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Introduction to the literature of Europe in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries in two volumes (Volume 1) online

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m



TEE WORKS Of SENRY HALL AM.



INTRODUCTION



LITERATURE OF EUROPE



IN THE FIFTEENTH, SIXTEENTH,

AND

SEVENTEENTH CENTUEIES.



HENEY HALLAM, F.B.A.S.,

COHHESrONDlNG MEMBEU OF THE ACADEMY OF MOKAL AND POLITICAL SCIENCES
IN THE FRENCH INSTITUTE



VOLUME I.



WARD, LOCK & CO.,

LONDON-: WARWICK HOUSE, SALISBURY SQUARE, B.C.
NEW YORK: BOND STREET.



College
Library

TN
701



v, I
CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.



. ON THE GENERAL STATE OF LITERATURE IN THE MIDDLE AGES TO THE END OF THB
FOURTEENTH CENTURY.



Retrospect of Learning in Middle Ages
Necessary ..... 1

Loss of learning in Fall of Roman Empire 1

Boethius his Consolation of Philosophy 1

Rapid Decline of Learning in Sixth Cen-
tury ...... 2

A Portion remains in the Church . . 2

Prejudices of the Clergy against Profane
Learning ..... 2

Their Uselessness in preserving it . .3

First Appearances of reviving Learning in
Ireland and England . . .3

Few Schools before the Age of Charlemagne 3

Beneficial Effects of those Established by
him ...... 4

The Tenth Century more progressive than
usually supposed ... .4

Want of Genius in the Dark Ages . . 5

Prevalence of bad Taste . . .5

Deficiency of poetical Talent . . 6

Imperfect State of Language may account
for this ..... 6

Improvement at beginning of Twelfth Cen-
tury ...... 6

Leading Circumstances in Progress of
Learning .....

Origin of the University of Paris .

Modes of treating the Science of Theology 6

Scholastic Philosophy its Origin . . 7

Roscelin ..... 7

Progress of Scholasticism; Increase of
University of Paris . . .8

Universities founded . . .8

Oxford ..... 8

Collegiate Foundations not derived from
the Saracens .... 9

Scholastic Philosophy promoted by Mendi-
cant Friars . . . . .9

Character of this Philosophy . . 10

It prevails least in Italy . . .10

Literature in Modern Languages . . 10

Origin of the French,. Spanish, and Italian
Languages . . . . .10

Corruption of colloquial Latin in the
Lower Empire . . . .11

Continuance of Latin in Seventh Century 12 I Glossatum



It is changed to a new Language in Eighth

and Ninth ... . . .

Early Specimens of French . ' . .

Poem on Boethius . . . .

ProvemjalGrammar . . . .

Latin retained in use longer in Italy .

French of Eleventh Century . .

Metres of Modern Languages . .

Origin of Rhyme in Latin . . .

Provencal and French Poetry . .

Metrical Romances Havelok the Dane .

Diffusion of French Language . .

German Poetry of Swabian Period . .

Decline of German Poetry . . .

Poetry of France and Spain . .

Early Italian Language . . .

Dante and Petrarch . . . .

Change of Anglo-Saxon to English .

Layamon . . . . .

Progress of English Language . .

English of the Fourteenth Century Chau

cer, Gower . . . . .

General Disuse of French in England .

State of European Languages about 1400



Ignorance of Reading and Writing in
6 1 darker Ages . .

6 Reasons for supposing this to have dimin-
ished after 1100 . . . .



Increased Knowledge of Writing in Four-
teenth Century . . . .

Average State of Knowledge in England .
Invention of Paper . . . .

Linen Paper when first used . .

Cotton Paper . . . ' . .

Linen Paper as old as 1100 . . .

Known to Peter of Clugni . ' . .

And in Twelfth and Thirteenth Century .
Paper of mixed Materials . . .

Invention of Paper placed by some too low
Not at first very important . .

Importance of Legal Studies . .

Roman Laws never wholly unknown .
Irnerius his first Successors . .

Their Glosses . . . . .

Abridgements of Law Accursius's Corpus



Page

12
13
13
14
14
14
15
16
16
18
19
19
20
21
22
22
22
23
23

24
24
25

25
26

27
27
28
28
28
28
29
29
29
29
30
30
31
31
31

31



Contents.



Page

Character of early Jurists . . .82

Decline of Jurists after Accursius . . 32

Respect paid to him at Bologna . . 33

Scholastic Jurists Bartolus . . 33

Inferiority of Jurists in Fourteenth and

Fifteenth Centuries . . . C4

Classical Literature and Taste in dark

Ages . . . . : 34
Improvement in Tenth and Eleventh Cen-
turies . . . . : 34
Lanfranc and his Schools . . .35
Italy Vocabulary of Papias . . 36
Influence of Italy upon Europe . . 36
Increased copying of Manuscripts . . 36
John of Salisbury . - .36
Improvement of Classical Taste in Twelfth
Century 37



Page
Influence of increased Number of

Clergy 38

Decline of Classical Literature in Thir-
teenth Century . . . .38
Relapse into Barbarism . . .38
No Improvement in Fourteenth Century

Richard of Bury . . . .89

Library formed by Charles V. at Paris . 39
Some Improvement in Italy during Thir-
teenth Century . . . .40
Catholicon of Balbi . . . ; 40
Imperfection of early Dictionaries . . 40
Restoration of Letters due to Petrarch . 40
Character of his Style . . .41
His Latin Poetry . . . .41
John of Ravenna . . . 41
Gasparin of Barziza . . . : 42



CHAPTER II.



ON THE LITERATURE OF EUROPE FROM 1400 TO 1440.



Zeal for Classical Literature in Italy
Poggio Btacciolini ....
Latin Style of that Age indifferent
Gasparin of Barziza ...
Merits of his Style ....
Victorin of Feltre .
Leonard Aretin ....
Revival of Greek Language in Italy
Early Greek Scholars of Europe
Under Charlemagne and his Successors .
In the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries
In the Twelfth ....
In the Thirteenth ....
Little Appearance of it In the Fourteenth

Century .....
Some Traces of Greek in Italy
Corruption of Greek Language itself
Character of Byzantine Literature
Petrarch and Boccace learn Greek
Few acquainted with the Language in their

Time .....

It is taught by Chrysoloras about 1395 .
His Disciples .....
Translations from Greek into Latin
Public Encouragement delayed
But fully accorded before 1440
Emigration of learned Greeks to Italy
Causes of Enthusiasm for Antiquity in Italy
Advanced State of Society .
Exclusive Study of Antiquity . .

Classical Learning in France low .
Much more so in England .
Library of Duke of Gloucester . .

Gerard Groot's College at Deventer
Physical Sciences in Middle Ages .
Arabian Numerals and Method
Proofs of them in Thirteenth Century
Mathematical Treatises
Roger Bacon .....
Ilia Resemblance to Lord Bacon .
English Mathematician* of Fourteenth

Century .....
Astronomy .....
Alchemy .....



42 ] Medicine



44



Anatomy .....

Encyclopaedic Works of Middle Ages

Vincent of Beauvais

Berchorius .....

Spanish Ballads ....

Metres of Spanish Poetry .

Consonant and assonant Rhymes . .

Nature of the Glosa ....

The Cancionero General

Bouterwek's Character of Spanish Songs .

John II. ...

Poets of his Court ....

Charles, Duke of Orleans .

English Poetry . . .

Lydgate . . ... *

James I. of Scotland .

Restoration of Classical Learning due to
Italy .....

Character of Classical Poetry lost in
Middle Ages ....

New School of Criticism in Modern Lan-
guages . . . . .

Effect of Chivalry on Poetry . , .

Effect of Gallantry towards Women

Its probable Origin . ...

It is shown in old Teutonic Poetry ; but
appears in the Stories of Arthur .

Romances of Chivalry of two Kinds

Effect of Difference of Religion upon
Poetry .....

General Tone of Romance .

Popular Moral Fictions . . t

Exclusion of Politics from Literature



55 I Religious Opinions .

56 i Attacks on the Church



Three Lines of Religious Opinions in Fif-
teenth Century ....
Treatise de Imitatione Christ!
Scepticism Defences of Christianity
Raimond de Sebonde
His Views misunderstood .



68 i His real Object

58 Nature of his Arguments



58
58
58
68
69
69
60
60
61
61
61
62
62
62
62
63
63

63

64

64
64
64
64

65
65



06
M

67

or-

67

67
M

01

I,'.*

01
70
70



Contents,



CHAPTER III.

ON THE LITERATURE OF EUROPE FROM 1440 TO THE CLOSE OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.



The year 1440 not chosen as an Epoch
Continual Progress of Learning
Nicolas V. . . . .

Justice due to his Character .

Poggio on the Ruins of Rome
Account of the East, by Conti
Laurentius Valla . . .

His Attack on the Court of Rome .
His Treatise on the Latin Language
Its Defects ....
Heeren's Praise of it .
Valla's Annotations on the New Testa-
ment ....
Fresh Arrival of Greeks in Italy .
Platonists and Aristotelians .
Their Controversy . . .
Marsilius Ficinus . . .
Invention of Printing . .
Block Books ....
Gutenberg and Costar's Claims .
Progress of the Invention . .
First printed Bible :
Beauty of the Book . . .
Early printed Sheets
Psalter of 1547 Other early Books
Bible of Pfister
Greek first taught at Paris .
Leave unwillingly granted .
Purbach his Mathematical Discoveries
Other Mathematicians
Progress of Printing in Germany .
Introduced into France
Caxton's first Works
Printing exercised in Italy .
Lorenzo de' Medici .
Italian Poetry of Fifteenth Century
Italian Prose of same Age .
Giostra of Politian .
Paul II. persecutes the Learned .
Mathias Corvinus

His Library ....
Slight Signs of Literature in England
Paston Letters

Low Condition of Public Libraries
Rowley ....

Clotilde de Sarville .
Number of Books printed in Italy
First Greek printed . : .

Study of Antiquities . .

Works on that Subject . .

Publications in Germany . .

In France . . .

In England, by Caxton . .

In Spain ....
Translations of Scripture . .

Revival of Literature in Spain .
Character of Labrixa . .

Library of Lorenzo .
Classics corrected and explained .
Character of Lorenzo
Prospect from his Villa at Fiesole
Platonic Academy .



Page




Page


71


Disputationes Camaldulenses of Landino


88


71


Philosophical Dialogues


89


71


Paulus Cortesius . . . .


89


72


Schools in Germany .


89


72


Study of Greek at Paris


91


72


Controversy of Realists and Nominalists


91


72


Scotus .


91


72


Ockham . . .


92


73


Nominalists in University of Paris :


92


73


Low State of Learning in England


92


73


Mathematics .


93




Regiomontanus . . .


93


73


Arts of Delineation . . .


93


74


Maps ......


94


74


Geography . . . . .


94


74


Greek printed in Italy . .


94


75


Hebrew printed . . . .


95


75


Miscellanies of Politian . . .


95


75


Their Character, by Heeren . .


95


75


His Version of Herodian . .


96


76


Cornucopia of Perotti . .


96


76


Latin Poetry of Politian . .


96


77


Italian Poetry of Lorenzo . . .


97


77


Pulci ......


97


77


Character of Morgante Maggiore .


97


77


Platonic Theology of Ficinus


98


78


Doctrine of Averroes on the Soul .


98


78


Opposed by Kicinus .


99


78


Desire of Man to explore Mysteries


99


78


Various Methods employed . .


99


79


Reason and Inspiration . . ,


99


79


Extended Inferences from Sacred Books .


99


79


Confidence in Traditions . . .


100


79


Confidence in Individuals as inspired


100


80


Jewish Cabbala *.


100


80


Picus of Mirandola ....


101


80


His Credulity in the Cabbala


101


80


His Literary Performances . . .


102


81


State of Learning in Germany .


102


81


Agricola . .


103


81


Renish Academy .


103


81


Reuchlin .


104


82


French Language and Poetry .


104


83


European Drama ....


104


83


Latin ......


104


83


Orfeo of Politian .


105


83


Origin of Dramatic Mysteries . .


105


84


Their early Stage .


105


84 Extant English Mysteries .


105


84 First French Theatre


106


85 Theatrical Machinery . .


107


85


Italian Religious Dramas . .


107


85 | Moralities . . . . .


107


85


Farces . .


107


85


Mathematical Works . .


107


86


Leo Baptista Alberti . .


108


86


Lionardo da Vinci ....


108


87


Aldine Greek Editions . .


109


87


Decline of Learning in Italy .


110


87


Hermolaus Barbarus . .


111


87


Mantuan .


111


88 . Pontauus .....


111



Contents.



Page
Neapolitan Academy . . . 112

Boiardo 112

Francesco Bello . . . .113

Italian Poetry near the End of the Century 113
Progress of Learning in France and Ger-
many ..... 113
Erasmus his Diligence . . . 114
Budseus his early Studies . . . 114
Latin not well written in France . . 115
Dawn of Greek Learning in England ; 115
Erasmus comes to England . . . 116
He publishes his Adages . . . 116
IJoin.-i nt ic Ballads of Spain . . .110
Pastoral Romances .... 117
Portuguese Lyric Poetry . . .117
German popular Books . . . 117
Historical Works . 118



Page
Philip de Comines . . . .118

Algebra 118

Events from 1490 to 1500 . : .119

Close of Fifteenth Century . . .119

Its Literature nearly neglected . : 119

Summary of its Acquisitions . . 119

Their Imperfection . . . .120

Number of Books printed . . .120

Advantages already reaped from Printing 120
Trade of Bookselling . . . .- 121

Books sold by Printers . . .121

Price of Books . . . .122

Form of Books . . . .122

Exclusive Privileges . . . .122

Power of Universities over Bookselling . 123
Restraints on Sale of Printed Books . 124
Effect of Printing on the Reformation . 124



CHAPTER IV.

ON THE LITERATURE OP EUROPE FROM 1500 TO 1520.



Decline of Learning in Italy
Press of Aldus

His Academy ....
Dictionary of Calepio . .

Books printed in Germany . .

First Greek Press at Paris .
Early Studies of Melanchthon .
Learning in England
Erasmus and Budaeus . .

Study of Eastern Languages
Dramatic Works . .

Calisto and Meliboea .
Its Character ....
Juan de la Enzlna . . .

Arcadia of Sanazzaro . .

Asolani of Bembo . . .

Dunbar . . . .

Anatomy of Zerbi . . .

Voyages of Cadamosto . ,.

Leo X., his Patronage of Letters .
Roman Gymnasium . .

Latin Poetry . . .

Italian Tragedy

Sophonisba of Trissino . .

Rosmunda of Rucellai
Comedies of Ariosto . . .

Books printed in Italy .
(Vlius Rhodiginus . . .

Greek printed in France and Germany
Greek Scholars in these Countries .
College at Alcala and Louvain
Latin Style in France . .

Greek Scholars in England . .

Mode of Teaching in Schools
Few Classical Works printed here .
State of Learning in Scotland
Utopia of More
Inconsistency in his Opinions



125 Learning restored in France


. 138


125


Jealousy of Erasmus and Budseus .


. 138


126


Character of Erasmus . .


. 139


126


His Adages severe on Kings .


. 139


126


Instances in illustration . .


. 140


126


His Greek Testament


. 142


127


Patrons of Letters in Germany .


. 142


127


Resistance to Learning . .


. 143


128


Unpopularity of the Monks .


. 145


128


The Book excites Odium .


. 145


128


Erasmus attacks the Monks


. 145


128


Their Contention with Reuchlin .


. 145


129


Origin of the Reformation . .


. 146


129


Popularity of Luther . .


. 147


129


Simultaneous Reform by Zwingle .


. 147


180


Reformation prepared beforehand .


. 147


130


Dangerous Tenets of Luther . .


. 148


ISO


Real Explanation of them .


. 149


130


Orlando Furioso


. 150


131


Its Popularity .


. 150


131


Want of Seriousness . . .


. 150


132


A Continuation of Boiardo . .


. 150


132


In some Points inferior . .


. 151


132


Beauties of its Style .


. 151


132


Accompanied with Faults . .


. 151


132


Its Place as a Poem .


. 152


133


Amadis de Gaul


. 152


133


Gringore ....


. 152


133


Hans Sachs ....


. 152


134


Stephen Hawes . . .


153


134


Change in English Language .


. 153


135


Skelton ....


. 154


135


Oriental Languages . . .


. 154


136


Pomponatius ....


. 155


137


Raymond Lully . . .


. 155


137


His Method ....


. 155


137


Peter Martyr's Epistles . .


. 156


ua







CHAPTER V.

HISTORY OF ANCIENT LITERATURE IN EUROPE FROM 1520 TO 1550.



Superiority of Italy in Taste
Admiration of Antiquity
Sadolet ^
Bembo



157 I Ciceronian us of Erasmus

158 ' Scaliger's Invective against it

158 i Editions of Cicero .

159 Alexander ab Alexandra



159
160
160
100



Contents.



Page

Works on Roman Antiquities . . 161

Greek less Studied in Italy . . .161

Schools of Classical Learning . . 161

Budaeus his Commentaries on Greek . 161

Their Character . . . .162

Greek Grammars and Lexicons . . 162

Editions of Greek Authors . . . 163

Latin Thesaurus of R. Stephens . . 163

Progress of Learning in France . . 164
Learning in Spain .... 165

Effects of Reformation on Learning . 165

Sturm's Account of German Schools . 165

Learning in Germany . . . 166

In England Linacre . . . 166



| Lectures in the Universities
Greek perhaps Taught to Boys
Teaching of Smith at Cambridge .
Succeeded by Cheke .
Ascham's Character of Cambridge .
Wood's Account of Oxford .
Education of Edward and his Sisters
The Progress of Learning is still slow
Want of Books and Public Libraries
Destruction of Monasteries no Injury

Learning ....
Ravisius Textor ...
Conrad Gesner .



CHAPTER VI.

HISTORY OP THEOLOGICAL LITERATURE IN EUROPE FROM 1520 TO 1550.



Progress of the Reformation . . 171

Interference of Civil Power . . 171

Excitement of Revolutionary Spirit . 172

Growth of Fanaticism . . . 172

Differences of Luther and Zwingle . 172

Confession of Augsburg . . . 173

Conduct of Erasmus . ... . 173

Estimate of it -. . . . 174

His Controversy with Luther . . 174

Character of his Epistles . . . 176

His Alienation from the Reformers increases 176
Appeal of the Reformers to the Ignorant . 176
Parallel of those Times with the Present . 177
Calvin . . . . .177

His Institutes . . . .177

Increased Differences among Reformers . 178
Reformed Tenets spread in England . 178
In Italy . . . ... 178

Italian Heterodoxy .... 179

Its Progress in the Literary Classes . 180

Servetus ... .180



Arianism in Italy .... 181
Protestants in Spain and Low Countries . 181
Order of Jesuits . . . . . 181

Their Popularity . . . .181

Council of Trent . . . .182

Its Chief Difficulties . ; .182

Character of Luther . . . .182

Theological Writings Erasmus . . 183

Melanchthon Romish Writers . .183

This Literature nearly forgotten . . .184

Sermons ..... 184
Spirit of the Reformation . . . 184

Limits of Private Judgment . . 185

Passions instrumental in Reformation . 185
Establishment of new Dogmatism . . 18(1

Editions of Scripture . . . 186

Translations of Scripture . . . 136

In English 187

In Italy and Low Countries . . 187

Latin Translations .... 187
French Translations .... 188



CHAPTER VII.

HISTORY OP SPECULATIVE, MORAL, AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY, AND OP JURISPRUDENCE, IN
EUROPE, PROM 1520 TO 1560.



Logic included under this head . . 188

Slow Defeat of Scholastic Philosophy . 188
It is sustained by the Universities and

Regulars ..... 188

Commentators on Aristotle . . . 188

Attack of Vives on Scholastics . . 189

Contempt of them in England . . 189

Veneration for Aristotle . . 189

Melanchthon countenances him . . 189

His own Philosophical Treatises . . 190

Aristotelians of Italy . . . 190

University of Paris .... 190

New Logic of Ramus . . . 190

It meets with unfair treatment . . 191
Its llerits and Character . . .191

Buhle's account of it . . . 191

Paracelsus ..... 191

His Impostures .... 192

And Extravagancies .... 192

Cornelius Agrippa .... 192



His pretended Philosophy . ,

His Sceptical Treatise . .

Cardan . . ' .

Influence of Moral Writers . .

Cortegiano of Castiglione . .

Marco Aurelio of Guevara . .

His Menosprecio di Corte .
Perez d'Oliva ;

Ethical Writings of Erasmus and
anchthon . .-

Sir T. Elyot's Governor
Severity of Education . ,

He seems to avoid Politics
Nicholas Machiavel . . .

His motives in writing the Prince .
Some of his Rules not immoral
But many dangerous
Its only Palliation . .

His Discourses on Livy .
Their leading Principles



Mel-



193
193
193
194
194
194
194
195

195
195



106
197
197
197
198
198
198



Contents.



Their Use and Influence . .
His History of Florence . ' .
Treatises on Venetian Government
Calvin's Political Principles
Jurisprudence confined to Roman Law
The Laws not well arranged .



Page j Page

. 199 j Adoption of the entire System . . 200

. 199 Utility of General Learning to Lawyers . 200

. 199 Alciati his Reform of Law . . 201

. 199 j Opposition to him . . . .201

. 200 j Agustino . . . . .201

. 200!



CHAPTER VIII:

HISTORT OF THE LITERATURE OF TASTE IN EUROPE FROM 1520 TO 1550.



Poetry of Bembo . . . .201

Its Beauties and Defects . . .202

Character of Italian Poetry . . .202

Alamanni . . . . .202

Vittoria Colonna .... 202
Satires of Ariosto and Alamanni . . 203

Alamanni : 203

Rucellai . . . . .203

Trissino . . . . .203

Berni 203

Spanish Poets . . . .204

Boscan and Garcilasso ... 204
Mendoza ..... 204
Saa di Miranda .... 205
Ribeyro . . . . .205

French Poetry . . . .205

Marot 206

Its Metrical Structure . . .206

German Poetry .... 206
Hans Sachs ..... 206
German Hymn .... 206

Theuerdanks of Pflntzing . . .206

English Poetry Lyndsay . . . 207

Wyatt and Surrey . . . .207

Dr. Nott's Character of them . . 207

Perhaps rather exaggerated . . 203

Surrey improves our versification . . 208

Introduces Blank Verse . . . 208

Dr. Nott's Hypothesis as to his Metre . 208
It seems too extensive . . . 209

Politeness of Wyatt and Surrey . . 209

Latin Poetry 210

Sannazarius ..... 210

Vida .210

Fracastorlus . . . . . 210

Latin Verse not to be disdained . . 210



Other Latin Poets in Italy . . .211

In Germany ..... 211
Italian Comedy .... 211

Machiavol 211

Aretin 211

Tragedy 212

Sperone . ... . . 212

Cinthio . . . . .212

Spanish Drama .... 212

Torres Naharro .... 212

Lope de Rueda .... 212

Gil Vicente 213

Mysteries and Moralities in France . 213

German Theatre Hans Sachs . . 213

Moralities and Similar Plays in England . 214
They are turned to religious Satire . 214

Latin Plays . . . . .214

First English Comedy . . .215

Romances of Chivalry . . . 215

Novels ..... 215

Rabelais . . . . .218

Contest of Latin and Italian Languages . 216
Influence of Bembo in this . . . 217

Apology for Latinists . . . 217

Character of the Controversy . . 217

Life of Bembo . . .217

Character of Italian and Spanish Style . 218
English Writers . . . .218

More ...... 213

Ascham ..... 218

Italian Criticism .... 218

Bembo ..... 218

Granamarians and Critics in France . 219

Orthography of Meigret . . . . 219 '

Cox's Art of Rhetoric . . . 219



CHAPTER IX.

ON THE SCIENTIFIC AND MISCELLANEOUS LITERATURE OF EUROPE FROM 1520 TO 1550.

Geometrical Treatises . .

Fernel Rhoeticus

Cardan and Tartaglia . .

Cubic Equations

Beauty of the Discovery

Cardan's other Discoveries .

Imperfections of Algebraic Language

Copernicus ....

Revival of Greek Medicine .

Linacre and other Physicians

Medical Innovators .

Paracelsus ....

Anatomy ...

Berenger ....

Vesalius



220


Portal's Account of him


. 226


220


His Human Dissections . .


. 225


220|


Fate of Vesalius


. 225


220 j


Other Anatomists . . .


. 225


221 |


Imperfection of the Science .


. 225


221 1


Botany Botanical Gardens .


. 226


222 1


Ruel


. 226


222 j


Fuch .....


. 226


223 1


Matthioll ....


. 226


223 j


Low State of Zoology


. 226


224 I


Agricola ....


. 227


224J


Hebrew ....


. 227


224!


Elias Levita Pellican


. 227


224,


Arabic and Oriental Literature


. 227


224


Geography of Grynaeus


. 228



Contents.



Apianus

Munster

Voyages

Oviedo

Historical Works

Italian





Page

. ^23


Their fondness for Petrarch .
They become numerous . .
Their Distinctions . . .
Evils connected with them . .
They succeed less in Germany .


Page
. 230
. 229
. 230
. 230
. 230
, 230


.


. 228
. 228


>rks . . .
rd to the Language .


. 228
. 228
. 229
. 229







CHAPTER X.

HISTORY OF ANCIENT LITERATURE IN EUROPE FROM 1550 TO 1600.



Progress of Philology . . . 231

First Editions of Classics . . .231

Change in Character of Learning . . 232

Cultivation of Greek . . .232

Principal Scholars Turnebus . . 232

Petrus Victorius . . . .233

Muretus : . . . .233

Gruter's Thesaurus Criticus . . 234

Editions of Greek and Latin Authors . 2S5
Tacitus of Lipsius .... 235
Horace of Lambinus . . . 235

OfCruquius 236

Henry Stephens . . . .236

Lexicon of Constantin . . . 237

Thesaurus of Stephens . . . 237



Online LibraryHenry HallamIntroduction to the literature of Europe in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries in two volumes (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 91)