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Henry J. (Henry Jarvis) Raymond.

Lincoln, his life and times : being the life and public services of Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth President of the United States, together with his state papers, including his speeches, addresses, messages, letters, and proclamations, and the closing scenes connected with his life and death (Volume 2) online

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Online LibraryHenry J. (Henry Jarvis) RaymondLincoln, his life and times : being the life and public services of Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth President of the United States, together with his state papers, including his speeches, addresses, messages, letters, and proclamations, and the closing scenes connected with his life and death (Volume 2) → online text (page 5 of 41)
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defined by treaties. In no instance, however, is it expressly stipu-
lated that in the event of civil war a foreigner residing in this coun-
try, within the - lines of the insurgents, is to be exempted from the
rule which classes him as a belligerent, in whose behalf the Gov-
ernment of his country cannot expect any privileges or immunities
distinct from that character. I regret to say, however, that such
claims have been put forward, and in some instances, in behalf of
foreigners who have lived in the United States the greater part of
their lives.

There is reason to believe that many persons born in foreign coun-



410 THE LIFE, PUBLIC SERVICES, AND

tries, who have declared their intention to become citizens, or who
have been fully naturalized, have evaded the military duty required
of them by denying the fact, and thereby throwing upon the Gov-
ernment the .burden of proof. It has been found difficult or im-
practicable to obtain this proof, from the want of guides to the
proper sources of information. These might be supplied by requir-
ing clerks of courts, where declarations of intention may be made,
or naturalizations effected, to send periodically lists of the names of
the persons naturalized, or declaring their intention to become citi-
zens, to the Secretary of the Interior, in whose department those
names might be arranged and printed for general information. There
is also reason to believe that foreigners frequently become citizens
of the United States for the sole purpose of evading duties imposed
by the laws of their native countries, to which, on becoming natur-
alized here, they at once repair, and. though never returning to the
United States, they still claim the interposition of this Government
as citizens.

Many altercations and great prejudices have heretofore arisen out
of this abuse. It is, therefore, submitted to your serious considera-
tion. It might be advisable to fix a limit beyond which no citizen
of the United States residing abroad may claim the interposition of
his Government.

The right of suffrage has often been assumed and exercised by
aliens under pretences of naturalization, which they have disavowed
when drafted into the military service.

Satisfactory arrangements have been made with the Emperor of
Russia, which, it is believed, will result in effecting a continuous
line of telegraph through that empire from our Pacific coast.

I recommend to your favorable consideration the subject of an
international telegraph across the Atlantic Ocean, and also of a tele-
graph between this capital and the national forts along the Atlantic
seaboard and the Gulf of Mexico. Such communications, established
with any reasonable outlay, would be economical as well as effective
aids to the diplomatic, military, and naval service.

The Consular system of the United States, under the enactments
of the last Congress, begins to be self-sustaining, and there is reason
to hope that it may become entirely so with the increase of trade,
which will ensue whenever peace is restored.

Our Ministers abroad have been faithful in defending American
rights. In protecting commercial interests, our Consuls have nec-
essarily had to encounter increased labors and responsibilities grow-
ing out of the war. These they have, for the most part, met and
discharged with zeal and efficiency. This acknowledgment justly in-
cludes those Consuls who, residing in Morocco, Egypt, Turkey,
Japan, China, and other Oriental countries, are charged with com-
plex functions and extraordinary powers.

The condition of the several organized Territories is generally
satisfactory, although Indian disturbances in New Mexico have not
been entirely suppressed.

The mineral resources of Colorado, Nevada, Idaho, New Mexico
and Arizona, are proving far richer than has been heretofore under-
stood. I lay before you a communication on this subject from the



STATE PAPERS OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 411

Governor of New Mexico. I again submit to your consideration the
expediency of establishing a system for the encouragement of emi-
gration. Although this source of national wealth and strength is
again flowing with greater freedom than for several years before
the insurrection occurred, there is still a great deficiency of laborers
in every field of industry, especially in agriculture and in our mines,
as well of iron and coal as of the precious metals. While the de-
mand for labor is thus increased here, tens of thousands of persons,
destitute of remunerative occupation, are thronging our foreign con-
sulates, and offering to emigrate to the United States, if essential,
but very cheap, assistance can be afforded them. It is easy to see
that under the sharp discipline of civil war the nation is beginning
a new life. This noble effort demands the aid,, and ought to receive
the attention and support, of the Government.

Injuries unforeseen by the Government, and unintended, may in
some cases have been inflicted on the subjects or citizens of foreign
countries, both at sea and on land, by persons in the service of the
United States. As this Government expects redress from other
Powers when similar injuries are inflicted by persons in their service
upon citizens of the United States, we must be prepared to do justice
to foreigners. If the existing judicial tribunals are inadequate to
this purpose, a special court may be authorized, with power to hear
and decide such claims of the character referred to as may have
arisen under treaties and the public law. Conventions for adjusting
the claims by joint commission have been proposed to some Gov-
ernments, but no definite answer to the proposition has yet been
received from any.

In the course of the session I shall probably have occasion to
request you to provide indemnification to claimants where decrees
of restitution have been rendered and damages awarded by Admiralty
Courts; and in other cases, where this Government may be acknowl-
edged to be liable in principle, and where the amount of that lia-
bility has been ascertained by an informal arbitration, the proper
officers of the Treasury have deemed themselves required by the
law of the United States upon the subject to demand a tax upon
the incomes of foreign Consuls in this country. While such a de-
mand may not, in strictness, be in derogation of public law, or per-
haps of any existing treaty between the United States and a foreign
country, the expediency of so far modifying the act as to exempt
from tax the income of such Consuls as are not citizens of the
United States, derived from the emoluments of their office, or from
property not situate in the United States, is submitted to your serious
consideration. I make this suggestion upon the ground that a
comity which ought to be reciprocated exempts our Consuls in all
other countries from taxation to the extent thus indicated. The
United States, I think, ought not to be exceptionally illiberal to
international trade and commerce.

The operations of the Treasury during the last year have been
successfully conducted. The enactment by Congress of a National
Banking Law has proved a valuable support of trie public credit, and
the general legislation in relation to loans has fully answered the
expectation of its favorers. Some amendments may be required to



412 THE LIFE, PUBLIC SERVICES, AND

perfect existing laws, but no change in their principles or general
scope is believed to be needed. Since these measures have been in
operation, all demands on the Treasury, including the pay of the
:army and navy, have been promptly met and fully satisfied. No
•considerable body of troops, it is believed, were ever more amply
provided and more liberally and punctually paid; and, it may be
added, that by no people were the burdens incident to a great war
more cheerfully borne.

The receipts during the year, from all sources, including loans and
the balance in the Treasury at its commencement, were $901,125,-
674.86, and the aggregate disbursements $895,796,630.65, leaving a
balance on the 1st of July, 1863, of $5,329,044.21. Of the receipts,
there were derived from customs, $69,059,642.40; from internal reve-
nue, $37,640,787.95; from direct tax, $1,485,103.61; from lands, $167,-
617.17; from miscellaneous sources $3,046,615.35; and from loans,
$776,682,361.57; making the aggregate $901,125,674.86. Of the dis-
bursements, there were for the civil service, $23,253,922.08; for pen-
sions and Indians, $4,216,520.79; for interest on public debt, $24,729,-
846.51; for the War Department, $599,298,600.83; for the Navy De-
partment, $63,211,105.27; for payment of funded and temporary debt,
$181,086,635.07; making the aggregate $895,796,630.65, and leaving the
balance of $5,329,044.21.

But the payment of the funded and temporary debt, having been
made from moneys borrowed during the year, must be regarded as^
merely nominal payments, and the moneys borrowed to make them
as merely nominal receipts; and their amount, $181,086,535.07, should
therefore be deducted both from receipts and disbursements. This
being done, there remains, as actual receipts, $720,039.70, and the
actual disbursements $714,709,995.58, leaving the balance as already
stated.

The actual receipts and disbursements for the first quarter, and the
estimated receipts and disbursements for the remaining three quar-
ters of the current fiscal year, 1864, will be shown in detail by the
report of the Secretary of the Treasury, to which I invite your at-
tention.

It is sufficient to say here, that it is not believed that actual re-
sults will exhibit a state of the finances less favorable to the country
than the estimates of that officer heretofore submitted, while it is
confidently expected that, at the close of the year, both disburse-
ments and debt will be found very considerably less than has been
anticipated.

The report of the Secretary of War is a document of great inter-
est. It consists of —

First. — The military operations of the year detailed in the report
of the General-in-Chief.

Second. — The organization of colored persons into the war service.

Third. — The exchange of prisoners, fully set forth in the letter of
General Hitchcock.

Fourth. — The operations under the act for enrolling and calling
out the national forces, detailed in the report of the Provost-Marshal
General.

Fifth. — The organization of the Invalid Corps. And —



STATE PAPERS OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 413

Sixth. — The operations of the several departments of the Quarter-
master-General. Commissary-General, Paymaster-General, Chief of
Engineers, Chief of Ordnance, and Surgeon-General. It has ap-
peared impossible to make a valuable summary of this report, except
such as would be too extended for this place, and hence I content
myself by asking your careful attention to the report itself. The
duties devolving on the naval branch of the service during the year,
and throughout the whole of this unhappy contest, have been dis-
charged with fidelity and eminent success. The extensive blockade
has been constantly increasing in efficiency, as the navy has ex-
panded, yet on so long a line it has, so far, been impossible entirely
to suppress illicit trade. From returns received at the Navy De-
partment, it appears that more than one thousand vessels have been
captured since the blockade was instituted, and that the value of
prizes already sent in for adjudication amount to over thirteen mil-
lions of dollars.

The na\'al force of the United States consists at this time of five
hundred and eighty-eight vessels completed and in the course of com-
pletion, and of these seventy-five are iron-clad or armored steamers.
The events of the war give an increased interest and importance to
the navy, which will probably extend beyond the war itself. The
armored vessels in our navy, completed and in service, or which are
under contract and approaching completion, are believed to exceed,
in number those of any other Power; but while these may be relied
upon for harbor defence and coast service, others of greater strength
and capacity will be necessary for cruising purposes, and to maintain
our rightful position on the ocean.

The change that has taken place in naval vessels and naval warfare
since the introduction of steam as a motive power for ships of war,
demands either a corresponding change in some of our existing
navy-yards, or the establishment of new ones, for the construction
and necessary repair of modern naval vessels. No inconsiderable
embarrassment, delay and public injury, have been experienced from
the want of such governmental establishments.

The neceessity of such a navy-yard, so furnished, at some suitable
place upon the Atlantic seaboard, has, on repeated occasions, been
brought to the attention of Congress by the Navy Department, and
is again presented in the report of the Secretary, w r hich accompanies
this communication, and I think it my duty to invite your special at-
tention to this subject, and also to that of establishing a yard and
depot for naval purposes upon one of the Western rivers. A naval
force has been created on these interior waters, and under many dis-
advantages, within a little more than two years, exceeding in number
the whole naval force of the country at the commencement of the
present Administration. Satisfactory and important as have been the
performances of the heroic men of the navy at this interesting period,
they are scarcely more wonderful than the success of our mechanics
and artisans in the production of war-vessels, which has created a
new form of naval power.

Our country has advantages superior to any other nation in our
resources of iron and timber, with inexhaustible quantities of fuel in
the immediate vicinitv of both, and all available and in close prox-



414 THE LIFE, PUBLIC SERVICES, AND

imity to navigable waters. Without the advantage of public works,
the resources of the nation have been developed, and its power dis-
played, in the construction of a navy of such magnitude, which has
at the very period of its creation rendered signal service to the
Union.

The increase of the number of seamen in the public service from
seven thousand five hundred men in the spring of 1861. to about
thirty-four thousand at the present time, has been accomplished with-
out special legislation or extraordinary bounties to promote that
increase. It has been found, however, that the operation of the draft,
with the high bounties paid for army recruits, is beginning to affect
injuriously the naval service, and will, if not corrected, be likely to
impair its efficiency by detaching seamen from their proper vocation,
and inducing them to enter the army. I therefore respectfully sug-
gest that Congress might aid both the army and naval service by a
definite provision on this subject, which would at the same time be
equitable to the communities more especially interested.

I commend to your consideration the suggestions of the Secretary
of the Navy, in regard to the policy of fostering and training sea-
men, and also the education of officers and engineers for the naval
service. The Naval Academy is rendering signal service in preparing
midshipmen for the highly resoonsible duties which in after-life they
will be required to perform. In order that the country should not be
deprived of the proper quota of educated officers, for which legal
provision has been made at the naval school, the vacancies caused by
the neglect or omission to make nominations from the States in in-
surrection, have been filled by the Secretary of the Navy. The
school is now more full and complete than at any former period, and
in every respect entitled to the favorable consideration of Congress.

During the last fiscal year the financial condition of the Post-Office
Department has been one of increasing prosperity, and I am gratified
in being able to state that the actual postal revenue has nearly
equalled the entire expenditures, the latter amounting to $11,314,-
206.84, and the former to $11,163789.59, leaving a deficiency of but
$150,417.25. In i860, the year immediately preceding the rebellion,
the deficiency amounted to $5,656,705.49, the postal receipts for that
year being $2,647,225.19 less than those of 1863. The decrease since
i860 in the annual amount of transportation has been only about 25
per cent; but the annual expenditure on account of the same has
been reduced 35 per cent. It is manifest, therefore, that the Post-
Office Department may become self-sustaining in a few years, even
with the restoration of the whole service.

The international conference of postal delegates from the principal
countries of Europe and America, which was called at the suggestion
of the Postmaster-General, met at Paris on the nth of May last, and
concluded its deliberations on the 8th of July. The principles estab-
lished by the conference as best adapted to facilitate postal inter-
course between nations, and as the basis of future postal conventions,
inaugurates a general system of uniform international charges at re-
duced rates of postage, and cannot fail to produce beneficial results.
I refer you to the Report 'of the Secretary of the Interior, which is
herewith laid before you, for useful and varied information in relation



STATE PAPERS OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 415

to Public Lands, Indian Affairs,- Patents, Pensions, and other mat-
ters of the public concern pertaining to his department.

The quantity of land disposed of during the last and the first quar-
ter of the present iiscal year was three million eight hundred and
forty-one thousand five hundred and forty-nine acres, of which one
hundred and sixty-one thousand nine hundred and eleven acres were
sold for cash. One million four hundred and fifty-six thousand five
hundred and fourteen acres were taken up under the Homestead
Law, and the residue disposed of under laws granting lands for
military bounties, for railroad and other purposes. It also appears
that the sale of public lands is largely on the increase.

It has long been a cherished opinion of some of our wisest states-
men that the people of the United States had a higher and more en-
during interest in the early settlement and substantial cultivation of
the public lands than in the amount of direct revenue to be derived
from the sale of them. This opinion has had a controlling influence
in shaping legislation upon the subject of our national domain. I
may cite, as evidence of this, the liberal measures adopted in refer-
ence to actual settlers, the grant to the States of the overflowed lands
within their limits, in order to their being reclaimed and rendered
fit for cultivation, the grants to railway companies of alternate sec-
tions of land upon the contemplated lines of their roads, which, when
completed, will so largely multiply the facilities for reaching our dis-
tant possessions. This policy has received its most signal and benefi-
cent illustration in the recent enactment granting homesteads to
actual settlers. Since the last day of January last, the before-men-
tioned quantity of one million four hundred and fifty-six thousand
five hundred and fourteen acres of land have been taken up under its
provisions. This fact, and the amount of sales, furnish gratifying
evidence of increasing settlement upon the public lands, notwith-
standing the great struggle in which the energies of the nation have
been engaged, and which has required so large a withdrawal of our
citizens from their accustomed pursuits. I cordially concur in the
recommendation of the Secretary of the Interior, suggesting a modi-
fication of the act in favor of those engaged in the military and naval
service of the United States.

I doubt not that Congress will cheerfully adopt such measures as
will, without essentially changing the general features of the system,
secure to the greatest practical extent its benefits to those who have
left their homes in defence of the country in this arduous crisis.

I invite your attention to the views of the Secretary as to the pro-
priety of raising, by appropriate legislation, a revenue from the min-
eral lands of the United States. The measures provided at your last
session for the removal of certain Indian tribes have been carried into
effect. Sundry treaties have been negotiated, which will, in due time,
be submitted for the constitutional action of the Senate. They con-
tain stipulations for extinguishing the possessory rights of the In-
dians to large and valuable tracts of lands. It is hoped that the effect
of these treaties will result in the establishment of permanent friendly
relations with such of these tribes as have been brought into frequent
and bloody collision with our outlying settlements and emigrants.
Sound policy, and our imperative duty to those wards of the Govern-



416 THE LIFE, PUBLIC SERVICES, AND

ment, demand our anxious and constant attention to their material
well-being, to their progress in the arts of civilization, and, above
all, to that moral training which, under the blessing of Divine Provi-
dence, will confer upon them the elevated and sanctifying influence,
the hopes and consolations of the Christian faith. I suggested in my
last Annual Message the propriety of remodelling our Indian system.
Subsequent events have satisfied me of its necessity. The details set
forth in the report of the Secretary evince the urgent need for im-
mediate legislative action.

I commend the benevolent institution, established or patronized by
the Government in this District, to your generous and fostering care.

The attention of Congress, during the last session, was engaged to
some extent with a proposition for enlarging the water communica-
tion between the Mississippi River and the northeastern seaboard,
which proposition, however, failed for the time. Since then, upon a
call of the greatest respectability, a convention has been held at Chi-
cago upon the same subject, a summary of whose views is contained
in a Memorial Address to the President and Congress, and which I
now have the honor to lay before you. That the interest is one which
will ere long force its own way I do not entertain a doubt, while it
is submitted entirely to your wisdom as to what can be done now.
Augmented interest is given to this subject by the actual commence-
ment of work upon the Pacific Railroad, under auspices so favorable
to rapid progress and completion. The enlarged navigation becomes
a palpable need to the great road.

I transmit the second annual report of the Commissioners of the
Department of Agriculture, asking your attention to the develop-
ments in that vital interest of the nation.

' When Congress assembled a year ago, the war had already lasted
nearly twenty months, and there had been many conflicts on both
land and sea, with varying results; the rebellion had been pressed
back into reduced limits; yet the tone of public feeling and opinion,
at home and abroad, was not satisfactory. With other signs, the pop-
ular elections then just past indicated uneasiness among ourselves,
while, amid much that- was cold and menacing, the kindest words
coming from Europe were uttered in accents of pity that we were
too blind to surrender a hopeless cause. Our commerce was suffer-
ing greatly by a few vessels built upon and furnished from foreign
shores, and we were threatened with such additions from the same
quarters as would sweep our trade from the seas and raise our block-
ade. We had failed to elicit from European Governments any thing
hopeful upon this subject.

The preliminary Emancipation Proclamation issued in September
was running its assigned period to the beginning of the new year. A
month later, the final proclamation came, including the announce-
ment that colored men of suitable condition would be received in
the war service. The policy of emancipation and of employing black
soldiers gave to the future a new aspect, about which hope and fear
and doubt contended in uncertain conflict. According to our polit-
ical system, as a matter of civil administration, the Government had
no lawful power to effect emancipation in any State, and for a long
time it had been hoped that the rebellion could be suppressed without



STATE PAPERS OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 417

resorting to it as a military measure. It was all the while deemed
possible that the necessity for it might come, and that if it should,
the crisis of the contest would then be presented. It came, and, as
was anticipated, was followed by dark and doubtful days.

Eleven months having now past, we are permitted to take another



Online LibraryHenry J. (Henry Jarvis) RaymondLincoln, his life and times : being the life and public services of Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth President of the United States, together with his state papers, including his speeches, addresses, messages, letters, and proclamations, and the closing scenes connected with his life and death (Volume 2) → online text (page 5 of 41)