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Henry J. (Henry Jarvis) Raymond.

Lincoln, his life and time : being the life and public services of Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth president of the United States, together with his state papers, including his speeches, addresses, messages and proclamations and closing scenes connected with his life and death (Volume 1) online

. (page 1 of 42)
Online LibraryHenry J. (Henry Jarvis) RaymondLincoln, his life and time : being the life and public services of Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth president of the United States, together with his state papers, including his speeches, addresses, messages and proclamations and closing scenes connected with his life and death (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 42)
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THE LIBRARY

OF
THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA



T/IFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES



OF



ABRAHAM LINCOLN.



LINCOLN,
His Life and Times.

BEING THE

LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES

OP

ABRAHAM LINCOLN,

SIXTEENTH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.

TOGETHER \VITH

HIS STATE PAPERS,

INCLUDING

HIS SPEECHES, ADDRESSES, MESSAGES, LETTERS,
AND PROCLAMATIONS,

AND

THE CLOSING SCENES CONNECTED WITH HIS LITE AND DEATH.

BY

HENEY J. RAYMOND.

TO WHICH ARE ADDED

4NECDOTES AND PERSONAL REMINISCENCES OF PRESIDENT LINCOLN,

BY FRANK ^, CA.EPENTER.



VOLUME I.



CHICAGO :

THOMPSON & THOMAS,
PUBLISHERS,



CopyrigHlSOlby HURST& Co g




A.v

GIFT



M
PREFACE.



DURING the Presidential canvass of 1864, the author
of this work prepared for its publishers a volume upon
the Administration of President Lincoln. Its main object
was to afford the American people the materials for form
ing an intelligent judgment as to the wisdom of continu
ing Mr. Lincoln, for four years more, in the Presidential
office.

That canvass resulted in his re-election. But he bad
scarcely entered upon the duties and responsibilities
of his second term, when his career was closed by
assassination. He had lived long enough, however,
to finish the great work which had devolved upon him.
Before his eyes were closed, they beheld the overthrow
of the rebellion, the extirpation of slavery, and the res
toration, over all the land, of the authority of the
Constitution of the United States. ,

Not the people of his own country alone, but all
the world, will study with interest the life and public
acts of one whose work was at once so great and so
successful. The principles which guided his conduct,
and the policy by which he sought to carry them out
the temper and character which were the secret sources
of his strength will be sought and found in the acts
and words of his public life. For more truly, perhaps,



6 PREFACE.

than any other man of his own or of any other time,
Mr. Lincoln had but one character and one mode of
action, in public and private affairs.

It is the purpose of this work, so far as possible,
to facilitate this inquiry. Every public speech, message,
letter, or document of any sort from his pen, so far as
accessible, will be found included in its pages. These
documents, with the narrative by which they are accom j
panied, may, it is hoped, aid the public in understanding
aright the character and conduct of the most illustrious
actor, in the most important era, of American history.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER L

Early Life of Abraham Lincoln. His Own Record. His Ancestry. Changes
of Residence. Death and Funeral of his Mother. Entrance upon Polit
ical Life. A Member of the Legislature and of Congress. The Mexican
War Page H

CHAPTER IL

TOE LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DBBATB.

Presidential Campaign of 1856. Douglas at Springfield in 1857. Lincoln s
Reply. The Great Debate. Eloquent Defence of the Doctrines of the
Republican Party. Result of the Contest Page 46

CHAPTER IIL

MB. LINCOLN AND THE PRESIDENCY.

The Campaign of 1859 in Ohio. Mr. Lincoln s Speeches At Columbus and
Cincinnati. His Visit to the East. In New York City. The Great
Speech at Cooper Institute. Mr. Lincoln nominated for the Presidency.
His Election Page 78

CHAPTER IT.

[/ROM THE ELECTION, NOVEMBER 6, 1860, TO THE INAUGURATION, MARCH 4,

18G1.

The Presidential Election. Secession of South Carolina. Formation of the
Rebel Confederacy. The Objects of Secession. Secession Movements in
Washington. Debates in Congress. The Crittenden Resolutions. Con
ciliatory Action of Congress. The Peace Conference. Action of Con
gress. The Secession Movement unchecked Pag 101

CHAPTER V.

PROM SPRINGFIELD TO WASHINGTON.

Speech at Indianapolis. Arrival and Speech at Cincinnati. Speech at Co
lumbus Speech at Pittsburg. Arrival and Speech at Cleveland. Arri
val at Buffalo. At Rochester ana Syracuse. At Albany. -Speech at



10 CONTENTS.

Ponghkeepsie. In New York. Reply to the Mayoi of New York. la
New Jersey. Arrival at Philadelphia. Speech in Philadelphia. At
Ham sburg. Arrival and Reception at Washington Page 131



CHAPTER VX

FROM THE INAUGURATION TO THE MEETING OF CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1861.

the Inaugural Address. Organization of the Government. The Bombard
ment of Fort Sumter. Passage of Troops through Baltimore. Interview
with the Mayor of Baltimore. The Blockade of Rebel Ports. The Pres
ident and the Virginia Commissioners. Instruction to our Ministers
abroad. Recognition of the Rebels as Belligerents. Rights of Neu
trals Page 161



CHAPTER VIL

FEE EXTRA SESSION OP CONGRESS, AND THE MILITARY EVENTS OF THE BUMMER

OP 1861.

First Annual Message. Action of Congress. Slavery and Confiscation. The
Defeat at Bull Run. Treatment of the Slavery Question. General Fre
mont and the President. The Trent Affair Page 186



CHAPTER VIIL

rHB REGULAR SESSION OP CONGRESS, DECEMBER, 1861. THE MESSAGE.
DEBATES, ETC.

lieeting of Congress. President s Message. Disposition of Congress.
Slavery in Territories aud District of Columbia. Proposed Aid to Eman
cipation by Slave States. The Debate in Congress. The President and
General Hunter. The Border State Representatives. The Border State (
Reply. The Finances. Tho Confiscation Bill. The President s Action I
and Opinions. The President s Message. Message in Regard to Mr.
Cameron. The President and his Cabinet. Close of the Session of Con
gress. The President s Letter to Mr. Greeley. The President and the
Chicago Convention. Proclamation of Emancipation Page 212



CHAPTER IX.

THE MILITARY ADMINISTRATION OF 1862. THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAl
M CLELLAN.

General McClellan succeeds McDowell. The President s Order for an Ad
vance. The Movement to the Peninsula. Rebel Evacuation of Manas-
gas. Arrangements for the Peninsular Movement. The President s
Letter to General McClellan. The Rebel Strength at Yorktovm The



CONTENTS. 11

Battle of William si >urg. MoClollau s Fear of being Overwhelmed. The
President to McClellau. Jackson s Raid in the Shenandoah Valley. The
President to McClellan. Seven Pines and Fair Oaks. McClellan s Com
plaints of McDowell. His Continued Delays. Prepares for Defeat.
Calls for more Men. His Advice to the President. Preparations to Con
centrate the Army. General Halleck to McClellan. Appointment of
General Pope. Imperative Orders to McClellan. McClellan s Failure 10
aid Pope. His Excuses for Delay. Proposes to Leave Pope Unaided.
Excuses for Franklin s Delay. His Excuses proved Groundless. His
alleged Lack of Supplies. Advance into Maryland The ProsideLt s
Letter to McClellan. He Protests against Delay, McClellan Relieved
from Command. Speech by the President Page 262



CHAPTER X.

GENERAL CONDUCT OF THE ADMINISTRATION IN 1862.

Successes in the Southwest. Recognized Objects of the War. Relations of
the War to Slavery. Our Foreign Relations. Proposed Mediation of the
French Emperor. Reply to the French Proposal. Secretary Seward s
Dispatch. The President s Letter to Fernando Wood. Observance of
the Sabbath Page 32i

CHAPTER XI.

THE CONGRESSIONAL SESSION OF 1862- 63. MESSAGE OP THE PRESIDENT
AND GENERAL ACTION OF THE SESSION.

The President s Message. Are the Rebel States Aliens ? The Provision for
a Draft. Message on the Finances and Currency.- -Admission of West
Virginia. Close of the Session Page 3J :



CHAPTER XII.

ARBITRARY ARRESTS. THE SUSPENSION OF THE WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS.
THE DRAFT.

Lrbitrary Arrests. First Suspension of the Habeas Corpus. Aid and Com
fort to the Rebels. Executive Order about Arrests. Appointment of a
Commissioner on Arrests. Opposition to the G-overnment. The Case of
Vallandigham. Governor Seymour on Yallandigham. President Lin
coln on Arrests. President Lincoln on Military Arrests. The Presi
dent s Letter to Mr. Coming. The President to the Ohio Committee.
The President on Vailandighnm s Case. The Habeas Corpus Suspended.
Proclamation Concerning Aliejis. The Draft -The New York Riots.
Letter to Governor Seymour. The Draft Rouu.ned and Completed. Page 373



12 CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XIIL

MILITARY EVENTS OF 1863. THE REBEL DEFEAT AT GETTYSBURG. FALL
OP VICKSBDRG AND PORT HUDSON.

The Battles at Frodericksburg. Rebel Raid into Pennsylvania. Results at
Gettysburg. Vicksburg and Port Hudson Captured. Public Rejoicings.
The President s Speech. Thanksgiving for Victories. Battle of Chat-

j tanooga. Thanksgiving Proclamation Page 40?

CHAPTER XIV.

POLITICAL MOVEMENTS IN MISSOURI. THE STATE ELECTIONS OP 1863.

General Fremont in Missouri. The President s Letter to General Hunter.
Emancipation in Missouri. Appointment of General Schofieid. The
President and the Missouri Radicals. The President to the Missouri
Committee. The President and General Schofieid. Tho President and
the Churches. Letter to Illinois. The Elections of 1863 Page 421

CHAPTER XY.

THE CONGRESS OF 1863- 64. MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT. ACTION 0V
THE SESSION. -PROGRESS IN RAISING TROOPS.

The President s Message. Tne Proclamation of Amnesty. Explanatory
Proclamation. Debate on Slavery. Call for Troops. General Blair s
Resignation. Diplomatic Correspondence. Our Relations with England.
France and Mexico. The President and the Monroe Doctrine. . . Page 446

CHAPTER XVI.

MOVEMENTS TOWARDS RECONSTRUCTION.

IHate Governments in Louisiana and Arkansas. Different of Views be
tween the President and Congress. The Rebellion and Labor. Tho
President on Benevolent Associations. Advancing Action coucerning
the Negro Race. Free State Constitutions Page 481

CHAPTER XVII.

MILITARY EVENTS 07 THE SPRING AND SUMMER OF 1864.

Battlo of the Olustee. Kilpatrick s Raid on Richmond. The Red River
Expedition. The Fort Pillow Massacre. Rebel Atrocities. General
Grant s Advance upon Richmond. Battles in May. Sherman s March to
Atlanta. Rebel Raids in Maryland and Kentucky. Siege of Petersburg.
Martial Law iu Kentucky. Draft for Five hundred thousand Men.
Capture oi Mobile and Atlanta Page 513



CONTENTS. 13

CHAPTER XVIII

THE POLITICAL CAAIPAIfrN Of 1864.

The Presidential Election. The Cleveland Convention. The Convention at
Baltimore. Mr. Lincoln s Renomination and Acceptance. Popular Feel
ing During the Summer. The Arguelies Case. The Forged Proclama
tion. The Niagara Falls Conference. The Chicago Convention. Progress
and Result of the Campaign. Popular Joy at the Result Page 541

CHAPTER XIX.

THE MEETING OF CONGRESS AND PROGRESS OF T1IE WAR.

Condition of the Country at the Meeting of Congress. The Message. Pro
ceedings in Congress. Fort Fisher. Death of Edward Everett. Peace
Conference \n Hampton Roads. Military Affairs Pago 620

CHAPTER XX.

CLOSE OP THE REBELLION.

TLe Inaugural Address. Proclamation to Deserters. Speeches by the Pres
ident. Destruction of Lee s Army. The Presiient s Visit to Richmond.
Return to Washington. Close of the War Page 669

CHAPTER XXI.
TUB PRESIDENT S ASSASSFNATION.

The Condition of the Country. Assassination of the President. Murderous
Assault upon Secretary Seward. The Funeral Procession from Washing
ton to Springfield, Illinois. Fate of the Assassins. Estimate of Mr.
Lincoln s Character. Conclusion Page 691



I



ANECDOTES AND REMINISCENCES OF PRESIDENT

LINCOLN.

MM

Mr. Lincoln s Sadness 726

His Favorite Poem , 728

His Religious Experience 730

His Sy m pathy 735

His Humor, Shrewdness, and Sentiment 743

The Emancipation Proclamation 759



14 CONTENTS.

APPENDIX.

LETTERS ON SUNDRY OCCASIONS

A01

To Mr. Hodges, of Kentucky 767

To Genera* Hooker 768

To JoimB. Fry 770

i o Governor Magoftin 770

To Count Gasparin 771

TUB PRESIDENT AND GENERAL MUCLELLAN 772

WARNINGS AGAINST ASSASSINATION . . .779



REPORTS, DISPATCHES, AND PROCLAMATIONS RE1 1TING TO
THE ASSASSINATION.

.Secretary Stanton to General Dix 783

The Death-Bed 785

The Assassins 786

Reward Offered by Secretary Stanton 787

Flight of the Assassins , 7S7

The Conspiracy Organized in Canada 787

Boo h Killed. Harold Captured 788

Reward Offered by President Johnson ... 788

The Funeral. . 788



OFFICIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS,

Acting Secretary Hunter to Minister Adams , . . . 7^9

Acting Secretary Hunter to his Subordinates 78fl

Orders from Secretary Stanton and General Grant 7y

Orders from Secretary Welles 790

dor from Secretary McCulloch 791

der from Postmaster-General Dennison 791

Proclamation by President Johnson of a Day of Humiliation and Mourning. 791

Secretary Stanton to Minister Adams 792



IMPORTANT LETTER FROM J. WILKES BOOTH 793

INDICTMENT OF TUB CONSPIRATORS 796

THE FINDING Of THE COURT 799



TK* following memorandum given by Mr. Lincoln to Hicks, the well-
known wtist, while he was painting his portrait in Springfield, Illinois,
noon after his first nomination for the Presidency, is not without in
terest :

" I was born February 12, 1809, in then Hardin County, Kentucky,
at a point within the now County of Larue, a mile or a mile and a half
from where Hodgen-s mill now is. My parents being dead, and my own
memory not serving, I know no means of identifying the precise locality.
It was on Nolen Creek. A. LINCOLN."

JBB 14, IMOi



THE .

PUBLIC SERVICES AND STATE PAPERS

Of

ABRAHAM LINCOLN



CHAPTER I.

KAELY LIFE OP ABRAHAM LINCOLN. His OWN REOOBD. His ANCESTRY.
CHANGES OP RESIDENCE. DEATH AND FUNERAL OP HIS MOTHEE. EN
TRANCE UPON POLITICAL LIFE. A MEMBER OP THE LEGISLATURE AND
OF CONGRESS. THE MEXICAN WAR.

THE compiler of the "Dictionary of Congress " states,
that while preparing that work for publication, in 1858, he
sent to Mr. Lincoln the usual request for a sketch of his
life, and received the following reply :

44 BOEN, FEBRUARY 12, 1809, in HARDIN COUNTY, KENTUCKY.
41 EDUCATION DEFECTIVE.
44 PROFESSION, A LAWYER.

"HAVE BEEN A CAPTAIN OP VOLUNTEERS m BLACK HAWK WAJL
"POSTMASTER AT A VERY SMALL OFFICE.

"FOUR TIMES A MEMBER OF THE ILLINOIS LEGISLATURE, AND WAS
MEMBER OF THE LOWER HOUSE OF CONGRESS.

YOURS, <feo.,

"A. LINCOLN.

Around the facts stated with such characteristic mod
esty and brevity clusters the history of the early life of
our late President. The ancestors of Abraham Lincoln
were of English descent ; and although they are believed
to have originally emigrated to tliis country with the
followers of William Penn, it is difficult to trace them
i



18 THE LIFE, PUBLIC SERVICES,



faither biUiK.than.to.tlie^ ;place of residence in Berks
County, PfcnrisylvatiiSi^wiierice a part of the family re-
moved.;J^ 17f>0 ta tt^t gpitficfr.of Virginia now known as
Rocldnglia^vdomHy. *fF} > iIHy % \ > ears later, Abraham Lin
coln, the grandfather of our late President, iinding civil
ization crowding him too closely, and possibly enticed
by the stories which came back to the frontier settle
ments from that famous pioneer, Daniel Boone, but
undeterred by the dangers which he knew he must in
evitably encounter, determined to make another bold
push westward, and settled on Floyd s Creek, in Ken
tucky, in what is now known as Bullitt County. Hardly
had he secured a home for his little family, when he was
fatally shot by an Indian, who came upon him stealthily
while he was at work, some distance from his log cabin.
Thus deprived of her protector, his widow at once re
moved, with her three sons and two daughters, to that
part of Kentucky now known as Washington County.
Thomas, the eldest of the sons, the father of Abraham
Lincoln, was but six years old when his mother was so
suddenly made a widow. The necessity of assisting to
provide for her probably delayed his own settlement in
life, for it was not until he was twenty-eight years old,
in 1806, that he married Nancy Hanks. His wife was a
Virginian by birth ; but no facts regarding either her an
cestry or early life have been preserved, although it is a
tradition, possibly originating in the reputation achieved
by her son, that she was a woman of rare mental endow
ment Immediately after their marriage the couple r^
Hoved to Hardin County, Kentucky, and there, on Fe>
ruary 12th, 1809, as has already been stated, Abraham
Lincoln was born. His early life was spent in poverty
and toil ; but his father, feeling keenly his own deficien
cies, determined to give his son every possible advantage
in the way of gaining an education, and, when but seven
years old, he was equipped with an old copy of Dil-
worth s Spelling Book, which constituted one-third of
the family library, and was sent to school to a Mr. Hazel.
It is also said that one Zaehariah liiney, a Roman Catholic,



STATE PArEiia OF ABIUIJAM LINCOLN. 19



having some connection with the Trappists, who had
founded an institution on Pottinger s Creek, with Urban
Gail let as superior, had the honor of instructing the
future President in the rudiments. Whether Mr. Lin
coln favored his other children, one a girl two years
older than Abraham, and the other a boy two years his
junior, to the same extent, is doubtful, for the routine of
school life was not only broken in upon by his frequent
demands upon his son s time, but finally it was inter
mpted altogether by his determination to abandon Ken
tucky and try his fortunes where his energies were not
checked and repressed by the obstacles which slavery
constantly thrust in his way. In 1817 Mr. Lincoln car
ried this plan into execution. The old home was sold,
their small stock of valuables placed upon a raft, and the
little family took their way to a new home in the wilds
of Indiana, where free labor would have no competition
with slave labor, and the poor white man might hope
that in time his children could take an honorable posi
tion, won by industry and careful economy. The place
of their destination was Spencer County, Indiana. For
the last few miles they were obliged to cut their road as
they went on. " With the resolution of veteran pioneers
they toiled, sometimes being able to pick their way for
a long distance without chopping, and then coming to a
standstill in consequence of dense forests. Suffice it to
say, that they were obliged to cut a road so much of the
way that several days were employed, in going eighteen
miles. It was a difficult, wearisome, trying journey, and
\[r. Lincoln often said, that he never passed through a
iiarder experience than he did in going from Thompson s
Perry to Spenser County, Indiana."

Thus, before he was eight years old, Abraham Lincoln
began the serious business of life. The cabin in which
the family lived was built of logs, and even the aid of
Buch a mere child was of account in the wilderness where
they now found themselves, after seven days of weary
travel. Their neighbors, none of whom lived nearer
than two or three miles, welcomed the strangers, and



20 THE LIFE, PUBLIC SERVICES, AND

lent a liand towards building the rude dwelling in which
the future President lay down, after fatiguing but health
ful toil, to dream the dreams of childhood, undisturbed
by thoughts of the future.

But just as Abraham was becoming accustomed to his
new residence, his home was made desolate by the death
of his mother, which occurred when he was ten years old.
She died long before she could have imagined, in her
wildest dreams, the eminence and distinction which her
sou was to attain ; but she was happy in the knowledge
that, chiefly under her own tuition, for she had not in-
trusted his education entirely to the schoolmaster who
chanced to settle within reach, her favorite son had
learned to read the Bible the book which, as a Christian
woman, she prized above all others. It is impossible TO
estimate, the influence which this faithful mother ex
erted in moulding the character of her child ; but it is
easy to believe that the earnestness with which she im
pressed upon his mind and heart the holy precepts, did
much to develop those characteristics which in after
years caused him to be known as pre-eminently the
"Honest" man. There is touching evidence that Abra
ham held the memory of his mother in sacred remem
brance. She had instructed him in the rudiments of
writing, and Mr. Lincoln, in spite of the disparaging
remarks of his neighbors, who regarded the accomplish
ment as entirely unnecessary, encouraged his son to per
severe, until he was able to put his thoughts upon paper
in a style which, although rude, caused him to be regarded
as quite a prodigy among the illiterate neighbors. One!
of the very first efforts of his faltering pen was writing a!
letter to an old friend of his mother s, a travelling
preacher, urging him to come and deliver a sermon over
her grave. The invitation must have been couched in
impressive, if not affecting language ; for, although the
letter was not written until nine months after his mother s
remains had been deposited in their last resting-place,
Parson Elkins, the preacher to whom it was extended,
respopded to the request, and three months subsequent-



STATE PAPERS OF ABKAHAM LINCOLN. 21

ly, just a year after her decease, preached a sermon com-
memorative of the virtues of one whom her neighbors
still held in affectionate and respectful remembrance. In
liis discourse it is said that the Parson alluded to the
mariner in which he had received the invitation, and Abra
ham s pen thereafter found frequent employment, in
.vriting letters for the same neighbors who had before
pretended to esteem lightly the accomplishment of which
they at last recognized the value.

About two years after the death of Mrs. Lincoln, Mr.
Lincoln married Mrs. Sally Johnston, a widow with three
children. She proved an excellent mother to her step-
yon and daughter, and a faithful wife. During the twelve
years that the family remained in Indiana, Abraham s
father encouraged him to improve all the opportunities
offered for mental development. How scanty these privi
leges were, may be inferred from the fact that the entire
number of days that he was able to attend school hardly
exceeded one year. While in Indiana, one of his teachers
was a Mr. Dorsey, who, a few months ago, was living in
Schuyler County, Illinois, where he was looked up to with
much respect by his neighbors, as one of those who had
assisted in the early instruction of the then President of
the United States. He tells with great satisfaction how hia
pupil, who was then remarked for the diligence and eager
ness with which he pursued his studies, came to the
-\g-cabin school-house arrayed in buckskin clothes, a rac
oon-skin cap, and provided with an old arithmetic which
had somewhere been found for him to begin his investiga
tions into the " higher branrhes." In connection with his
attendance upon Mr. Crawford s school, an incident is
told which is sure to find a place in every biography of
our late President. Books were, of course, very hard to
find in the sparsely settled district of Indiana where the
Lincoln family had their home, and every printed volume
upon which Abraham could lay his hands was carefully
guarded and eagerly devoured. Among the volumes in
Mr. Crawford s scanty library was a copy of Ramsay e
Ufe of Washington, w luck Abraham



22 THE LIFE, PUBLIC SERVICES, AND

upon one occasion, to take borne with him. During a
severe storm lie improved his leisure "by reading his book.
One night lie laid it down carefully, as he thought, and
the next morning he found it soaked through ! The wind
had changed, the storm had beaten inthiough a crack in
the logs, and the appearance of the book was ruined
How could he face the owner under such circumstances?
He had no money to offer as a return, but he took the
book, went directly to Mr. Crawford, showed him the
irreparable injury, and frankly and honestly offered to
work for him until he should be satisfied. Mr. Crawford
accepted the offer, and gave Abraham the book for his
own, in return for three days steady labor in "pulling
fodder." This, and Weems s Life of Washington, were
among the hoy s favorite books, and the story that we have
just told is so nearly parallel to the famous "hatchet" in
cident in the early days of the Father of his Country, that
it is easy to believe that the frequent perusal of it im
pressed upon his mind, more effectually than any solemn



Online LibraryHenry J. (Henry Jarvis) RaymondLincoln, his life and time : being the life and public services of Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth president of the United States, together with his state papers, including his speeches, addresses, messages and proclamations and closing scenes connected with his life and death (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 42)