
mered in the woods.


The following is a list of the plants which I noticed in the
Maine woods, in the years 1853 and 1857. (Those marked *
not in woods.)


Alnus incana (speckled or hoary alder), abundant along
streams, etc.

Thuja occidentalis (American arbor-vitae), one of the pre

Fraocinus sambucifolia (black ash), very common, espe
cially near dead water. The Indian spoke of "yellow ash"
as also found there.

Populus tremuloides (American aspen), very common,
especially on burnt lands, almost as white as birches.

Populw grandidentata (large-toothed aspen), perhaps two
or three.


Fagus jerruginea (American beech), not uncommon, at
least on the West Branch. (Saw more in 1846.)

Betula papyracea (canoe birch), prevailing everywhere and
about Bangor.

Betula excelsa (yellow birch), very common.

Betula lenta (black birch), on the West Branch in 1853.

Betula alba (American white birch), about Bangor only.

Ulmus Americana (American or white elm), West Branch
and low down the East Branch, i. e. on the lower and alluvial
part of the river, very common.

Larix Americana (American or black larch), very com
mon on the Umbazookskus ; some elsewhere.

Abies Canadensis (hemlock spruce); not abundant; some
on the West Branch, and a little everywhere.

Acer saccharinum (sugar maple), very common.

Acer rubrum (red or swamp maple), very common.

Acer dasycarpum (white or silver maple), a little low on
East Branch and in Chesuncook woods.

Quercus rubra (red oak), one on an island in Grand Lake,
East Branch, and, according to a settler, a few on the east side
of Chesuncook Lake; a few also about Bangor in 1853.

Pinus Strobus (white pine), scattered along, most abun
dant at Heron Lake.

Pinus resinosa (red pine), Telos and Grand Lake, a little
afterwards here and there.

Abies balsamea (balsam fir), perhaps the most common
tree, especially in the upper parts of rivers.

Abies nigra (black or double spruce), next to the last the
most common, if not equally common, and on mountains.

Abies alba (white or single spruce), common with the last
along the rivers.


Pinus Banksiana (gray or Northern scrub pine), a few on
an island in Grand Lake.
Twenty-three in all (23).


Prunus depressa (dwarf cherry), on gravel-bars, East
Branch, near Hunt's, with green fruit; obviously distinct from
the pumila of river and meadows.

Vacdniumcorymbosum (common swamp blueberry), Bucks-

Vaccinium Canadense (Canada blueberry), carries and
rocky hills everywhere as far south as Bucksport.

Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum (dwarf -blueberry?), Whet
stone Falls.

Betula pumila (low birch), Mud Pond Swamp.

Prinos verticillatus (black alder), 1857, now placed with
Ilex by Gray, 2d ed.

Cephalanthus occidentalis (button-bush).

Prunus Pennsylvania (wild red cherry), very common
at camps, carries, etc., along rivers; fruit ripe August 1,

Prunus Virginiana (choke-cherry), riverside, common.

Cornus alternifolia (alternate-leaved cornel), West Branch,

Ribes prostratum (fetid currant), common along streams;
on Webster Stream.

Sambucus Canadensis (common elder), common along river

Sambucus pubens (red-berried elder), not quite so com
mon; roadsides toward Moosehead, and on carries afterward;
fruit beautiful.


Ribes lacustre (swamp-gooseberry), swamps, common; Mud
Pond Swamp and Webster Stream; not ripe July 29, 1857.

Corylus rostrata (beaked hazelnut), common.

Taxus baccata, var. Canadensis (American yew), a com
mon undershrub at an island in West Branch and Chesun-
cook woods.

Viburnum lantanoides (hobble-bush), common, especially
in Chesuncook woods; fruit ripe in September, 1853, not
in July, 1857.

Viburnum Opulus (cranberry-tree), on West Branch; one
in flower still, July 25, 1857.

Viburnum nudum (withe-rod), common along rivers.

Kalmia glauca (pale laurel), swamps, common, as at Moose-
head Carry and Chamberlain Swamp.

Kalmia angustijolia (lambkill), with Kalmia glauca.

Acer spicatum (mountain maple), a prevailing underwood.

Acer striatum (striped maple), in fruit July 30, 1857; green
the first year; green, striped with white, the second; darker,
the third, with dark blotches.

Cornus stolonifera (red-osier dogwood), prevailing shrub
on shore of West Branch; fruit still white in August, 1857.

Pyrus Americana (American mountain-ash), common along

Amelanchier Canadensis (shad-bush), rocky carries, etc.,
considerable fruit in 1857.

Rubus strigosus (wild red raspberry) , very abundant, burnt
grounds, camps, and carries, but not ripe till we got to Cham
berlain dam and on East Branch.

Rosa Carolina (swamp rose), common on the shores of
lakes, etc.

Rhus typhina* (staghorn sumach).


Myrica Gale (sweet-gale), common.

Nemopanthes Canadensis (mountain holly), common in
low ground, Moosehead Carry, and on Mount Kineo.

Cratcegus (coccinea? scarlet-fruited thorn), not uncom
mon; with hard fruit in September, 1853.

Salix (near to petiolaris, petioled willow), very common in
Umbazookskus meadows.

Salix rostrata (long-beaked willow), common.

Salix humilis (low bush willow), common.

Salix discolor (glaucous willow) ( ? ) .

Salix lucida (shining willow), at island in Heron Lake.

Dirca palustris (moose-wood), common.

In all, 38.


Agrimonia Eupatoria (common agrimony), not uncommon.

Circcea alpina (enchanter's nightshade), very common in

Nasturtium palustre (marsh cress) , var. hispidum, common,
as at A. Smith's.

Aralia hispida (bristly sarsaparilla), on West Branch, both

Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla), Chesuncook woods.

Sagittaria variabilis (arrowhead), common at Moosehead
and afterward.

Arum triphyttum (Indian turnip), now arisoema, Moosehead
Carry in 1853.

Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed), Umbazookskus
River and after; redder than ours, and a different variety
from our var. pulchra.

Aster acuminatus (pointed -leaved aster), the prevailing


aster in woods, not long open on South Branch, July 31;
two or more feet high.

Aster macrophyllus (large-leaved aster), common, and the
whole plant surprisingly fragrant, like a medicinal herb; just
out at Telos Dam, July 29, 1857, and after to Bangor and
Bucksport; bluish flower (in woods on Pine Stream and at
Chesuncook in 1853).

Aster Radula (rough-leaved aster), common, Moosehead
Carry and after.

Aster miser (petty aster), in 1853 on West Branch, and
common on Chesuncook shore.

Aster longifolins (willow-leaved blue aster), 1853, Moose-
head and Chesuncook shores.

Aster cordifolius (heart-leaved aster), 1853, West Branch.

Aster Tradescanti (Tradescant's aster), 1857. A narrow-
leaved one, Chesuncook shore, 1853.

Aster, longifolius-like, with small flowers, West Branch, 1853.

Aster puniceus (rough-stemmed aster), Pine Stream.

Diplopappus umbellatus (large diplopappus aster), com
mon along river.

Ardostaphylos Uva-Ursi (bear-berry), Kineo, etc., 1857.

Polygonum cilinode (fringe-jointed false-buckwheat), com

Bidens cernua (bur-marigold), 1853, West Branch.

Ranunculus acris (buttercups), abundant at Smith's dam,
Chesuncook, 1853.

Rubus triflorus (dwarf raspberry), low grounds and swamps,

Utricularia vulgaris * (greater bladderwort), Pushaw.

7m versicolor (larger blue flag), common, Moosehead, West
Branch, Umbazookskus, etc.


Sparganium (bur-reed).

Ccdla palustris (water-arum), in bloom July 27, 1857, Mud
Pond Swamp.

Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal-flower), apparently common,
but out of bloom August, 1857.

Cerastium nutans (clammy wild chickweed) (?).

GauUheria procumbens (checkerberry), prevailing every
where in woods along banks of rivers.

Stellaria media * (common chickweed) , Bangor.

Chiogenes kispidula (creeping snowberry), very common
in woods.

Cicuta macvlata (water hemlock).

Cicuta bulbifera (bulb-bearing water hemlock), Penobscot
and Chesuncook shore, 1853.

Galium trifidum (small bed-straw), common.

Galium Aparine (cleavers) (?), Chesuncook, 1853.

Galium, one kind on Pine Stream, 1853.

Trifolium pratense (red clover), on carries, etc.

Actcea spicata, var. alba (white cohosh), Chesuncook woods,
1853, and East Branch, 1857.

Actcea, var. rubra (red cohosh), East Branch, 1857.

Vaccinium Vitis-Idcea (cow-berry), Ktaadn, very abundant.

Cornus Canadensis (dwarf cornel), in woods Chesuncook,
1853; just ripe at Kineo, July 24, 1857, common; still in
bloom, Moosehead Carry, September 16, 1853.

Medeola Virginica (Indian cucumber-root), West Branch
and Chesuncook woods.

Dalibarda repens (dalibarda), Moosehead Carry and after,
common. In flower still, August 1, 1857.

Taraxacum Dens-leonis (common dandelion), Smith's, 1853;
only there. Is it not foreign ?


Diervilla trifida (bush honeysuckle), very common.

Rumex Hydrolapathum (?) (great water dock), in 1857;
noticed it was large-seeded in 1853; common.

Rumex crispus (?) (curled dock), West Branch, 1853.

Apocynum cannabinum (Indian hemp), Kineo (Bradford)
and East Branch, 1857, at Whetstone Falls.

Apocynum androscemifolium (spreading dogbane), Kineo

Clintonia borealis (clintonia), all over woods ; fruit just
ripening, July 25, 1857.

A Lemna (duckweed), Pushaw, 1857.

ElodeaVirginica (marsh St. John 's-wort),Moosehead, 1853.

Epilobium angustifolium (great willow-herb), great fields
on burnt lands; some white at Webster Stream.

Epilobium coloratum (purple-veined willow-herb), once
in 1857.

Eupatorium purpureum (Joe-Pye-weed), Heron, Moose-
head, and Chesuncook lake shores, common.

Allium (onion), a new kind to me in bloom, without bulbs
above, on rocks near Whetstone Falls (?), East Branch.

Halenia deftexa (spurred gentian), carries on East Branch,

Geranium Robertianum (herb-robert) .

Solidago lanceolata (bushy goldenrod), very common.

Solidago, one of the three-ribbed, in both years.

Solidago thyrsoidea (large mountain goldenrod), one on
Webster Stream.

Solidago squarrosa (large-spiked goldenrod) , the most com
mon on East Branch.

Solidago altissima (rough hairy goldenrod), not uncom
mon both years.


Coptis trifolia (three-leaved gold-thread).

Smilax herbacea (carrion-flower), not uncommon both years.

Spiraea tomentosa* (hardback), Bangor.

Campanula rotundifolia (harebell), cliffs, Kineo, Grand
Lake, etc.

Hieracium (hawkweed), not uncommon.

Veratrum viride (American white hellebore).

Lycopus Virginicus (bugle-weed), 1857.

Lycopus Europceus (water horehound), var. sinuatus, Heron
Lake shore.

Chenopodium album (lamb's-quarters), Smith's.

Mentha Canadcnsis (wild mint), very common.

Galeopsis tetrahit (common hemp-nettle), Olamon Isle,
abundant, and below, in prune, August 3, 1857.

Houstonia ccerulea (bluets), now Oldenlandia (Gray, 2d
ed.), 1857.

Hydrocotyle Americana (marsh pennywort), common.

Hypericum ellipticum (elliptical-leaved St. John's-wort),

Hypericum mutilum (small St. John's-wort), both years,

Hypericum Canadense (Canadian St. John's-wort), Moose-
head Lake and Chesuncook shores, 1853.

Trientalis Americana (star-flower), Pine Stream, 1853.

Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco).

Spiranthes cernua (ladies '-tresses), Kineo and after.

Nabalus (rattlesnake-root), 1857; altissimus (tall white
lettuce), Chesuncook woods, 1853.

Antennaria margaritacea (pearly everlasting), common,

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