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Henry J. (Henry Jarvis) Raymond.

Lincoln, his life and times : being the life and public services of Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth President of the United States, together with his state papers, including his speeches, addresses, messages, letters, and proclamations, and the closing scenes connected with his life and death (Volume 2) online

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Online LibraryHenry J. (Henry Jarvis) RaymondLincoln, his life and times : being the life and public services of Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth President of the United States, together with his state papers, including his speeches, addresses, messages, letters, and proclamations, and the closing scenes connected with his life and death (Volume 2) → online text (page 23 of 41)
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from all sources, upon the basis of warrants signed by the Secretary
of the Treasury, including loans and the balance in the treasury on
the first day of July, 1863, were $1,394,796,007.62, and the aggregate
disbursements upon the same basis were $1,298,056,101.89, leaving a
balance in the treasury, as shown by warrants, of $96,739,905.73. De-
duct from these amounts the amount of the principal of the public
debt redeemed, and the amount of issues in substitution therefor, and
the actual cash operations of the treasury were, receipts, $884,076,-
646.77, disbursements, $865,234,087.86, which leaves a cash balance in
the treasury of $18,842,558.71. Of the receipts, there were derived
from customs, $102,316,152.99; from lands, $588,333.29; from direct
taxes, $475,648.96; from internal revenues, $109,741,134.10; from mis-
cellaneous sources, $47,511,448.10; and from loans applied to actual
expenditures, including former balance, $623,443,929.13. There were
disbursed, for the civil service, $27,505,599.46; for pensions and In-
dians, $7,517,930.97; for the War Department, $60,791,842.97; for the
Navy Department, $85,733,292.97; for interest of the public debt, $53,-
685,421.69. Making an aggregate of $865,234,087.86, and leaving a
balance in the treasury of $18,842,558.71, as before stated.

For the actual receipts and disbursements for the first quarter, and
the estimated receipts and disbursements for the three remaining
quarters of the current fiscal year, and the general operations of the
Treasury in detail, I refer you to the report of the Secretary of the
Treasury. I concur with him in the opinion that the proportion of
the moneys required to meet the expenses consequent upon the war
derived from taxation should be still further increased ; and I earnestly
invite your attention to this subject, to the end that there may be
such additional legislation as shall be required to meet the just ex-
pectations of the Secretary. The public debt on the 1st day of July
last, as appears by the books of the Treasury, amounted to one
billion seven hundred and forty million six hundred and ninety thou-
sand four hundred and eighty-nine dollars and forty-nine cents.
Probably, should the war continue for another year, that amount may
be increased by not far from five hundred millions. Held as it is,
for the most part, by our own people, it has become a substantial
branch of national though private property. For obvious reasons, the
more nearly this property can be distributed among all the people,
the better. To favor such general distribution, greater inducements
to become owners, perhaps, might with good effect and without in-
jury, be presented to persons of limited means. With this view, I
suggest whether it might not be both expedient and competent for
Congress to provide that a limited amount of some future issue of



STATE PAPERS OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 577

public securities might be held, by any bona-Ude purchaser, exempt
from taxation and from seizure for debt, under such restrictions and
limitations as might be necessary to guard against abuse of so im-
portant a privilege. This would enable prudent persons to set aside
a small annuity against a possible day of want. Privileges like these
would render the possession of such securities to the amount limited
most desirable to any person of small means who might be able to
save enough for the purpose. The great advantage of citizens being
creditors as well as debtors with relation to the public debt is obvi-
ous. Men readily perceive that they cannot be much oppressed by a
debt which they owe to themselves. The public debt on the 1st day
of July last, although somewhat exceeding the estimate of the Secre-
tary of the Treasury made to Congress at the commencement of last
session, falls short of the estimate of that officer made in the preceding
December as to its probable amount at the beginning of this year, by
the sum of $3,995,079-33. This fact exhibits a satisfactory condition
and conduct of the operations of the Treasury.

The national banking system is proving to be acceptable to capi-
talists and to the people. On the 25th day of November, five hundred
and eighty-four national banks had been organized, a considerable
number of which were conversions from State banks. Changes from
the State system to the national system are rapidly taking place, and
it is hoped that very soon there will be in the United States no banks
of issue not authorized by Congress, and no bank-note circulation not
secured by the Government. That the Government and the people
will derive general benefit from this change in the banking system
of the country can hardly be questioned. The national system will
create a reliable and permanent influence in support of the national
credit, and protect the people against losses in the use of paper
money. Whether or not any further legislation is advisable for the
suppression of State bank issues, it will be for Congress to determine.
It seems quite clear that the Treasury cannot be satisfactorily con-
ducted, unless the Government can exercise a restraining power over
the bank-note circulation of the country.

The report of the Secretary of War and the accompanying docu-
ments will detail the campaigns of the armies in the field since the
date of the last annual message, and also the operations of the several
administrative bureaus of the War Department during the last year,
It will also specify the measures deemed essential for the national
defence, and to keep up and supply the requisite military force. The
report of the Secretary of the Navy presents a comprehensive and
satisfactory exhibit of the affairs of that department and of the naval
service. It is a subject of congratulation and laudable pride to our
countrymen that a navy of such proportions has been organized in
so brief a period, and conducted with so much efficiency and success.
The general exhibit of the navy, including vessels under construc-
tion on the 1st of December, 1864, shows a total of 671 vessels, carry-
ing 4,610 guns, and 510,396 tons, being an actual increase during the
year, over and above all losses by shipwreck or in battle, of 83 vessels,
167 guns, and^ 42,427 tons. The total number of men at this time in
the naval service, including officers, is about 51,000. There have been
captured by the navy during the year 324 vessels, and the whole num-



578 THE LIFE, PUBLIC SERVICES, AND

ber of naval captures since hostilities commenced is 1,379. of which
267 are steamers. The gross proceeds arising from the sale of con-
demned prize property thus far reported amounts to $14,396,250.51.
A large amount of such proceeds is still under adjudication, and yet
to be reported. The tolal expenditures of the Navy Department, of
every description, including the cost of the immense squadrons that
have been called into existence from the 4th of March, 1861, to the
1st of November, 1864. are $238,647,262.35. Your favorable consid-
eration is invited to the various recommendations of the Secretary of
the Navy, especially in regard to a navy-yard and suitable establish-
ment for the construction and repair of iron vessels and the machinery
and armature of our ships, to which reference was made in my last
annual message.

Your attention is also invited to the views expressed in the report
in relation to the legislation of Congress, at its last session, in re^
spect to prize on our inland waters.

I cordially concur in the recommendations of the Secretary as to
the propriety of creating the new rank of vice-admiral in our naval
service.

Your attention is invited to the report of the Postmaster-General
for a detailed account of the operations and financial condition of the
Posf-Office Department.

The postal revenues for the year ending June 30, 1864, amounted
to $12,468,253.78, and the expenditures to $12,644,786.20; the excess
of expenditures over receipts being $206,652.42.

The views presented by the Postmaster-General on the subject ol
special grants by the Government, in aid of the establishment of new
lines of ocean mail steamships, and the policy he recommends for
the development of increased commercial intercourse with adjacent
and neighboring countries, should receive the careful consideration
of Congress.

It is of noteworthy interest, that the steady expansion of popula-
tion, improvement, and governmental institutions over the new and
unoccupied portions of our country, has scarcely been checked, much
less impeded or destroyed, by our great civil war, which at first glance
would seem to have absorbed almost the entire energies of the nation.

The organization and admission of the State of Nevada has been
completed in conformity with law, and thus our excellent system is
firmly established in the mountains which once seemed a barren and
uninhabitable waste between the Atlantic States and those which have
grown up on the coast of the Pacific Ocean.

The Territories of the Union are generally in a condition of pros-
perity and rapid growth. Idaho and Montana, by reason of their
great distance and the interruption of communication with them by
Indian hostilities, have been only partially organized; but it is under-
stood that these difficulties are about to disappear, which will permit
their Government like those of the others to go into speedy and full
operation.

As intimately connected with and promotive of this material growth
of the^ nation, I ask the attention of Congress to the valuable in-
formation and important recommendations relating to the public






STATE PAPERS OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 579

Jands, Indian affairs, the Pacific Railroads, and mineral discoveries
contained in the reporc of the Secretary of the Interior, which is
herewith transmitted, and which report also embraces the subjects
of patents, pensions, and other topics of public interest pertaining to
his department. The quantity of public land disposed of during the
five quarters ending on the thirtieth of September last, was 4,221,342
acres, of which 1,538,614 acres were entered under the homestead law.
The remainder was iocated witfr military land warrants, agricultural
script certified to States for railroads, and sold for cash. The cash
received from sales and location fees was $1,019,446. The income
from sales during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1864, was $678,007.21,
against $136,077.95 received during the preceding year. The aggre-
gate number of acres surveyed during the year has been equal to the
quantity disposed of, and there is open to settlement about 133,000,-
000 acres of surveyed land.

The great enterprise of connecting the Atlantic with the Pacific
States by railways and telegraph lines has been entered upon with a
vigor that gives assurance of success, notwithstanding the embarrass-
ments arising from the prevailing high prices of materials and labor.
The route of the main line of the road has been definitely located
for one hundred miles westward from the central point at Omaha
City, Nebraska, and a preliminary location of the Pacific Railroad of
California has been made from Sacramento, eastward, to the great
bend of Mucker River, in Nevada. Numerous discoveries of gold,
silver, and cinnabar mines have been added to the many heretofore
known, and the country occupied by the Sierra Nevada and Rocky
Mountains and the subordinate ranges now teems with enterprising
labor which is richly remunerative. It is believed that the product
of the mines of precious metals in that region has during the year
reached, if not exceeded, $100,000,000 in value.

It was recommended in my last annual message that our Indian
system be remodeled. Congress at its last session, acting upon the
recommendation, did provide for reorganizing the system in Cali-
fornia, and it is believed that, under the present organization, the
management of the Indians there will be attended with reasonable
success. Much yet remains to be done to provide for the proper
government of the Indians in other narts of the country, to render
it secure for the advancing settler and to provide for the welfare of
the nation. The Secretary reiterates his recommendations, and to
them the attention of Congress is invited.

The liberal provisions made by Congress for paying pensions to
invalid soldiers and sailors of the Republic, and to the widows,
orphans, and dependent mothers of those who have fallen in battle, or
died of disease contracted, or of wounds received in the service of
their country, have been diligently administered.

There have been added to the pension-rolls, during the year ending
the 30th day of June last, the names of 16,770 invalid soldiers, and of
271 disabled seamen: making the present number of armv invalid
pensioners 22,767, and of the navy invalid pensioners, 712. Of widows,
ornhans, and mothers. 22,198 have been placed on the army pension-
rolls, and 248 on the navy rolls. The present number of army pensioners



580 THE LIFE, PUBLIC SERVICES, AND

of this class is 25,443, and of the navy pensioners, 793. At the beginning
of the year the number of Revolutionary pensioners was 1,430; only
twelve of them were soldiers, of which seven have since died. The
remainder are those who under the law receive pensions because of,
relationship to Revolutionary soldiers.

During the year ending the 30th of June, 1864, $4,504,616.92 have
been paid to pensioners of all classes.

I cheerfully commend to your continued patronage the benevolent
institutions of the District of Columbia, which have hitherto been
established or fostered by Congress, and respectfully refer for in-
formation concerning them, and in relation to the Washington Aque-
duct, the Capitol, and other matters of local interest, to the report
of the Secretary.

The Agricultural Department, under the supervision of its present
energetic and faithful head, is rapidly commending itself to the great
and vital interest it was created to advance. It is peculiarly the peo-
ple's department, in which they feel more directly concerned than in
any other. I commend it to the continued attention and fostering
care of Congress.

The war continues. Since the last annual message, all the import-
ant lines and positions then occupied by our armies have been main-
tained, and our armies have steadily advanced, thus liberating the
regions Jeft in the rear; so that Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and
parts of other States have again produced reasonably fair crops.

The most remarkable feature in the military operations of the year
is General Sherman's attempted march of three hundred miles, di-
rectly through an insurgent region. It tends to show a great increase
of our relative strength, that our General-in-Chief should feel able to
confront and hold in check every active force of the enemy, and yet
to detach a well-appointed large army to move on such an expedition.
The result not yet being known, conjecture in regard to it cannot
here be indulged.

Important movements have also occurred during the year, to the
effect of moulding society for durability in the Union. Although
short of complete success, it is much in the right direction that 12,000
citizens in each of the States of Arkansas and Louisiana have organ-
ized loyal State Governments, with free constitutions, and are earnestly
struggling to maintain and administer them.

The movements in the same direction, more extensive though less
definite, in Missouri, Kentucky, and Tennessee, should not be over-
looked.

But Maryland presents the example* of complete success. Mary-
land is secure to liberty and Union for all the future. The genius
of rebellion will no more claim Maryland. Like another foul spirit,
being driven out, it may seek to tear her, but it will woo her no more.

At the last session of Congress, a proposed amendment of the Con-
stitution, abolishing slavery throughout" the United States, passed the
Senate, but failed for lack of the requisite two-thirds vote in the
House of Representatives. Although the present is the same Con-
gress, and nearly the same members, and without questioning the
wisdom or patriotism of those v/ho stood in opposition, I venture to



STATE PAPERS OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 5^ T

recommend the reconsideration and passage of the measure at the
present session. Of course the abstract question is not changed, but
an intervening election shows almost certainly that the next Con-
gress will pass the measure, if this does not. Hence there is only a
question of time as to when the proposed amendment will go to the
States for their action, and as it is to go at all events, may we not
agree that the sooner the better? It is not claimed that the election
has imposed a duty on members to change their views or their votes
any further than as an additional element to be considered. Their
judgment may be affected by it. It is the voice of the people now
for the first time heard upon the question. In a great national crisis
like ours, unanimity of action among those seeking a common end
is very desirable — almost indispensable; and yet no approach to such
unanimity is attainable unless some deference shall be paid to the
will of the majority. In this case the common end is the mainte-
nance of the Union, and among the means to secure that end, such
will, through the election, is most clearly declared in favor of such
constitutional amendment. The most reliable indication of public
purpose in this country is derived through our popular elections.
Judging by the recent canvass and its results, the purpose of the
people within the loyal States to maintain the integrity of the Union
was never more firm nor more nearly unanimous than now. _ The ex-
traordinary calmness and good order with which the millions of
voters met and mingled at the polls, give strong assurance of this.
Not only all those who supported the Union ticket (so-called), but
a great majority of the opposing party also, may be fairly claimed
to entertain and to be actuated by the same purpose. It is an un-
answerable argument to this effect that no candidate for any office
whatever, high or low, has ventured to seek votes on the avowal
that he was for giving up the Union. There has been much im-
pugning of motives, ?nd much heated controversy as to the proper
means and best mode of advancing the Union cause; but in the dis-
tinct issue of Union or no Union, the politicians have shown their
instinctive knowledge that there is no diversity among the people. In
affording the people the fair opportunity of showing one to another,
and to the world, this firmness and unanimity of purpose, the election
has been of vast value to the national cause. The election has exhib-
ited another fact, not less valuable to be known — the fact that we do
not approach exhaustion in the most important branch of the national
resources — that of living men. While it is melancholy to reflect that
the war has filled so many graves, and caused mourning to so many
hearts, it is some relief to know that, compared with the surviving,
the fallen have been so few. While corps and divisions and regiments
have formed and fought and dwindled and gone out of existence, a
great majority of the men who composed them are still living. The
same is true of the naval service. The election returns prove this.
So many voters could not else be found. The States regularly hold-
ing elections, both now and four years ago — to wit : California, Con-
necticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Mary-
land, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New Hamp-
shire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode
Island, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wisconsin — cast 3,982,011 votes



5&2 THE LIFE, PUBLIC SERVICES, AND

now, against 3,870,222 cast then; showing an aggregate now of 3,982,-
01 1, to which is to be added 33,762 cast now in the new States of
Kansas and Nevada, which States did not vote in i860; thus swelling
the aggregate to 4,015,773, and the net increase, during the three
years and a half of war, to 145,551. A table is appended, showing
particulars. To this again should be added the numbers of all sol-
diers in the field belonging to Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New
Jersey, Delaware, Indiana, Illinois, and California, who by the laws
of those States could not vote away from their homes, and which
number cannot be less than 90,000. Nor yet is this all. The number
in organized Territories is triple now what it was four years ago,
while thousands, white and black, join us as the national arms press
back the insurgent lines. So much is shown affirmatively and nega-
tively by the election. It is not material to inquire how the increase
has been produced, or to show that it would have been greater but
for. the war, which is probably true. The important fact remains
demonstrated that we have more men now than we had when the
war began; that we are not exhausted, nor in process of exhaustion;
that we are gaining, strength, and may, if need be, maintain the con-
test indefinitely. This as to men.

Comparative Vote, i860 and 1864.

i860. 1864.

Kentucky 148,216 91,300

Maine 97,9i8 115,141

Maryland 92,502 72,703

Massachusetts 169,533 175487

Michigan 154,747 162,413

Minnesota 34,799 42,534

Missouri 165,538 *90,ooo

New Hampshire 65,953 69,111

New Jersey 121,125 128,680

New York 675,156 730,664

2 hio 442,441 470,745

Oregon 14,410 **i4,4io

Pennsylvania 476, 442 572,697

Rhode Island 19,931 22,187

Vermont 42,844 55,81 1

West Virginia 46,195 33,874

Wisconsin 152,180 148,513

Total 3,870,222 3,082,011

Kansas 17,234

Nevada 16,528 33,762



Total.



4,015,773



Material resources are now more complete and abundant than ever.
The national resources, then, are unexhausted, and, as we believe,

**Estimated.



STATE PAPERS OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 583

inexhaustible. The prblic purpose to re-establish and maintain the
national authority is unchanged, and, as we believe, unchangeable.
The manner of continuing the effort remains to choose. On careful
consideration of all the evidence accessible, it seems to me that no
attempt at negotiation with the insurgent leader could result in any
good. He would accept of nothing short of the severance of the
Union. His declarations to this effect are explicit and oft repeated.
He does not attempt to deceive us. He affords us no excuse to de-
ceive ourselves. We cannot voluntarily yield it. Between him and
us the issue is distinct, simple, and inflexible. It is an issue which
can only be tried by war, and decided by victory. If we yield, we
are beaten. If the Southern people fail him, he is beaten. Either
way it would be the victory and defeat following war. What is true,
however, of him who heads the insurgent cause, is not necessarily
true of those who follow. Although he cannot reaccept the Union,
they can. Some of them we know already desire peace and reunion.
The number of such may increase. They can at any moment have
peace simply by laying down their arms and submitting to the na-
tional authority under the Constitution. After so much the Govern-
ment could not, if it would, maintain war against them. The loyal
people would not sustain or allow it. If questions should remain, we
would adjust them by the peaceful means of legislation, conference,
courts, and votes, operating only in constitutional and lawful chan-
nels. Some certain and other possible questions are, and would be,
beyond the executive power to adjust — as, for instance, the admission
of members into Congress, and whatever might require the appro-
priation of money. The executive power itself would be greatly di-
minished by the cessation of accual war. Pardons and remissions of
forfeiture, however, would still be within the executive control. In
what spirit and temper this control would be exercised, can be fairly
judged of by the past. A year ago general pardon and amnesty,
upon specified terms, were offered to all except certain designated
classes, and it was at the same time made known that the excepted
classes were still within contemplation of special clemency. During
the year many availed themselves of the general provision, and many
more would, only that the signs of bad faith in some led to such pre-
cautionary measures as rendered the practical process less easy and
certain. During the same time, also, special pardons have been
granted to individuals of excepted classes, and no voluntary applica-
tion has been denied.

Thus practically the door has been for a full year open to all, ex-
cept such as were not in condition to make free choice — that is, such



Online LibraryHenry J. (Henry Jarvis) RaymondLincoln, his life and times : being the life and public services of Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth President of the United States, together with his state papers, including his speeches, addresses, messages, letters, and proclamations, and the closing scenes connected with his life and death (Volume 2) → online text (page 23 of 41)