Henry J. (Henry Jarvis) Raymond.

Lincoln, his life and times : being the life and public services of Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth President of the United States, together with his state papers, including his speeches, addresses, messages, letters, and proclamations, and the closing scenes connected with his life and death (Volume 2) online

. (page 14 of 41)
Online LibraryHenry J. (Henry Jarvis) RaymondLincoln, his life and times : being the life and public services of Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth President of the United States, together with his state papers, including his speeches, addresses, messages, letters, and proclamations, and the closing scenes connected with his life and death (Volume 2) → online text (page 14 of 41)
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I do hereby further invite and request the heads of the Executive
Departments of this Government, together with all legislators, all
judges and magistrates, and all other persons exercising authority
in the land, whether civil, military, or naval, and all soldiers, seamen,
and marines in the national service, and all the other loyal and law-


abiding people of the United States, to assemble in their preferred
places of public worship on that day, and there to render to the
Almighty and merciful Ruler of the Universe, such homage and such
confessions, and to offer to Him such supplications as the Congress
of the United States have, in their aforesaid resolution, so solemnly,
so earnestly, and so reverently recommended.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the
seal of the United States to be affixed.

Done at the City of Washington this seventh day of July, in the
[l. s.] year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-four,
and of the independence of the United States the eighty-
ninth. Abraham Lincoln.
By the President:

William H. Seward, Secretary of State.

The depressing effect of the apparent check in the onward
movement of the work of suppressing the rebellion was,
however, much alleviated by the news which arrived on the
6th of July, of the sinking of the rebel cruiser Alabama, on
the 19th of June, off Cherbourg, by the Kearsarge, under the
command of Captain Winslow. Opportunities for our navy
to distinguish itself in battle, except with forts, had been
rare, and great rejoicing was felt that Semmes, the com-
mander of the Alabama, had at last given to the Kearsarge
an opportunity to prove, in sight of France and England,
that Yankee ships and guns and men were, as of old, dan-
gerous enemies in an encounter.

The Shenandoah Valley had been laid open by Hunter's
movement into West Virginia, and the rebels took advan-
tage of it to make a push northward. They crossed the
Potomac in considerable force, commanded by General
Early, and on the 9th of July defeated our troops under Gen-
eral Wallace, at Monocacy. The President called for twelve :
thousand militia from each of the States of Maryland, Penn-
sylvania, and New York, to meet this invasion, from which
both Baltimore and Washington were felt to be in some
danger. A bold company of raiders even burned the house
of Governor Bradford, only four miles from Baltimore, and,
passing north of Baltimore, cut the Philadelphia and Balti-
more Railroad, capturing two trains of cars. One of the pas- j
sengers on the cars was Major-General Franklin, who was
taken prisoner, but afterwards succeeded in making his es-
cape near Reisterstown. The raiders met little opposition
through the country, one striking exception being the con-


duct of old Ishmael Day, a man of eighty-three years, who,
when a couple of rebels undertook to pull down a flag which
was flying over his gate, shot one of them and forced the
other to retreat. A larger company of them, however, came
and burned the old man's house, but did not succeed in find-
ing him. Extensive preparations were made at Baltimore
to resist an attack, and the general loyalty of the city was in
marked contrast with its attitude at the outset of the rebel-
lion. The militia gathered fast from the loyal States. Gen-
eral Grant had also sent up the Sixth Corps of the Army
of the Potomac to aid in the defence of Washington. The
Nineteenth Corps, which had just arrived from New Orleans,
was also sent thither; and on the 13th of July, the rebel
forces, which had for the two days previous skirmished
smartly in front of Fort Stevens, near Washington, deter-
mined to retreat; and by the end of that week they were all
south of the Potomac, having carried off great quantities of
plunder and spread great consternation through Maryland
and the lower part of Pennsylvania, but not having succeeded
at all in compelling General Grant to loosen his hold upon

Nor was this the only raid which the rebels undertook. In
Kentucky they had made great disturbances under John
Morgan, which, though checked by his rout by General
Burbridge, at Cynthiana, continued, and were receiving so
much countenance from rebel sympathizers in the State, that
the President deemed it wise to declare martial law through-
out the State, which was done by the following proclama-
tion : —


By the President of the United States of America.

Washington, Tuesday, July 5.

Whereas, by a proclamation which was issued on the 15th day of
April, 1861, the President of the United States announced and de-
clared that the laws of the United States had been for some time
past, and then were opposed, and the execution thereof obstructed in
certain States therein mentioned, by combinations too powerful to be
suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings or by the
power vested in the marshals by law; and

Whereas, immediately after the issuing of the said proclamation
the land and naval forces of the United States were put into activity
to suppress the said insurrections and rebellion; and


Whereas, the Congress of the United States, by an act approved
on the third day of March, 1863, did enact that during the said rebel-
lion the President of the United States, whenever in his judgment
the public safety may require it, is authorized to suspend the priv-
ilege of the writ of habeas corpus in any case throughout the United
States, or any part thereof; and

Whereas, the said insurrection and rebellion still continue, endan-
gering the existence of the Constitution and Government of the
United States; and

Whereas, the military forces of the United States are now actively
engaged in suppressing the said insurrection and rebellion in vari-
ous parts of the States where the said rebellion has been successful
in obstructing the laws and public authorities, especially in the States
of Virginia and Georgia; and

Whereas, on the fifteenth day of September last, the President of
the United States duly issued his proclamation, wherein he declared
that the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus should be suspended
throughout the United States, in cases where by the authority of the
President of the United States, the military, naval, and civil officers
of the United States, or any of them, hold persons under their com-,
mand or in their custody, either as prisoners of war, spies, or aiders
or abettors of the enemy, or officers, soldiers, or seamen enrolled or
drafted, or mustered, or enlisted in, or belonging to the land or
naval forces of the United States, or as deserters therefrom, or other-
wise amenable to military law, or the rules and articles of war, or
the rules and regulations prescribed -for the military and naval ser-
vice by authority of the President of the United States, or for re-
sisting a draft, or for any other offence against the military or naval
service; and

Whereas, many citizens of the State of Kentucky have joined the
forces of the insurgents, who have on several occasions entered the
said State of Kentucky in large force and not without aid and com-
fort frunished by disaffected and disloyal citizens of the United
States residing therein, (have not only greatly disturbed the public
peace but have overborne the civil authorities and made flagrant
civil war, destroying property and life in various parts of the State;

Whereas, it has been made known to the President of the United
States, by the officers commanding the National armies, that combin-
ations have been formed in the said State of Kentucky, with a pur-
pose of inciting the rebel forces to renew the said operations of civil
war within the said State, and thereby to embarrass the^ United
States armies now operating in the said States of Virginia and i
Georgia, and even to endanger their safety.

Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United
States, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution
and laws, do hereby declare that in my judgment the public safety
especially requires that the suspension of the privilege of the writ of
habeas corpus so proclaimed in the said proclamation of the 15th
of September, 1863, be made effectual and be duly enforced in and
throughout the said State of Kentucky, and that martial law be for
the present declared therein. I do heretofore hereby require of the


military officers in the said State that the privilege of the habeas
corpus be effectually suspended within the said State, according to
the aforesaid proclamation, and that martial law be established therein
to take effect from the date of this proclamation, the said suspen-
sion and establishment of martial law to continue until this procla-
mation shall be revoked or modified, but not beyond the period when
the said rebellion shall have been suppressed or come to an end. And
I do hereby require and command, as well as military officers, all
civil officers and authorities existing or found within the said State
of Kentucky, to take notice of this proclamation and to give full
effect to the same. The martial laws herein proclaimed and the
things in that respect herein ordered will not be deemed or taken to
interfere with the holding of lawful elections, or with the proceedings
of the constitutional Legislature of Kentucky, or with the admin-
istration of justice in the courts of law existing therein between citi-
zens of the United States in suits or proceedings which do not affect
the military operations or the constituted authorities of the Govern-
ment of the United States.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the
seal of the United States to be affixed.
Done at the City of Washington this 5th day of July, in the year

(l. s.) of our Lord 1864, and of the independence of the United
States the eighty-eighth. Abraham Lincoln.

By the President:
William H. Seward Secretary of State.

While the loyal States were thus engaged in repelling rebel
raids and strengthening the armies, General Sherman con-
tinued nis victorious campaign. His assault upon Kenesaw
was a failure, because of the strength of the rebel works; but
a repetition of the flanking system drove Johnston out of
them across the Chattahoochee, which our army crossed on
I the nth of July. By a movement of his left wing, General
1 Sherman at once seized Decatur, only six miles from Atlanta,
and severed the railroad between Atlanta- and Augusta, by
which time the dissatisfaction, which had been felt in rebel-
dom with Johnston's continued falling back, culminated in
! his removal on the 17th of July, and the appointment of
General Hood in his place. Hood signalized his appointment
by attacking Sherman instead of remaining on the de-
fensive ; and was defeated with heavy loss on the 20th of-
July, and again on the 22d, when our army, though victori-
ous, met with a very severe loss in the death of Major-Gen-
eral McPherson, one of the choicest of the gallant leaders
who had stood around Sherman through all that long, labori-
ous, and bloody march. A raid of our cavalry, under Gen-


real Rousseau, had destroyed the railroad between Atlanta
and Montgomery, for thirty miles, with but little loss. An-
other, under General Stoneman, though partially successful
in what it accomplished on the Macon road, was cut off on
its return, and General Stoneman and most of his' command
were captured, on the 30th of July. Still, the month closed
prosperously upon Sherman's operations. Another rebel at-
tack was bloodily repulsed on the 28th, and his lines were
drawn closely around Atlanta, while the rebel strength had
been more weakened by Hood's assaults than by Johnston's
successive retreats.

At the North, the month did not close so favorably. The
hundred-days men offered by the Northwestern States had
come promptly forward and been assigned to the posts where
they were needed. On the nth of June the President made
the following brief speech to a regiment of them from Ohio,
which passed through Washington : —

Soldiers! I understand you have just come from Ohio; come to
help us in this the nation's day of trial, and also of its hopes. I
thank you for your promptness in responding to the call for troops.
Your services were never needed more than now. I know not where
you are going. You may stay here and take the places of those who
will be sent to the front, or you may go there yourselves. Wherever
you go I know you will do your best. Again I thank you. Good-by.

But notwithstanding the aid which they furnished in order
to make up the re-enforcements needed for Sherman to keep
up his line of communication, for Grant to make the neces-
sary extension of his lines, and for the meeting of rebel raids
in various parts of the country, the President had deemed it
wise, on the 18th of July, to issue the following Proclama-
tion, ordering a draft of five hundred thousand men: —

By the President of the United States of America.

Washington, July 18, 1864.

Whereas, By the act approved July 4, 1864, entitled an act further
to regulate and provide for the enrolling and calling out the national
forces, and for other purposes, it is provided that the President of
the United States may, at his discretion, at any time hereafter, call'
for any number of men as volunters for the respective terms of one, ;'
two, and three years for military service: and that in case the quota,
or any part thereof, of any town, township, ward of a city, precinct,


or election district, or of a county not so subdivided, shall not be
filled within the space of fifty days after such call, then the President
shall immediately order a draft for one year, to fill such quota, or
any part thereof which may be unfilled.

And, whereas, the new enrollment heretofore ordered is so far
completed as that the afore-mentioned act of Congress may now be
put in operation, for recruiting and keeping up the strength of the
armies in the field, for garrisons, and such military operations as
may be required for the purpose of suppressing the rebellion and
restoring the authority of the United States Government in the in-
surgent States.

Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United
States, do issue this my call for five hundred thousand volunteers
for the military service; provided, nevertheless, that all credits which
may be established under section eight of the aforesaid act, on ac-
count of persons who have entered the naval service during the
present rebellion, and by credits for men furnished to the military
service in excess of calls heretofore made for volunteers, will be
accepted under this call for one, two, or three years, as they may
elect, and will be entitled to the bounty provided by law for the
period of service for which they enlist.

And I (hereby proclaim, order, and direct, that after the fifth day
of September, 1864, being fifty days from the date of this call, a
draft for troops to serve for one year, shall be held in every town,
township, ward of a city, precinct, election district, or county not so
subdivided, to fill the quota which shall be assigned to it under this
call, or any part thereof which may be unfilled by volunteers, on the
said fifth day of September, 1864

Done at Washington this 18th day of July, in the year of our Lord,

1864 and of the independence of the United States the eighty-ninth.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused

(l. s.) the seal of the United States to be affixed.

Abraham Lincoln.

By the President :

Wm. H. Seward, Secretary of State.

Towards the last of the month the rebels made another
raid into Maryland and Pennsylvania, and on the 30th of
July the town of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, was occupied
by their cavalry under General McCausland. A written de-
mand, signed by General Early, was presented for $100,000
in gold, or $500,000 in currency, with a threat of burning the
town if the demand was not complied with. As it was not
complied with, they fulfilled their threat and laid the town in
ashes, without giving the citizens time to remove their prop-
erty .

The rebel forces remained north of the Potomac till about
the 7th of August, but accomplished nothing else of impor-
tance. On that day several of our commands which had been


acting against them somewhat independently of each other
were consolidated into one, at the head of which was placed
General Sheridan. The benefit of this change was speedily
seen. The rebels fell back south of the Potomac, and were
so pressed by Sheridan that General Lee deemed it advisable
to re-enforce Early from his own lines, when Sheridan in his
turn fell ba k, and for some weeks there was active ma-
noeuvring on both sides and several small battles were fought,
in which we gained more than the rebels, who were never
able to cross the Potomac in force again.

Two days before the burning of Chambersburg, General
Grant had made a movement on the north side of the James
River, across which, by means of pontoon bridges, he threw
a force which was attacked before it had time to strengthen
its position, but repulsed the rebels with a loss of four guns.
This movement, though only a feint, was heavy enough to
induce General Lee to throw a strong force to the north side
also, when our men were in the night drawn back for an
attack on the Petersburg works, which was made on the
30th. The attack was begun in front of General Burnside's
lines, by the explosion of a mine under one of the rebel forts,
destroying it at once. Instantly every gun in our ranks
opened upon Petersburg and its defences, and an assault
was made upon tfre gap in the rebel lines caused by the ex-
plosion of the mine. The attack was successful in piercing
the lines, but not in carrying a height just within them, called
Cemetery Hill, from which, if we had succeeded in carrying
it, our guns would have commanded Petersburg and its de-
fences. The rebels gathered here in force, and poured so
heavy a fire upon our forces that the assault could not be
maintained, and while part of our troops were driven back,
a large number of them, who had entered the blown-up fort
were unable to return and were compelled to surrender.
Our loss in the whole affair was between two and three thou-
sand men. Charges were made that the colored troops, who
formed a part of the assaulting column, had failed to do their
duty ; but the evidence did not sustain this charge, but
showed that the failure was due mainly to that lack of-cordial
co-operation among the generals in command, which has so
often defeated the most skillful and promising plans.

It was supposed that this repulse would put an end to



active operations in front of Petersburg- for a long; time; but
this was not giving due credit to Grant's unyielding perti-
nacity. An important position on the north side of the James
was captured on the 15th of August, bv a ruse, Hancock's
Corps having been shipped on transports down the river, as
if on their way to Washington, but returning under cover of
night to join the Tenth Corps in taking and holding a posi-
tion only ten miles from Richmond, capturing some five
hundred prisoners and ten guns. This position was impor-
tant to cover the work of our men in digging the Dutch Gap
Canal, through which it was hoped our iron-clads might go
up the river to flank the rebel defences.

Not satisfied wth this success, but taking advantage of
the fact that Lee, encouraged by the ill success of our as-
sault on the 30th of July, had sent a portion of his troops to
re-enforce Early, General Grant, on the 17th, struck a blow
at the other end of his lines, upon the Weldon Railroad,
which was seized by our forces. A furious attack was made
upon them by the rebels, which at one time met with a par-
tial success, but our lines were re-established, and a sub-
sequent attack was repulsed with heavy loss. Two rebel
generals were killed and three wounded. Another and more
determined assault was made on the 26th, but, after tremen-
dous fighting, was also repulsed. Our loss was severe, but
that of the rebels was far more so. The substantial prize of
the struggle, the railroad, remained in our possession, and
thus another of the sources of supply for the army of Gen-
eral Lee was cut off.

Thus the month of August gave us a decided advantage
in Virginia. In the South it gave us brilliant success. In
the early part of the month the preparations were completed
for an attack upon Mobile, by the fleet under Commodore
Farragut, aided by a small land force under General
Granger. The passage of the fleet into the bay past the rebel
forts, and the destruction of the rebel fleet, were accom-
plished in about three hours, on the morning of the 5th of
August. Our fleet consisted of fourteen gunboats and three
monitors. The gunboats were lashed together, two by two,
that one might help the other, and the monitors were on
the starboard side of the fleet. The Brooklyn led the way,
followed by the flagship Hartford and the rest. One of our


monitors, the Tecumseh, commanded by the gallant Craven,
was struck by a torpedo and sunk with all on board, except
her pilot and eight or ten of her crew. This disaster mo-
mentarily checked the advance, when Farragut, in the flag-
ship, rushed forward to the head of the fleet and led the way
past the forts, followed by the rest of the gunboats, each one i
as she went by pouring her broadsides into the rebel forts
Within the harbor the rebel iron-clad Tennessee made des-
perate battle. The rest of the rebel fleet, except one vessel, |
having been captured or destroyed, she was attacked by sev-
eral of our vessels at once, who rammed her severely when-
ever they could get a chance at her, and, seeing the rest of
the fleet and the monitors bearing down upon her, she sur-
rendered. She was commanded by Buchanan, who com-
manded the Merrimac in her famous battle with the Mon-

The conquest of the rebel fleet was followed by the in>i
mediate surrender of Forts Gaines and Powell. Fort Mor-
gan still held out, but was immediately invested by General
Granger. On the 226. an assault of the fort was commenced,
and on the 23d, after a bombardment of twelve hours, in
which about three thousand shells were thrown into it, this
last of the rebel defences of the harbor of Mobile was sur-
rendered unconditionally to our forces.

Nor was this the only success. General Sherman had been
drawing his lines more closely around Atlanta, and Hood
having made the mistake of sending off all his cavalry upon
a fruitless effort to destroy the communications between our
army and Chattanooga, General Sherman took advantage j
of it to make a movement on the west of Atlanta towards
the rear of Hood's army. Leaving one corps to defend our
intrenched lines in front of the city, he threw the rest of his
army upon the railroad to Macon, near West Point, upor
the 30th of August, and thus cut Hood's army in two anc
defeated one portion of it at Jonesboro. Hood, finding thai
he was in danger of being cut off, blew up his magazines I
Atlanta on the night of the 1st of September and retreatec
to the southeast, and on the 2d the Twentieth Corps, ^ whicr!;
had been left in our intrenchments, marched into the city anc
took possession, and General Sherman sent the message t
Washington — "Atlanta is ours and fairlv won."


Before receiving General Sherman's official report, the
War Department had received news of the fall of Atlanta,
and on the 2d, at eight p. m., Mr. Stanton telegraphed to
General Dix, at New York, as follows : —

This department has received intelligence this evening that Gen-
eral Sherman's advance entered Atlanta about noon to-day. The par-
ticulars have not yet been received, but telegraphic communication
during the night with Atlanta direct is expected.

It is ascertained with reasonable certainty that the naval and other
credits required by the act of Congress will amount to about two
hundred thousand, including New York, which has not yet been
reported to this department; so that the President's call of July 10 is
practically reduced to three hundred thousand men, to meet and take
the place of

First — The new enlistments in the navy;

Online LibraryHenry J. (Henry Jarvis) RaymondLincoln, his life and times : being the life and public services of Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth President of the United States, together with his state papers, including his speeches, addresses, messages, letters, and proclamations, and the closing scenes connected with his life and death (Volume 2) → online text (page 14 of 41)