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the same as that of the circumference of Ferrer s sphere with
the circumference of the sphere of Enciso.

196 Notes

have seen that the relation of Ferrer s circumference
to the actual circumference is 1,211 ; consequently
the relation of Enciso s circumference to the actual

c 1,211

circumference is - = 0,923.

We propose now to determine the Line of De
marcation, according to Enciso.

Like Ferrer, Enciso places his dividing meridian
370 of his (and of Ferrer s) leagues west of Fogo, in
the parallel of 15 latitude on his sphere.

On that parallel, an arc of 370 leagues has the
same angular value as an arc of the equator on the

same sphere of a length equal to 5 = 38 3^052.

This arc of the equator of 383^052 will be equal,

at the rate of i6 1 ,666 ... to a degree, to 6666"

= 22, 985 = 22 59 06".

It follows that the dividing meridian on End sets
sphere, passing 370 of his leagues west of Fogo on
the parallel of 15, will be the meridian of 22 59
west of Fogo, or 22 59 + 2 4 2 5 == 47 2 4 west
of Greenwich, in taking 24 25 west of Greenwich
for the meridian of Fogo Island.

Whatever may be the dimensions adopted for a
sphere concentrical to Enciso s, the meridian of
47 24 west of Greenwich will always be the same,
and the difference between the longitude of Fogo
and that of the dividing line, as found by Enciso s
data, will always be 22 59 . But this difference
in longitude will represent a distance, on the parallel

Notes 197

of 15, which will vary proportionally with the
dimensions of the sphere under consideration. We
shall adopt therefore for our actual sphere, as a
dividing meridian, the meridian of 47 24 west of
Greenwich, which is the result of Enciso s deter
mination, it being understood that this meridian
passes on our sphere at a distance west of Fogo,
different from that at which it passes west of the
same Fogo on Enciso s sphere.

Let us see now at what distance it passes on our
sphere west of Fogo, on the parallel of 15.

An arc of 22 59 of our equator is equal to 22 59
X 20 = 22^985 x 20 = 459^7, at the rate of 20
leagues to a degree.

The arc of the same angular value (22 59 )
of the parallel of 15 of our sphere^ is equal to 459 ,7
X cos 15 = 444^036 (leagues of 20 to a degree).

The dividing meridian of 47 24 west of Green
wich determined by Enciso, and which on his sphere
passed at a distance of 370 of his leagues (370 x
1, 1 08 = 409^960 of 20 to a degree) will pass, con
sequently, on our sphere^ at a distance of 444*, 036
of 20 to a degree west of Fogo on the parallel of 1 5.

On Ferrer s sphere, which was much larger than
Enciso s, the 370 leagues of Ferrer and Enciso com
prised only 1 8 on the parallel of 15. These 18,
on our sphere^ comprised 348^ 138 marine leagues of
20 to a degree, on the parallel of 15.

The Line of Demarcation of 47 24 west of
Greenwich cut the north coast of Brazil in Salinas
Bay, situate west of the island of Praia Grande. It
passed about 5 miles west of the Atalaia lighthouse;



that is, about 35 miles east of the entrance of Rio
Para, and about 180 miles west of the entrance of
Rio Maranhao.

Having given the mathematical deductions from
Enciso s geodetical data, and stated where, according
to these data, the Line of Demarcation passed on
his sphere, and where it passed on our own, we have
now to examine his geographical statements as re
gards the position of the Line of Demarcation on
his sphere. He says :

" El limite dedo comienza la particion esta 370
leguas al poniente de la isla del fuego, las cuales van a
dar en la tierra de las Indias entre el Rio Maraiion y
la Mar Dulce " (The limit where the partition
commences is 370 leagues west of Fogo Island,
which terminate on the main land of the Indies,
between the Rio Maranon and the Mar Dulce).

Elsewhere, he says :

" Desdel Cabo de San&o Agostin fasta al Rio
Maranon ay 300 leguas " (From Cape St. Augustine
to the Rio Maranon there are 300 leagues).

If we ascribe to Enciso s league the length found
by our preceding calculations, viz. : 1^108 (marine
league of 20 to a degree), his 300 leagues are:
300 x I 1 ,! 08 = 332^4 of our actual marine leagues
of 20 to a degree.

If now we carry this distance of 332^4 on our
admiralty charts, counting from Cape St. Augustine
westwards, hugging the west coast of Brazil, as
doubtless did the pilots in Enciso s time, we reach
near the mouth of the Rio Para.

Elsewhere, Enciso says:

Notes 199

" Desde el Rio Maranon fasta al Rio que dizen la
Mar Dulce, ay 25 leguas"(From the Rio Maranon
to the river called Mar Dulce there are 25 leagues).

The 25 leagues of Enciso amount to 25 x 1,108
= 27 1 ,7 of 20 to a degree. Carrying these 27^7
along the coast, starting from Cape Maguari, which
is the western point of the entrance of the Rio
Para, we reach the north of Mexiana Island, in the
middle of the great opening of the Amazona, between
the northern and the southern channels which lead
into the river itself. If so, Enciso is right when he
says: " Este limite esta cerca de la Mar Dulce"
(that limit [ .*., the Line of Demarcation] is near
the Mar Dulce), provided he considers the mouth
of the Para as forming part of the Mar Dulce.

The plan of the Line of Demarcation of 47 24
on Enciso s sphere, passes on our sphere^ as we
have said, 444^036 (of our leagues of 20 to a de
gree) west of Fogo, on the parallel of 15.

But what is the meridian passing on our sphere,
370 of Enciso s leagues (409^960 of our leagues of
20 to a degree) west of Fogo on the parallel of 15?

The position of the meridian answering these
requisites is independent of the results arrived at by
Ferrer or by Enciso. It is always the meridian
which we have determined in our discussion of
Ferrer s results, and which is the meridian of 21 13
west of Fogo, or 24 25 -f- 21 13 = 45 38 west
of Greenwich. This meridian cuts the north coast
of Brazil, in Maracasume Bay, about 35 miles of the
entrance of the Rio Para, and about 180 miles west
of the Maranhao.

200 Notes

To sum up :

Ferrer increased the circumference of the earth
by -/oVg. over its real value.

Enciso diminished the same circumference by
T 7. T_. unc l er j ts rea l value.

The league employed by Ferrer is the same as
Enciso s, viz. : the league of 32 stades or of 1^108
(actual marine league of 20 to a degree). This
league of 32 stades is of i8 l ,o5, to the degree of the
equator, such as it is adopted to-day.

According to the dimensions which Ferrer
ascribed to the earth, the dividing meridian lies 18
to the west of the meridian of Fogo, passing on
Ferrer s sphere 370 of his leagues ( = 409,960 of
our leagues of 20 to a degree) west of Fogo on the
parallel of 15, and on cur sphere 348 marine leagues
of 20 to a degree, west of Fogo, on the parallel of
15 (supra, p. 197).

According to the dimensions which Enciso ascribed
to the earth, the dividing meridian lies 22 59 to the
west of the meridian of Fogo, passing on Enciso s
sphere 370 of his leagues ( = 409,960 of our leagues of
2O to a degree) west of Fogo on the parallel of 1 5 , and
on our sphere, 444 marine leagues of 20 to a degree
west of Fogo, on the parallel of 15 (supra, p. 197).

On the real sphere, the meridian passing 370 of
Ferrer s and Enciso s leagues ( = 409,960 of our
leagues) west of Fogo, on the parallel of 15, would
be the meridian which lies 21 13 west of Fogo.

The dividing meridian of Enciso (22 59 west of
Fogo) cuts the north coast of Brazil 180 miles west of
the Rio Maranon, and 35 miles east of the Rio Para.

Notes 201


(113) Page no. " Descobrysteis ciertas islas e
tierra firme que posysteis los nombres siguientes :
Santa Maria de la Consolation e Rostro hermoso,
e dende alle seguisteys la costa que se corre al
Norueste, el Rio grande, que llamasteys Santa Maria
de la Mar duke con las islas questan a la boca de
dicho rio, que se nombra Marina tambulo " (" Docu-
mentos ineditos de Indias," vol. xxx., pp. 535-537)-

The name " Santa Maria de la Consolation "
may come from the feast day of the Purification of
the Virgin Mary, February 2, which in this case
would be the date of the discovery of that cape, what
ever its position may be in reality. The Pinzons set
out from Spain in December, 1499, and returned to
Palos, September 30, 1500, after having discovered
not only Brazil and (one of ?) the mouths of the
Amazoria, but, as we now believe, also Yucatan,
in July of that year, after sailing from Hispaniola.

Marina tambulo is evidently an Indian name. A
curious coincidence is the fa6t reported by Dr.
Crevaux, that the natives on the coast of Guiana
call the sweet scented fruit of a certain passiflora in
that region Marie tambour.

Marina tambulo appears in a map for the first time
in Schemer s globe of 1520, in its longitude of 126.

(i 14) Page in. "Trovorono el mar de aquadolce,
et investigando dove queste aque veniva, trovo una
bocha che usciva in mar. 15. lige cum grandissimo
impeto, davanti de la qual in mar ne erano molte
insule ... el nome de questa provintia chiamano

202 Notes

Marina tambal" (Letter of Angelo Trevisan to
Dominico Maripetro [Malipiero] in Venice, dated
Ecija (?), December, 1501). It is the prototype of
the account printed in the " Libretto " (1504) and
in the " Paesi " (1507 ; "Bibliot. Americ. Vetust.,"
Nos. 32 and 48) as well as of the Ferrara MS. In
the 1511 edition of the Decade, Peter Martyr
d Anghiera says that Mariatambal was a native
name : " Prouintiam appellant indigene Maria
tambal" (recto off , iiij).

(i 15) Page in. It is the first time that this name
occurs in a document or in a map. Two years after
wards V incente Yanez Pinzon cited it in his deposition
(March 21, 1513 ; "Doc. inedit," 2nd Series, 1892,
vol. ii., p. 269) as follows : " hallo la mar dulce . . .
e asimismo descubrio esta provincia que se llama
Parisura (V)." His companion, Valdo vinos, Sept.
J 9> I 5 I 5 (P- c lt -> v l- vn i- 5 P- H6), gives that name
to the large river itself: "dieron en un Rio grande
anagazado al qual pusyeron por nombre paritura (sic]
donde hallaron en la mar que salia del Ryo el agua
dulce mas de treynta leguas."

(116) Page 1 1 1. " Varia repere flumina, turn
ingentia, turn parva et mediocria, preter cetera in
unum incidere latitudinis adeo immense, ut incredible
sit posse id in natura fieri. Ocloginta milliarium
amplius, aiunt, et flumen esse asseverant, non maris
sinum, quod dulcium sit aquarum, quod fluat in
oceanum, et insulis refertum sit ... flumini est
nomen patrium Maragnonus " (" Epist." DXXXII,
December 18, 1513, in the Amsterdam edition,
p. 291).

Notes 203

(117) Page 112. Oviedo ("Hist. General de las
Indias," lib. xxiv., cap. n, vol. ii., p. 213).

(118) Page 113. "El primero que descubrio el
rio Maranon fue el piloto Vicente Yanez Pinzon

. . el me dixo que con quatro caravelas pequenas
avia entrado en este rio quine 6 veynte leguas el
ano de 1500 anos . . . los saltearon en una pro-
vincia que se llama Mariatambal, que es dentro de la
costa del Maranon, dentro del qual hay muchas
islas . . . desviado del rio y de la costa treynta
leguas apartado de tierra, avia cogido agua dulce en
la mar alta, por causa de la fuerca e furia con que
este rio entra en ella " (Oviedo, loc. at.).

(119) Page 113. A well-known custom of
navigators in those days was to name their geo
graphical discoveries after the Saint on whose feast
day they were made (see our " Discovery of North
America," p. 335).

(120) Page 1 14. La Cosa s planisphere was drawn
before the end of December, 1500, and Pinzon
returned to Spain, September 30, of that year
("Discovery," pp. 412 and 679).

(121) Page 115. " Doc. inedit.," vol. i., p. 194.

(122) Page 1 1 6. " Este embocamiento, que tan
senalada cosa hizo Dios en el mundo [el rio Mar-
anon] se llamo un tiempo Mar dul^e" (Oviedo,
lib. xxi., cap. n, vol. ii., p. 123).


(123) Page 1 20. The western estuary of the
Amazona, at its greatest width, between Tijoca

204 Notes

Point on the continent, and the easternmost cape
of Marayo Island (Point Maguari), is only about
40 miles.

(124) Page 121. " Oftoginta milliarum amplius
ajunt " (" Epist." Dxxxii., p. 291).

(125) Page 121. " Lequas dicere audent triginta
amplius latum " (Decade i., lib. ix., edit, of 1533,
folio; f. 21, B). The entire passage is wanting
in the edition of 1511.

(126) Page 121. Oviedo, ubi supra.

(127) Pageji2i. "Aquel embocamiento hace
alia dentro dos bracos prencipales, y al mas oriental
llaman rlo de Navidad ; y el mas occidental es el
que guarda el proprio nombre de Maranon, y es el
mas prencipal" (Oviedo, lib. xxi., cap. ii., vol. ii.,
p. 123).

(128) Page 121. Even after the exploration of
Orellana, cartographers depicted the mouth of the
Amazona without noticing the Para. See the map
of Bartolome Olives, preserved at Pisa (" Discovery,"
p. 585).

(129) Page 122. The estuary of the Tocantins
alone is 48 kilometres wide.


(130) Page 124. The earliest delineation of that
region is to be found in the Portuguese Cantino
map, executed before November, 1502. There is,
first, a river, denominated Rio grande, terminating
with an extremely large estuary, dotted with islands,
one of which is of considerable size ; then on the

Notes 205

sea, facing it, we read : Todo este mar he de agua do$e.
But the region is placed at a great distance from Can-
tino s Line of Demarcation and in the longitude of
his island of Guadalupe !

(131) Page 125. " Cartographia Americana Ve-
tustissima," Nos. 148, 159, 163, 177, 184, 185,
195, in our "Discovery," pp. 528-580. Wolfen-
biittel B is of a date posterior to the Treaty of
Badajoz, but its data are borrowed from a much
older map. This is also the case with the Verraz-
zano and Maggiolo planispheres of 1527, as well as
the portolani of Agnese.

(132) Page 126. In the Laurentiana and Ribeiro

(133) Page 126. "El Rio de Maranon es muy
grande y entran en el navios por agua dulce,y 20 leguas
en la mar toman agua dulce " (Weimar Ribeiro).

(134) Page 127. " Le Rio Paranahyba de la
province de Piauchy, forme sans doute un grand
delta a son embouchure, etant divise en six bras qui
entourent des iles tres basses, mais cette riviere, pas
plus que le Rio Meary (Mearim) de la province de
Maranhao, celebre par son mascaret (le mouvement
terrible de la maree), ne rend, a ce que je sais, la
mer douce loin de son embouchure" (Humboldt,
" Examen Critique," vol. v., p. 63, note).

(135) Page 127. De Montravel, "Revue Co-
loniale," No. of August, 1847, p. 410, and " An-
nales maritimes et coloniales,"same date, pp. 170-172.

(136) Page 128. Called therein "Maralion."

(137) Page 129. " Regio autem ab eius fluminis
occidente, Paricura dicitur."

206 Notes

(138) Page 130. We have just found that Mr.
d Avezac also came to this conclusion, but by other
reasonings ("Les Voyages d Americ Vespuce au
compte de PEspagne," Paris, 1858, 8vo, p. 180).


(139) Page 132. The Cantino map, supra^ p. 102.

(140) Page 134. "Documentos ineditos de In-
dias," vol. i., p. 296.

(141) Page 134. Ibidem.

(142) Page 135. The first settlement, to our
knowledge, is the town of Coro, built by Juan de
Ampues in 1527 : " Atraveso a la Costa de Coriana
por el ano de mil quinientos y veinte y siete, el dia
de Santa Ana del mismo ano de quinientos y veinte
y siete, fundo una ciudad, a quien por esta circum-
stancia y ser en la provincia de Coriana intitulo
Santa Ana de Coro " (Oviedo y Banos, " Historia de
la conquista y poblacion de Venezuela ; " Madrid,
1723, small folio, cap. iii., p. 9).

(143) Page 136. The " Phisices compendium"
of Pedro Margallo (Salmant., 1520, folio, " Bibliot.
Americ. Vetust., Addit.," p. 77), " mostra el reparti-
miento entre Castilla y Portugal " (Navarrete, vol. iv.,
p. 348). Unfortunately, the only copy of that work
which we ever could find is in Seville.

(144) Page 137. Navarrete, vol. iv., pp. 336-337.

(145) Page 137. "John Cabot, the Discoverer
of North America, and Sebastian his Son," London,
B. F. Stevens, Publisher, 1896, 8vo, pp. 296-308.

(146) Page 138. Those experts were not mem-

Notes 207

bers of the Junta, but astrologers (astronomers) and
pilots, placed by the Crown at the disposal of its
Spanish members (Navarrete, vol. iv., p. 331). They
were Antonio de Alcaraz, Simon Tarragona, Se
bastian Cabot, Diego Ribeiro, and the pilots of the
Casa de Contratacion in 1524.

The Portuguese experts exhibited a globe on which
the Demarcation Line was traced 21 30 west of the
island of Sant Antonio ; by our mode of calculating :
22 6 36".

(147) Page 138. "Tenemos de venir a lo que com-
munmente usan los marineros ansi en Portugal como
en Castilla, que dan a cada grado del cielo 17 leguas y
media, e al primer rumbo despues del norte dan 1 8
y media, e a el nor nordeste dan 2O. . . . Nos con-
formaremos con el Tolemo ... el cual pone 62
millas e media a cada grado" (17^x4 = 70 milles ?).
This league of 17-1 to a degree was stated by them
to be the league commonly used by the Spanish and
Portuguese seamen : " lo que communmente usan
los marineros ansi en Portugal, como en Castilla "
(Navarrete, vol. iv., p. 339, line 20).

(148) Page 138. According to their first two
data, there would have been 17^x32 = 560 stades
to a degree, and 201,600 stades for the circumference.

(149) Page 138. Misled by Saigey (op. /., p.
61), we first based our calculations upon his assertion
that Ptolemy used the Phileterian stade. Conse
quently, we increased the Olympic stade, without,
however, adopting Saigey s estimate of i84 m ,8 for the
Olympic, as it is now known to be equal to i<)2 m ,2j.
But a new study of Boeckh, Letronne, and T. H.

20 8 Notes

Martin convinced us that although both kinds of
stades co-existed in Egypt in Ptolemy s time, only the
Olympic was resorted to for scientific mensurations,
and that Archimedes, Eratosthenes, Hipparchus,
Strabo, Vitruvius, and Ptolemy himself must have
used it to the exclusion of the Phileterian. Our
computation of Ptolemy s stade is based therefore
upon the present estimate of the Olympic, viz. :
I92 m ,27, as we did when discussing Ferrer s estimate.

(150) Page 138. " La dicha linea . . . habia de
pasar al occidente de la isla de Sant Antonio, co-
menzandose desde alii la medida " ("Parecer" of
1524 in Navarrete, vol. iv., p. 344).

(151) Page 138. "Tenemos de situar la linea
de la demarcation 370 leguas desde la isla de S.
Antonio, a las cuales corresponden 22 grades, e
cuasi 9 millas," or by our mode of calculating,
22 08 02". It is well to recollecl: that we have
found by computations made on the basis of Enciso s
data (supra, p. 196) that his 370 leagues west of
Fogo amounted to 22 59 06" on the parallel of 15.
The Portuguese exhibited a globe on which the De
marcation Line was traced 21 30 west of the island
of Sant Antonio (Navarrete, vol. iv., doc. xxxvii.,

P- 345)-

(152) Page 140. Meridian of Ternate= 1 27 20 r
east of Greenwich (127 20 +17 + 180).


(153) Page 141. "La-qual se devide en dos
partes conforme a la capitulation que hizieron los

Notes 209

catholicos Reyes de Espana, y el Rey don Juan de
Portugal en la villa de Tordesillas : Ario de 1494."

(154) Page 142. In the remaining half of the
planisphere of Nuiio Garcia de Toreno, dated 1522,
and preserved in the king s library at Turin (" Dis
covery," No. 144) the Line of Demarcation is
marked with the legend : Llnea divisionis Castellan-
orum et Portugallenslum. Unfortunately we possess
only the Asiatic regions. In it the line passes
through the middle of Camatra (Sumatra), which
corresponds with 98 longitude, Greenwich, on our
maps, making it appear (if carried out in the New
World) clear into the Pacific, south of Mexico.

(155) Page 142. See for this map, "Discovery of
North America," No. 159, p. 538.

(156) Page 142. Ibidem, No. 163, p. 540.

(157) Page 142. Ibidem, No. 177, p. 557.

(158) Page 142. Ibidem, No. 185, p. 573.

(159) Page 142. Ibidem, No. 184, p. 569.

(160) Page 142. Thomassy, "Les Papes geo
graphies," Paris, 1852, 8vo. No n, pp. 115-118.
We possess a tracing of that valuable map, but with
out its nomenclature, which we have endeavoured
to obtain. Unfortunately the original is now framed,
and hung up at such a height as to prevent its being
studied. The custodians of the Vatican could not
be induced to place it within reach.

(161) Page 142. See for this map, "Discovery of
North America," No. 195, p. 580.

(162) Page 143. Three are stated to have been
constructed by " Cosmographos de Su Magestad."

(163) Page 144. The following was one of the

2 1 o Notes

methods which we tried to ascertain the longitude
of the Line of Demarcation in Ribeiro s map :

The degree of latitude multiplied by the cosinus
of 45 gives the degree of longitude equal to 4 mm .
We measure the distance in millimetres from the
point to a meridian ; then, dividing this number by
the value of the degree of longitude in millimetres
(viz. four millimetres), the quotient will be the
number of degrees of longitude relatively to the
chosen meridian. Greenwich is our starting meridian
for the longitudes.

In applying the above rule to the Ribeiro Weimar
map of 1529, we find, distance from the equator to
the Tropic of Capricorn =135 millimetres.

Distance from the equator to the Polar circle =
377 mm . Consequently, if the map extended as
far as the pole, the distance from this point to the
equator would be 135 -{-377 = 5i2 mm , repre
senting 90 latitude. The degree of latitude, there-

r j o

fore, is equal to - = 5 mm ,7.

The mean degree of longitude is equal to the
degree of latitude multiplied by the cosinus of the
mean latitude (45) ; that is to say, to 4 mm , 3. To
obtain a greater precision, it would be necessary to
ascertain the length in millimetres of the degree of
longitude, multiply the degree of latitude (5 mm ,7) by
the cosinus of the latitude of the point under con

On the equator the degree of longitude is equal
to the degree of latitude (5 mm ,7). If we wish to
know the longitude of the dividing meridian, we

Notes 2 1 1

take on the equator the distance in millimetres from
that meridian to the meridian of Fogo, and we find
1 33 mm - This number, divided by 5 mn ,7, gives us the
difference in the longitude between the dividing meri
dian and the meridian of Fogo, viz. : -== = 20 20 .


The longitude of Fogo being 24 25 west, we
find for the longitude of the dividing meridian on
said map of Ribeiro, 24 25 -f- 20 20 = 44 45
west of Greenwich.

Unfortunately, Ribeiro s other data yield a very
different result. For instance, he places the Line of
Demarcation, on his map, 18 west of Cape St.
Roch, which he inscribes in 5 south latitude.
Now, on his sphere this meridian would cut the
equator at a distance of 17^5 x 18 = 315 leagues
of 17^5 to the equatorial degree, west of the
meridian of Cape St. Roch. These 315 leagues
equal 315 x 1,108 = 349 leagues of 20 to the
degree. If we carry on our sphere and on its equator,
west of the meridian of Cape St. Roch, this distance
of 349 leagues, it will intercept an arc of longitude

equal to = 17 45 = 17 27 . The meridian

passing at the extremity of that distance will be the
meridian we endeavour to ascertain, on our sphere^
that is, 17 27 4- 35 20 = 52 47 west of Green
wich (that is 2 47 west of the western mouth of
the Amazona) instead of 44 45 on his sphere, and
about 52 47 on our own, as results from his other
data. This great difference shows that, as in the
case of the Cantino map, no reliance is to be placed,



scientifically speaking, on the cartographical state
ments of the period.

We were constrained to fall back upon a sort of
empirical method, by transferring Ribeiro s geogra
phical delineations to a modern map j but here again,
these data were so vague as to compel us to resort
to guess work. Thus did we come to suppose that
Ribeiro made his Line pass through the western
mouth of the Amazona River, in about 49 45 .


(164) Page 145. Navarrete, vol. iii., doc. vii.,
pp. 297, 300.

(165) Page 145. " Discovery of North America,"
chap, ii., pp. 263-267.

(166) Page 145. Ibidem^ p. 734.

(167) Page 146. Ibidem, pp. 631-633.

(168) Page 147. The nomenclature complete is
as follows :

From Cape St. Augustine
to Cape Primero

From Cape Primero
to Cape del Placel

From Cape del Placel
to Bahia de Sancl Rafael
Bahia de Tortuga
Rio de Sancl Miguel

From Rio de Sancl: Miguel

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 11

Online LibraryHenry HarrisseThe diplomatic history of America : its first chapter 1452-1493-1494 → online text (page 9 of 11)