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to combat the like number of Englifh knights, for
glorifying the beautiful angel he worfhipped. In-
flances of this kind without number, fland upon re-
cord. Rene, ilyled King of Sicily and Jerufalem,
obferves in writing upon tournaments, that they arc
highly ufeful in furnifhing opportunities to young
knights and efquires to difplay their prowefs before
their miftrefies. He adds, " that every ceremony
fc regarding tournaments, is contrived to honour
" the ladies. It belongs to them to infpecT: the arms
<c of the combatants, and to diftribute the rewards.
" A knight or efquire who defames any of them, is
" beat and bruifed till the injured lady condefcend
" to intercede for him." Remove a female out of
Her proper fphere, and it is eafy to convert her into
a male. James IV. of Scotland, in all tournaments,
profefled himfelf knight to Anne Queen of France.
She fumrnoned him to prove himfelrher true and va-
lorous champion, by taking the field in her defence
againft Henry VIII. of England. And according to
the romantic gallantry of that age, the Queen's fum-
mons was thought to have been James's chief motive
for declaring war againft his brother-in-law. The
famous Gafton de Foix, general of the French at
the battle of Ravenna, rode from rank to rank, call-
ing by name feveral officers and even private men,
recommending to them their country and their ho-
nour ; adding, " that he would fee what they would
" perform for love of their miftrefles." During the
civil wars in France, when 'love and gallantry were
carried to a high pitch, Monfieur de Chatillon, rea-
dy to engage in a battle, tied round his arm a gar-
ter of Mademoifelle de Guerchi his miftrefs. De
Liques and d'Etrees were both fuitors to Mademoi-
felle de Fouquerolles for marriage. De Liques
prevailed, and the marriage day was fixed. But
that very day, he was taken prifoner by his rival in a
2 battle

Sk. VL Female Sex.

battle anno 1525. The lady wrote a letter to d'Etrees
demanding her hufband; and d'Etrees inftantly fent
him to her without even demanding a ranfom *.

In peaceable time?, the fovereign power having
acquired more authority, the neceflity of private
protection ceafed. But the accuftomed fpirit of gal-
lantry did not ceafe. It could not however fubfift
for ever againft nature and common fenfe : it fubfi-
ded by degrees into mutual affability and politenefs,
fuch as ought always to obtain between the fexes.
But obferve, that after a moft intimate connection,
matters could not fall back to the former decency
and refervc. The intimate connection remained ;
and a more fubftantial gallantry took place, not al-
ways innocent. This change of manner was firit
vifible in monarchy. Monarchy employs but a few
hands; andthofe who are not occupied in public af-
fairs, find leifure for gallantry and for defires that are
eafily gratified. Women of rank, on the other
hand, laid open to corruption by opulence and fu-
perficial education, are more ambitious to captivate
the eye than the judgement; and are fonder of lo-
vers than of friends. Where a man and a woman
thus prepared meet together, they footi grow particu-
lar : the man is idle, the woman frank ; and both
equally addicted to pleafure. Unlawful commerce
between the fexes becoming thus common, high
gallantry vanifhes of courfe : the bombafl ftyle
appears ridiculous, and the fenfual appetite is gra-
tified with very little ceremony. Nothing of love
remains but the name ; and as animal enjoyment
without love is a very low pleafure, it foon finks
into difguft when confined to one object. What
is not found in one, is fondly expected in ano-

VOL. I. Z therj

* We are indebted to Brantom for what follows. In the time of Francis f.
ftf France, a young; woman having a talkative lover, ordered him to he dumb.
His obedience for two long years, made all the world bdiieve that he was
funk in melancholy. One day in a numerous aflembly, the young woman,
who was not known to be his miftrefs, undertook to care him j and did if
with afingle \vflrd, Speak.

338 MEN independent of Society. B. I.

ther ; and the imagination, roving from object to
object, finds no gratification but in variety. An
attachment to a woman of virtue or of talents,
appears abfurd : true love is laughed out of coun-
tenance; and men degenerate into brutes. Wo-
men, on the other hand, regarding nothing but
fenfual enjoyment, become fo carelefs of their in-
fants, as even, without blufhing, to employ mer-
cenary nurfes *. In Perfia, it is a common prac-
tice among women of fafhion to ufe drugs that
caufe abortion ; becaufe after pregnancy is advanc-
ed, the hufband attaches himfelf to other women,
it being held indecent to touch a woman who is
pregnant. Such a courfe of life cannot fail to
fink them into contempt : marriages are difiblved
as foon as contracted j and the ftate is fruflrated
of that improvement in morals and manners which
is the never-failing product of virtuous love. A
ftate enriched by conqueft or commerce, declines
gradually into luxury and fenfual pleafure : man-
ners are corrupted, decency banifhed, and chafti-
ty becomes a mere name. What a fcene of rank
and diffolute pleafure is exhibited in the courts of
Alexander's fucceflbrs, and in thofe of the Roman


* Les femmes d'un certain etat en France trouvent qu'elles perdent trop
& faire des enfans, et a caufe de cela meme, la plupart vivent celibataires,
dans le fein meme du manage. Mais fi 1'envie de fe voir perpetuer dans
uhe branche de defcendans, les porte a fe conformer aux vceux de I'hymen, la
population, dans cette clafie, n'en eft pas plus avancee, pars que leur deli-
catefle rend inutile leur propagation ; car, parmi les femmes du premier et
fecond rang en France, combien y en a-t-il qui nouriflent leurs enfans ? II
feroit facile de les compter. Ce devoir indifpenfable de mere, a cefie chez
nous d'en etre un. Les tnterett de la France, vol. i. p. 234- [/ Englijh
ttus : " The women of a certain rank in France find they lofe too much
by child-bearing ; and for that reafon live in a ftate of Celibacy. But po-
pulation is not advanced, even by thofe who, from a defire of feeing them-
felves perpetuated in their defcendants, conform to the purpofe of mar.
riage ; for their delicacy counterbalances their fertility. How few of the
firft and fecond rank of women in France fuckle their children ? Jt woultj
* be eafy to count the number. This indifpenfable duty of a mother has
" nowceafed to be one with us."] As fuch woful neglect of education

is the fruit of vduptuoufnefs, we may take it for granted, that the fame obtains
in evef y opulent and luxurious capital,

Sk. VI. Female Sex.

Gratitude to my female readers, if I mall be ho-
noured with any, prompts me to conclude this
iketch with a fcene, that may afford them inftruc-
tion, and cannot fail of being agreeable; which
is, the figure a woman is fitted for making in the
matrimonial ilate, where polygamy is excluded.
Matrimony among favages, having no object but
propagation and flavery, is a very humbling ftate
for the female fex : but delicate organization,
great fenfibility, lively imagination, with fweetnefs
of temper above all, qualify women for a more
dignified fociety with men ; which is, to be their
companions and bofom-friends. In the common
courfe of European education, young women are
trained to make an agreeable figure, and to be-
have with decency and propriety : very little cul-
ture is beftowed on the head ; and ftill lefs on the
heart, if it be not the art of hiding paffion. Such
education is far from feconding the purpofe of na-
ture, that of making women fit companions for men
of fenfe. Due cultivation of the female mind
would add greatly to the happinefs of the males,
and flill more to that of the females. Time runs
on ; and when youth and beauty vanifh, a fine
lady, who never entertained a thought into which
an admirer did not enter, furrenders herfelf now to
difcontent and peevifhnefs. A woman on the con-
trary, who has merit, improved by virtuous and
refined education, retains in her decline an influence
over the men, more flattering than even that of
beauty : me is the delight of her friends, as former-
ly pf her admirers.

Admirable would be the effects of fuch refined
education, contributing no lefs to public good than
to private happinefs. A man who at prefent mufl
degrade himfelf into a fop or a coxcomb in order
.to pleafe the women, would foon difcover, that
their favour is not to be gained but by exerting eve-

Z 2 ry

346 MEN independent of Society. B. I.

ry manly talent in public and in private life ; and
the two fexes, inftead of corrupting each other,
would be rivals in the race of virtue. Mutual
efteem would be to each a fchool of urbanity; and
mutual defire of pleafmg, would give fmoothnefs to
their behaviour, delicacy to their fentiments, and
tendernefs to . their paflions.

Married women in particular, deflined by na-
ture to take the lead in educating children, would
no longer be the greatefl obftru&ion to good edu-
cation, by their ignorance, frivolity, and diforder-
ly manners. Even upon the breaft, infants are
fufceptible of impreflions * ; and the mother hath
opportunities without end of inftilling into them
good principles, before they are fit for a male tu-
tor., Coriolanus, who made a capital figure in the
Roman republic, never returned from war with-
out meriting marks of diftin&ion. Others behaved
valiantly, in order to acquire glory : he behaved
valiantly, in order to give pieafure to his mo-
ther. The delight me took in hearing him praifed,
and her weeping for joy in his embraces, made
him in his own opinion the happieft perfon in
the univerfe. Epaminondas accounted it his great-
eft felicity, that his father and mother were (till
alive to behold his conduct, and enjoy his victory
at Leuctra. In a Latin dialogue about the caufes
that corrupted the Roman eloquence, injudicioufly
afcribed to Tacitus, becaufe obvioufly it is not his
ftyle, the method of education in Rome while it
tlourifhed as a commonwealth, is defcribed in a


* May not a habit of cliearfulnefs be produced in an infant, by being
"trained up among chearful people ? An agreeable temper is held to be a prime
qualification in a nurfe. Such is the connection between the mind and
body, as that the features of the face are commonly moulded into an expref-
fion of the internal difpofitiori ; and is it not natural to think, that an infant
in the womb may be affected by the temper of its mother ? Its tender parts
makes it fufceptible of, the flighted impreflions. When a woman is breed-
ing, (he ought to he doubly careful of her temper; and in particular to
indulge no ideas but what are chearful, and no fentiments but what are

Sk. VI. Female Sex. 341

lively manner. I fhall endeavour to give -the fame
in Englim, becaufe it chiefly concerns the fair fex.
" In that age, children were fuckled, not in the
" hut of a mercenary nurfe, but by the chafte
<c mother who bore them. Their education du-
" ring nonage was in her hands ; and it was her
" chief care to inftil into them every virtuous prin-
<f ciple. In her prefence, a loofe word or an im-
" proper acYion, were ftriftly prohibited. She fu-
" perintended, not only their ferious fludies, but
" even their amufements ; which were conducted
" with decency and moderation. In that manner
" the Gracchi, educated by Cornelia their mother,
" and Auguftus, by Attia his mother, appeared in
" public with untainted minds ; fond of glory, and
" prepared to make a figure in the world." In
the expedition of the illuftrious Bertrand du
Guefclin againft Peter the Cruel, King of Caftile,
the Governor of a town, fummoned to give it up,
made the following anfwer, " That they might be
" conquered, but would never tamely yield ; that
" their fathers had taught them to prefer a glo-
" rious death before a dimonourable life ; and that
" their mothers had not only educated them in
" thefe fentiments, but were ready to put in prac-
<f tice the leflbns they had inculcated." During
the civil wars in France between the Catholics and
Proteftants, Bari, governor of Leucate, having
fallen by furprife into the hands of the Catholics,
wrote from prifon to his fpoufe Conftance Cezelli
not to furrender, even though they fliould threat-
en to put him to death. The befiegers brought
him within her fight ; and threatened to maflacre
him if me did not inftantly open the gates. She
offered for his ranfom her children and all (he
had in the world but that the town belonged to
the King, and was not at her difpofal. Would
0ne think it poflible, that any man ever ,did exifl


342 MEN independent ot Society. B. I.

fo brutal as to put her hufband to death ? Yet this
was done in cold blood. Let the mod profound
politician fay, what more efficacious incentive there
can be to virtue and manhood, than the behavi-
our of the Spajrtan matrons, flocking to the tem-
ples, and thanking the gods that their hufbands
and fons had died glorioufly, fighting for their
country. In the war between Lacedemon and
Thebes, the Lacedemonians having behaved ill, the
married men, as Plutarch reports, were fo amamed
of themfelves, that they durft not look their
wives in the face. What a glorious prize is
.here exhibited, to be contended for by the fe-
male fex !

By fuch refin'd education, love would take on a
new form, that which nature infpires, for making
us happy, and for foftening the diftrefles of chance :
it would fill delicioufly the whole foul with tender
amity, and mutual confidence. The union of a wor-
thy man with a frivolous woman, can never, with all
the advantages of fortune, be made comfortable:
how different the union of a virtuous pair, who have
no aim but to make each other happy ! Between
fuch a pair emulation is reverfed, by an ardent defire
in each to be farpaffed by the other.

Roufleau, in his treatife of Education, affirms,
that convents are no better than fchools of coquet-
tery; and that among Proteftants, women make
better wives and more tender mothers than among
Roman Catholics ; for which, fays he, no reafon
can be given but convent-education, which is uni-
verfal among the latter. He then goes on in the
following words : f { Pour aimer la vie paifible et
" domeflique il faut la connoitre; il faut en avoir
" fenti les douceurs des Penfance. Ce n'efl que
" dans la maifon paternelle qu'on prend du gout
" pour fa propre maifon, et tout femme que fa
" mere n'a point elevee n'aimera point clever fes
f* enfans. Malheureufement il n'y a plus d'educa-

" tion

Sk. VI. Female Sex. 343

" tion privee dans les grandes villes. La fociete y
" eft fi generate et fi melee qu'il ne refte plus
d'afile pour la retraite, ct qu'on eft en public
" jufques chez foi. A force de vivre avec tout Ic
" monde en n'a plus de famille, a peine connoit-
< on fes parens ; on les voit en Strangers, et la
" {implicit^ des mceurs domeftiques s'eteint avec
" la douce familiarite qui en faifoit la charme.
" C'eft ainfi qu'on fuce avec le lait le gout de$
e plaifirs du fiecle et dcs maxiraes qu'on y voit
** regner." Rouffeau, Emile.

Cultivation of the female mind, is not of great
importance in a republic, where men pafs little of
their time with women. Such cultivation where
polygamy is indulged, would to them be a deep
misfortune, by opening their eyes to their mifera-
ble condition. But in an opulent monarchy where
polygamy is prohibited, female education is of high
importance ; not fmgly with refpeflt to private hap-
pinefs, but with refpeft to the fociety in general.


Concerning Propagation of Animals > and Care of Progeny.

HE natural hiftory of animals with refpeft to
pairing and care of progeny, is fufceptible of
more elucidation than .could regularly be introduced
into the (ketch itfelf, where it makes but a fingle
argument. Loth to quit a fubjed that eminently
difplays the wifdom and benevolence of Providence,
I embrace the prefent opportunity, however flight,
to add what further occurs upon it. M. BufFon, in
many large volumes, beftows fcarce a thought on
that favourite fubjecl: ; and the neglect of our coun-
trymen Ray and Derham is ftill lels excufable, con-


344 MEN independent of Society. B. I.

fidering that to difplay the conduct of Providence
was their fole purpofe in writing natural hiftory.

The inftincT: of pairing is beftowed on every fpe-
cies of animals to which it is neceflary for rearing
their young ; and on no other fpecies. All wild
birds pair : but with a remarkable difference be-
tween fuch as place their nefts on trees, and fuch
as place them on the ground. The young of the
former, being hatched blind and without feathers,
require the nurfmg care of both parents till they be
able to fly. The male feeds his mate on the neft,
and cheers her with a fong. As foon as the young
are hatched, finging yields to a more neceflary occu-
pation, that of providing for a numerous iflue, a
tafk that requires both parents.

Eagles and other birds of prey build on trees, or
on other places difficult of accefs. They not only
pair, but continue in pairs all the year ; and the
fame pair procreate together, year after year. This
at lead is the cafe of eagles : the male and female
hunt together ; and during incubation the female is
fed by the male. A greater number than a fmgle
pair never are feen in company.

Gregarious birds pair, in order probably to pre-
vent difcord, in a fociety confined to a narrow fpace.
This is the cafe particularly of pigeons and rooks.
The male and female fit on the eggs alternately, and
divide the care of feeding their young.

Partridges, plovers, pheafants, peafowl, groufe,
and other kinds that place their nefts on the ground,
have the inftincl: of pairing ; but differ from fuch as
build on trees in the following particular, that after
the female is impregnated, fhe completes her tafk
without needing any help from the male. Retiring
from him, fhe chufes a fafe place for her neft, where
fhe can find plenty of worms and grafs-feed at hand.
And her young, as foon as hatched, take foot and
leek food forthemfelves. The only remaining duty in-
cumbent on the darn is, to lead them to proper pla-

Sk. VI. Female Sex. 345

ces for food, and to call them together when dan-
ger impends. Some males, provoked at the defer-
tion of their mates, break the eggs if they happen to
find them. If a Turkey hen die during hatching,
the cock takes her place in the neft ; and after the
young are hatched, he tends them as a hen does.
Not only fo, but when a female is engaged with a
new brood, the cock takes care of the former brood,
leads them about for food, and als in every refpect
as the female did before. Eider ducks pair like
other birds that place their nefts on the ground ; and
the female finimes her neft with down plucked from
her own breaft. If the neft be deftroyed for the
down, which is remarkably warm and elaftic, me
makes another neft as before. If me be robbed a
fecond time, me makes a third neft ; but the male
furnifhes the down. A lady of fpirit obferved, that
the Eider duck may give a leflbn to many a married
woman, who is more difpofed to pluck her hufband
than herfelf. The black game never pair : in fpring
the cock on an eminence crows, and claps his wings;
and all the females within hearing inftantly refort to

Pairing birds, excepting thofe of prey, flock to-
gether in February, in order to chufe their mates.
They foon difperfe ; and are not feen afterward but
in pairs.

Pairing is unknown to quadrupeds that feed on
grafs. To fuch it would be ufelefs ; as the female
gives fuck to her young while me herfelf is feeding.
If M. BufFon deferve credit, the roe-deer are an ex-
ception. They pair, though they feed on grafs, and
have but one litter in a year.

Beafts of prey, fuch as lions, tigers, wolves, puir
not. The female is left to fhift for herfelf and for
her young j which is a laborious talk, and frequently


* A hen that had hatched feveral feroods of ducklings, carried her own
Chickens to the water, thruft them in by force, and refted not till they were
ail drowned. Such is the force of cuftom, even againft nature.

346 MEN independent of Society. B. I.

fo unfuccefsful as to fhorten life. Pairing is efiential
to birds of prey, becaufe incubation leaves the fe-
male no fufficient time to fearch for food. 'Pairing
is not neceflary to beafts of prey, becaufe their young
can bear a long faft. Add another reafon, that they
would multiply fo faft by pairing, as to prove trou-
blefome neighbours to the human race. .

Among animals that pair not, males fight def-
perateiy about a female. Such a battle among
horned cattle is finely defcribed by Lucretius. Nor
is it unufual, that feven or eight lions wage bloody
war for a fingle female.

The fame reafon that makes pairing neceflary for
gregarious birds, obtains with refpect to gregarious
quadrupeds ; thofe efpecially who ftore up food for
winter, and during that feafon live in common. Dif-
cord among fuch, would be attended with worfe
confequences than even among lions or bulls, who
.are not confined to one place. The beavers, with
refpect to pairing, refemble birds that place their
nefts on the ground. As foon as the young are
produced, the males abandon their flock of food to
their mates, and live at large ; but return frequently
to vifit them, while they are fuckling their young.

Hedge-hogs pair, and feveral of the monkey kind.
We are not well acquainted with the natural hiftory
of thefe animals ; but it may be prefumed that the
young require the nurfing care of both parents.

Seals have a fingular economy. Polygamy feems
to be a law of nature among them, as a male aflbci-
ates with feveral females. The fea-turtle has no oc-
cafion to pair, as the female concludes her taik with
laying her eggs in the fand. The young are hatched
by the fun ; and immediately crawl to the fea.

In every other branch of animal economy con-
cerning the continuance of the fpecies, the hand of
Providence is equally confpicuous. The young of
pairing birds are produced in the fpring,when the wea-
ther begins to be comfortable j and their early pro-


Sk. VI. Female Sex. 347

du&ion makes them firm and vigorous before winter,
to endure the hardfhips of that rigorous feafqn.
Such early production is in particular favourable to
eagles, and other birds of prey ; for in the fpring
they have plenty of food, by the return of birds pf

Though the time of geftation varies confiderably in
the different quadrupeds that feed on grafs, yet the
female is regularly delivered early in fummer, when
grafs is in" plenty. The mare admits the ftallion in
fummer, carries eleven months, and is delivered the
beginning of May. The cow differs little. A flieep
and a goat take the male in November, carry five
months, and produce when grafs begins to fpring.
Thefe animals love fhort grafe, upon which a mare
or a cow would ftarve. The obfervation holds in
climates fo temperate as to encourage grafs in the
fpring, and to preferve it in verdure all the fummer.
I am informed that in Italy, fheep copulate from June
to July : the female goes twenty weeks, and is de-
livered in November or December, precifely at the
time when grafs there is in the greatefl plenty. In
April the grafs is burnt up ; and fheep have nothing
but fhrubs to browfe on. This appears to me a fig-
nal inftance of providential care *. The rutting-
feafon of the red deer is the end of September, and
beginning of October : it continues for three weeks ;
during which time, the male runs from female to fe-
male without intermiffion. The female brings forth
in May, or beginning of June ; and the female of
the fallow-deer brings forth at the fame time. The
fhe-afs takes the male the beginning of fummer ; but
me bears twelve months, which fixes her delivery to
fummer. Wolves and foxes copulate in December :
the female carries five months, and brings forth in


* I have It upon good authority, that ewes pafturing In a hilly country
chufe early fome fnug fpot, where they may drop their young with fafety.
And hence the rifk of removing a flock to a new field immediately before de*-
livery : many lambs perifh by being dropped in improper places.

348 MEN independent of Society. B. I.

April, when animal food is as plentiful as at any
other feafon ; and the fhe-lion brings forth about
the fame time. Of this early birth there is one evi-
dent advantage, hinted above : the young have time

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