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Henry J. (Henry Jarvis) Raymond.

Lincoln, his life and time : being the life and public services of Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth president of the United States, together with his state papers, including his speeches, addresses, messages and proclamations and closing scenes connected with his life and death (Volume 1) online

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Online LibraryHenry J. (Henry Jarvis) RaymondLincoln, his life and time : being the life and public services of Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth president of the United States, together with his state papers, including his speeches, addresses, messages and proclamations and closing scenes connected with his life and death (Volume 1) → online text (page 27 of 42)
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That it is my purpose, upon the next meeting of Congress, to again
recommend the adoption of a practical measure tendering pecuniary aid
to the free acceptance or rejection of all slave States, so called, the people
whereof may not then be in rebellion against the United States, and
which States may then have voluntarily adopted, or thereafter may vol
untarily adopt, immediate or gradual abolishment of slavery within their
respective limits; and that the effort to colonize persons of African
descent, with their consent, upon this continent or elsewhere, with the
previously obtained consent of the governments existing there, will be
continued.

That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand
eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State,
or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion
17



258 THE LIFE, PUBLIC SERVICES, AND

against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever fres ;
and Hits Executive Government of the United States, including the mili
tary and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom
of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any
of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.

That the Executive will, on the first day of January aforesaid, by proo
lumation, designate the States and parts of States, if any, in which tha
people thereof respectively shall then be in rebellion against the United
States; and the fact that any State, or the people thereof, shall on tit at
day be in good faith represented in the Congress of the United States, by
] ieinbers chosen thereto at elections wherein a majority of the qualified
raters of such State shall have participated, shall, in the absence of strong
countervailing testimony, be deemed conclusive evidence that such State,
and the people thereof, are not then in rebellion against the United
States.

That attention is hereby called to an act of Congress entitled "An Act
to make an additional Article of War," approved March 18th, 1802, and
which act is in the words and figures following:

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
States of America in Congress assembled, That hereafter the following
shall be promulgated as an additional article of war for the government
of the army of the United States, and shall be obeyed and observed aa
such :

SECTION 1. All officers or persons in the military or naval service of
the United States are prohibited fitom employing any of the forces und^r
their respective commands for the purpose of returning fugitives from
service or labor who may have escaped from any persons to whom such
service or labor is claimed to be due ; and any ollicer who shall be foun 1
guilty by a court-martial of violating this article shall be dismissed from
the service.

SEO. 2. And be it further enacted, That this act shall take effect from
and after its passage.

AJso, to the ninth and tenth sections of an act entitled "An Act to
Suppress Insurrection, to Punish Treason and Rebellion, to Seize and
Confiscate Property of Eebels, and for other Purposes, approved July
16, 18G2, and whi^h sections are in the words and figures following



SEO. 9. And he it further enacted. That all slaves of persons whc
hereafter be engaged in rebellion against the Government of the United
States, or who shall in any way give aid or comfort thereto, escaping from
such persons and taking refuge within the lines of the army; and all
slaves captured from such persons, or deserted by them and coming
under the control of the Government of the United States; and all slaves
of such persons found on [or] being within any place occupied by rebel
forces and afterwards occupied by forces of the United States, shall b
deemed captives of war, and shall be forever free of their servitude, ai\d
aot again held as slaves.

SEO. 10. And be it further enacted, That no slave escaping into an*
State, Territory, or the District of Columbia, from any othar State, shall



STATE PAPERS OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 259

be delivered up. or in any way impeded or hindered of his liberty, except
for crime, or some offence ag.iii.st the laws, unless the person claiming
said fugitive shall first make oath that the person to whom th labor or
service of such fugitive is alleged to be due is his lawful owner, and has
not borne arms against the United States in the present rebellion, nor in
any way given aid and comfort thereto: and no person engaged in the
military or naval service of the United States shall, under any pretence
whatever, assume to decide on the validity of the claim of any person to
the service or labor of any other person, or surrender up any such per
son to the claimant, on pain of being dismissed from the service.

And I do hereby enjoin upon and order all persons engaged in the
: ulitary and naval service of the United States to observe, obey, and en-
fl rce, within their respective spheres of service, the act and section*
ai we recited.

/nd the Executive will in due time recommend that all citizens of the
United States who shall have remained loyal thereto throughout the
rebellion, shall (upon the restoration of the constitutional relation be
tween the United States and their respective States and people, if
that relation shall have been suspended or disturbed) be compensated
for all losses by acts of the United States, including the loss of
slaves.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal
of the United States to be affixed.

Done at the City of Washington, this twenty-second day of Sep
tember, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and
[L. B.] sixty-two, and of the Independence of the United States the
eighty-seventh.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
By the President :

WILLIAM H. SEWABD, Secretary of State.

The issuing of this proclamation created the deepest
interest, not unmixed with anxiety, in the public mind.
The opponents of the Administration in the loyal States,
as well as the sympathizers with secession everywhere,
insisted that it afforded unmistakable evidence that the
object of the war was, what they had always declared it
to be, the abolition of slavery, and not the restoration of
the Union ; and they put forth the most vigorous efforts
to arouse public sentiment against the Administration on
this ground. They were met, however, by the clear and
explicit declaration of the document itself, in which the
President "proclaimed and declared" that "hereafter, as
heretofore, the war will be prosecuted for the object of
practically restoring the constitutional relation between



260 THE LIFE, PUBLIC SERVICES, AND

the United Slates and each of the States and the people
thereof, in which that relation is or may be suspended or
disturbed." This at once made it evident that emancipa
tion, as provided for in the proclamation, as a war meas
ure, was subsidiary and subordinate to the paramount
object of the war the restoration of the Union and the
re-establishment of the authority of the Constitution ; and
in this sense it was favorably received by the great body
of the loyal people of the United States. j

It only remains to be added, in this connection, that 01
the 1st of January, 1863, the President followed this
measure by issuing the following

PROCLAMATION.

Whereas, on the 22d day of September, in the year of our Lord one
thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, a proclamation was issued by the
President of the United States, containing, among other things, the fol
lowing, to wit:

That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand
eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any
States or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in
rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and
forever free ; and the Executive Government of the United States, in
eluding the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and
maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to re
press such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their
actual freedom.

That the Executive will, on the first day of January aforesaid, by proc
lamation, designate the States and parts of States, if any, in which the
people thereof respectively shall then be in rebellion against the United
States ; and the fact that any State, or the people thereof, shall on that
day be in good faith represented in the Congress of the United States, by
members chosen thereto at elections wherein a majority of the qualified
voters of such State shall have participated, shall, in the absence o;
strong countervailing testimony, be deemed conclusive evidence that smv
State, and the people thereof, are not then in rebellion against the United
States.

Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States,
by virtue of the power in me vested as cornmander-in-chief of the army
and navy of the United States in time of actual armed rebellion against
the authority and Government of the United States, and as a fit and
necesoary war measure for suppressing said rebellion, do, on this first day
of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and
sixty-three, and in accordance with my purpose so to do, publicly pro
claimed for the full period of one hundred days from the day first above



STATE PAPERS OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 261

mentioned, order and designate, as the States and parts of States wherein
the people thereof respectively are this day in rebellion against the
United States, the following, to wit:

Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana (except the parishes of St. Bernard, Plaque-
mines, Jefferson, St. John, St. Charles, St. James, Ascension, Assumption,
Terre Bonne, Lafonrche, Ste. Marie, St. Martin, and Orleans, including
the City of New Orleans), Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South
Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia (except the forty-eight counties
designated as West Virginia, and also the counties of Berkeley, Accomac,
Northampton, Elizabeth City, York, Princess Anne, and Norfolk, inclu
ding the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth), and which excepted parts are
for the present left precisely as if this proclamation were not issued.

And by virtue of the power and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order
and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States
and parts of States are, and henceforward shall be, free; and that ihe
Executive Government of the United States, including the military and
naval authorities thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of said
persons.

And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free to abstain
from all violence, unless in necessary self-defence ; and I recommend to
them that, in all cases when allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable
wages.

And I further declare and make known that such persons, of suitable
condition, will be received into the armed service of the United States, to
garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of
all sorts in said service.

And upon this act, sincerely believed to be an act of justice, warranted
oy the Constitution upon military necessity, I invoke the considerate
judgment of mankind, and the gracious favor of Almighty God.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my name, and caused the
*v;tl of the United States to be affixed.

Done at the City of Washington, this first day of January, in the year
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, aud of
the independence of the United States the eighty-seventh.

By the President: ABHAIIA.M LncooLW.

WILLIAM II. SEWABD, Secretary of State.



262 THE LIFE, PUBLIC SERVICES. AND



CHAPTER IX.

THE MILITARY ADMINISTRATION OF 1862. -THE PRESIDENT A; i
GENERAL McCLELLAN.

(iENERAL MoCLBLLAN SUCCEEDS McDoWELL. THE PRESIDENT S ORDER FOB
AN ADVANCE. THE MOVEMENT TO THE PENINSULA. REBEL EVACUATION
OF MANASSAS. AERANGEMENTS FOR THE PENINSULAR MOVEMENT. THE
PRESIDENT S LETTER TO GENERAL MCCLELLAN. THE REBEL STRENGTH

AT YORKTOWN. THE BATTLE OF WlLLIAMSBURG. McC/LELLAN 8 FEAR

OF BEING OVERWHELMED. THE PRESIDENT TO MCCLELLAN. JACKSON S
RAID IN TEE SHENANDOAH VALLEY. THE PRESIDENT TO MCCLELLAN.
SEVEN PINES AND FAIR OAKS. MOCLELLAN S COMPLAINTS OF MC
DOWELL. His CONTINUED DELAYS. PREPARES FOR DEFEAT. CALLS
FOR MORE MEN. ITis ADVICE TO THE PRESIDENT. PREPARATIONS TO
CONCENTRATE THE ARMY.- -GENERAL HALLECK TO MCCLELLAN. AP
POINTMENT OF GENERAL POPE. IMPERATIVE ORDERS TO MCCLELLAN.

McCLELLAN s FAILURE TO AID POPE. HlS EXCUSES FOR DELAY. PRO-
P08ES TO LEAVE. PoPE UNAIDED. EXCUSES FOR FRANKLIN S DELAY.

His EXCUSES PROVED GROUNDLESS. His ALLEGED LACK OF SUPPLIES.
ADVANCE INTO MARYLAND. THE PRESIDENT S LETTER TO MCCLELLAN.
HE PROTESTS AGAINST DELAY. MOCLELLAN RELIEVED FROM COM
MAND. SPEECH BY THE PRESIDENT.

THE repulse of the national forces at the battle oi Bull
Run in July, 1861, aroused the people of the loyal States
to a sense of the magnitude of the contest which had been
forced upon them. It stimulated to intoxication the pride
and ambition of the rebels, and gave infinite encourage
ment to their efforts to raise fresh troops, and increase the
military resources of their Confederation. Nor did the
reverse the national cause had sustained for an instant
damp the ardor or -check the determination of the Govern
ment and people of the loyal States. General McDowell,
the able and accomplished officer who commanded the
army of the United States in that engagement, conducted
the operations of the day with signal ability ; and his
defeat was due, as subsequent disclosures have clearly
shown, far more to accidents for which others were re-



STATE PAPERS OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 263

eponsible, than to any lack of skill in planning the "bat
tle, or of courage and generalship on the field. But it
was the first considerable engagement of the war, and its
loss was a serious and startling disappointment to the
sanguine expectations of the people : it was deemed neces
sary therefore, to place a new commander at the head of
the army in front of Washington. General McClellan,
who had been charged, at the outset of the war, with
operations in the Department of the Ohio, and who had
achieved marked success in clearing Western Virginia of
the rebel troops, was summoned to Washington on the
22d of July, and on the 27th assumed command of the
Army of the Potomac. Although then in command only
of a department, General McClellan, with an ambition
and a presumption natural, perhaps, to his age and the
circumstances of his advancement, addressed his atten
tion to the general conduct of the war in all sections of
the country, and favored the Government and Lieutenant-
General Scott with several elaborate and meritorious let
ters of advice, as to the method most proper to be pur
sued for the suppression of the rebellion. He soon, how
ever, found it necessary to attend to the preparation of
the army under his command for an immediate resumption
of hostilities. Fresh troops in great numbers speedily
poured in from the Northern States, and were organized
and disciplined for prompt and effective service. The
number of troops in and about the Capital when General
McClellan assumed command, was a little over fifty thou -
eand, and the brigade organization of General McDowell
i ormed the basis for the distribution of these new forces.
By the middle of October this army had been raised to
over one hundred and fifty thousand men, with an artil
lery force of nearly five hundred pieces all in a state of
excellent discipline, under skilful officers, and animated
by a zealous and impatient eagerness to renew the contest
for the preservation of the Constitution and Government
of the United States. The President and Secretary of
War had urged the division of the army into corps
for the purpose of more effective service ; but



264 THE LIFE, PUBLIC SERVICES, AND

General McClellan had discouraged and thwarted their
endeavors in this direction, mainly on the ground that
there were not officers enough of tried ability in the army
to be intrusted with such high commands as this division
would create.

On the 22d of October, a portion of our forces which
had been ordered to cross the Potomac above Washing
ton, in the direction of Leesburg, were met by a heavy
force of the enemy at Ball s Bluff, repulsed with severe
loss, and compelled to return. The circumstances of this
disaster excited a great deal of dissatisfaction in the pub
lic mind, and this was still further aggravated by the fact
that the rebels had obtained, and been allowed to hold,
complete control of the Potomac below Washington, so
as to establish a virtual and effective blockade of the
Capital from that direction. Special efforts were repeat
edly made by the President and Navy Department to
clear the banks of the river of the rebel forces, known to
be small in number, which held them, but it was found
impossible to induce General McClellan to take any steps
to aid in the accomplishment of this result. In October
he had promised that on a day named, four thousand
troops should be ready to proceed down the river to co
operate with the Potomac Hotilla under Captain Craven ;
but at the time appointed the troops did not arrive, and
General McClellan alleged, as a reason for having changed
his mind, that his engineers had informed him that so
large a body of troops could not be landed. The Secre
tary of the JS"avy replied that the landing of the troop*
was a matter of which that department assumed tii
responsibility ; and it was then agreed that the troops
should be sent down the next night. They were not
sent, however, either then or at any other time, for which
General McClellan assigned as a reason the fear that such
an attempt might bring on a general engagement. Cap
tain Craven upon this threw up his command, and the
Potomac remained clo&ed to the vessels and transports of
the United States until it was opened in March of the next
year by the voluntary withdrawal of the rebel forces.



STATE PAPERS OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 26

On the 1st of November, General McClellan was ap
pointed by the President to succeed General Scott in the
command of all the armies of the Union, remaining in
personal command of the Army of the Potomac. Hia
attention was then of necessity turned to the direction of
army movements, and to the conduct of political affairs,
| so far as they came under military control, in the more
distant sections of the country. But no movement took
place in the Army of the Potomac.

The season had been unusually favorable for military
operations the troops were admirably organized and dia
ciplined, and in the highest state of efficiency in num
bers they were known to be far superior to those of the
rebels opposed to them, who were nevertheless permit
ted steadily to push their approaches towards Washing
ton, while, from the highest officer to the humblest pri
vate, our forces were all animated with an eager desire to
be led against the enemies of their country. As winter
approached without any indications of an intended move
ment of our armies, the public impatience rose to the
highest point of discontent. The Administration was
everywhere held responsible for these unaccountable de
lays, and was freely charged by its opponents with a de
sign to protract the war for selfish political purposes of
its own ; and at the fall election the public dissatisfaction
made itself manifest by adverse votes in every considera-
le State where elections were held.

Unable longer to endure this state of things, President
Lincoln put an end to it on the 27th of January, 1862, by
issuing the following order :

EXECUTIVE MANSION, WASHINGTON, January 27, 1882.

Ordered, That the twenty-second day of February, 1862, be the day for
a general movement of the land and naval forces of the United States
against the insurgent forces. That especially the army at and about For
tress Monroe, the Army of the Potomac, the Army of Western Virginia,
the array near Munfordsville, Kentucky, the armj and flotilla at Cairo,
and a naval force in the Gulf of Mexico, be ready to move on that day.

That all other forces, both land and naval, with their respective com
manders, obey existing orders for the time, and be ready to obey addi
tional orders when duly given.



266 THE LIFE, PUULIG SERVICES, AND

That the heads of departments, and especially the Secretaries of
and of the Navy, with all their subordinates, and the General-in-Chief
with all other commanders and subordinates of land and naval force?
will severally be held to their strict and full responsibilities for prompt
execution of this order. ABRAHAM LISOOLN,

This order, which applied to all the armies of the Uni
ted States, was followed four days afterwards "by the fol
lowing special order directed to General McClellan :

EXBOUTIVB MANSION, WASHINGTON, January 81, 1&62.

Ordered, That all the disposable force of the Army of the Potomac,
after providing safely for the defence of Washington, be formed into an
expedition for the immediate object of seizing and occupying a point
upon the railroad southwest of what is known as Manassas Junction, all
details to be in the discretion of the Commander-in-Chief, and the expe
dition to move before or on the twenty-second day of February next.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

The object of this order was to engage the rebel army
in front of Washington by a flank attack, and by its de
feat relieve the Capital, put Richmond at our mercy, and
break the main strength of the rebellion by destroying
the principal army arrayed in its support. Instead of
obeying it, General McClellan remonstrated against its
execution, and urged the adoption of a different plan of
attack, which was to move upon Richmond by way of
the Chesapeake Bay, the Rappahannock River, and a
land march across the country from Urbana, leaving the.
rebel forces in position at Manassas to be held in check,
if they should attempt a forward movement, only by the
troops in the fortifications around Washington. As the
result of several conferences with the President, he ob
tained permission to state in writing his objections to his
plan the President meantime sending him the following
tetter of inquiry :

EXBCUTIVB MANSION, WASHINGTON, February 8. 1 Mi

MY DEAB SIR: You and I have distinct and different plans for a
movement of the Army of the Potomac : yours to be done by the Chesa
peake, up the Rappahannock to Urbana, and across land to the terminus
of the railroal on the York River; mine to move directly to a point oil
the railroad southwest of Manassas.

V



STATE PAPERS OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 267

It you will give satisfactory answers to the following questions, I shall
gladly yield my plan to yours :

1st. Does not your plan involve a greatly larger expenditure of time
*nd momy than mine ?

2d. \V herein is a victory more certain by your plan than mine?

3d. Wherein is a victory more valuable by your plan than mine?

4th. In fact, would it not be less valuable in this : that it would break
no great line of the enemy s communications, while mine would?

6th. In case of disaster, would not a retreat be more difficult by your

plan than mine ?

Yours, truly, ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Major- General MCCLELLAN.

General McClellan sent to the Secretary of War, un
der date of February 3d, a very long letter, presenting
strongly the advantage possessed by the rebels in hold
ing a central defensive position, from which they could
with a small force resist any attack on either flank, con
centrating their main strength upon the other for a deci
sive action. The uncertainties of the weather, the neces
sity of having long lines of communication, and the prob
able indecisiveness even of a victory, if one should be
gained, were urged against the President s plan. So
strongly was General McClellan in favor of his own plan
of operations, that he said he " should prefer the move
from Fortress Monroe as a base, to an attack upon Ma-
nassas." The President was by no means convinced by
General McClellan s reasoning; but in consequence of
his steady resistance and unwillingness to enter upon the
execution of any other plan, he assented to a submission
of the matter to a council of twelve officers held late in
February, at head-quarters. The result of that council
was, a decision in favor of moving by way of the lower
Chesapeake and the Rappahannock seven of the Gen
erals present, viz., Fitz-John Porter, Franklin, W. F.
Smith, McCall, Blenker, Andrew Porter, and Naglee,
voting in favor of it, as did Keyes also, with the qualifi



Online LibraryHenry J. (Henry Jarvis) RaymondLincoln, his life and time : being the life and public services of Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth president of the United States, together with his state papers, including his speeches, addresses, messages and proclamations and closing scenes connected with his life and death (Volume 1) → online text (page 27 of 42)