Copyright
Henry J. (Henry Jarvis) Raymond.

The life and public services of Abraham Lincoln. Together with his state papers, including his speeches, addresses, messages, letters, and proclamations, and the closing scenes connected with his life and death. To which are added anecdotes and personal reminiscences of President Lincoln online

. (page 1 of 84)
Online LibraryHenry J. (Henry Jarvis) RaymondThe life and public services of Abraham Lincoln. Together with his state papers, including his speeches, addresses, messages, letters, and proclamations, and the closing scenes connected with his life and death. To which are added anecdotes and personal reminiscences of President Lincoln → online text (page 1 of 84)
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IN MEMORY

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PURCHASED FROM FUNDS PRESENTED TO

THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY
BY HER FORMER STUDENTS



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LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES



OF



ABRAHAM LINCOLN.



THE H<

PUBLIC LIBRA;

TILDEN FOX.





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THE



LIFE AND PUBLIC SEEVICES



OF



ABKAHAM LINCOLN;

SIXTEENTH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES ;



TOGETHER WITH



HIS STATE PAPERS,

INCLUDING

HIS SPEECHES, ADDRESSES, MESSAGES, LETTERS,

AND PROCLAMATIONS,

AND

THE CLOSING SCENES CONNECTED WITH HIS LIFE AND DEATH.



BY

HENRY J. RAYMOND.



TO "WHICH ARE ADDED

ANECDOTES AND PERSONAL REMINISCENCES OF PRESIDENT LINCOLN,

By FRANK B. CARPENTER.



With a Steel Portrait, and other Illustrations.



NEW YORK:

DERBY AND MILLER, PUBLISHERS,

No. 5 Spruce Street.
18 6*5.



Tils uzJwnXT

•UtfLIC LIBRARY

65633.



AJto*. unr:n and



v Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1S65,

By DERBY & MILLER,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District

of New York.



Alvord, Stereotyped and Printer.



- • •



PREFACE.



During the Presidential canvass of 1864, the author
of this work prepared for its publishers^ volume upon
the Administration of President Lincoln. Its main object
was to afford the American people the materials for form-
ing an intelligent judgment as to the wisdom of continu-
ing Mr. Lincoln, for four years more, in the Presidential
office.

That canvass resulted in his re-election. But he had
scarcely entered upon the duties and responsibilities
of his second term, when his career was closed by
assassination. He had lived long enough, however,
to finish the great work which had devolved upon him.
Before his eyes were closed, they beheld the overthrow
of the rebellion, the extirpation of slavery, and the res-
toration, over all the land, of the authority of the
Constitution of the United States.

Not the people of his own country alone, but all
the world, will study with interest the life and public
acts of one whose work was at once so great and so
successful. The principles which guided his conduct,
and the policy by which he sought to carry them out —
the temper and character which were the secret sources
of his strength — will be sought and found in the acts
and words of his public life. For more truly, perhaps,



6 Preface.

than any other man of his own or of any other time,
Mr. Lincoln had but one character and one mode of
action, in public and private affairs.

It is the purpose of this work, so far as possible,
to facilitate this inquiry. Every public speech, message,
letter, or document of any sort from his pen, so far as
accessible, will be found included in its pages. ' These
documents, with the narrative by which they are accom-
panied, may, it is hoped, aid the public in understanding
aright the character and conduct of the most illustrious
actor, in the most important era, of American history.



ILLUSTRATIONS.



L POKTEAIT OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN, engraved by A. H. Ritchie.

2. ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S EARLY HOME IN KENTUCKY.

3. ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S HOME IN SPRINGFIELD.

4. PRESIDENT LINCOLN AND HIS FAMILY, 1861.

5. RAISING THE OLD FLAG AT INDEPENDENCE HALL,

6. INAUGURATION AS PRESIDENT AT WASHINGTON.

7. PROCLAMATION OF EMANCIPATION.

a FAC-SIMILE OF PRESIDENT LINCOLN'S LETTER TO "MR. RAYMOND.
9. PRESIDENT LINCOLN ENTERING RICHMOND.

10. ASSASSINATION AT FORD'S THEATRE.

11. THE DEATH OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

12. FUNERAL CORTEGE THROUGH NEW YORK.

13. FUNERAL ARCH OVER HUDSON RIVER RAILROAD.

14. RECEPTION OF REMAINS AT CHICAGO.

15. THE LAST RITES AT SPRINGFIELD. *



CONTENTS



CHAPTER I.



Early Life of Abraham Lincoln. — His Own Record. — His Ancestry. — Changes
of Residence. — Death and Funeral of his Mother. — Entrance upon Polit-
ical Life. — A Member of the Legislature and of Congress. — The Mexican
War Page 17

CHAPTER II.

THE LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DEBATE.

Presidential Campaign of 1856. — Douglas at Springfield in 1857. — Lincoln's
Reply. — The Great Debate. — Eloquent Defence of the Doctrines of the
Republican Party. — Result of the Contest Page 46

CHAPTER ILL

MR. LINCOLN" AND THE PRESIDENCY.

The Campaign of 1859 in Ohio. — Mr. Lincoln's Speeches at Columbus and
Cincinnati. — His Yisit to the East. — In New York City. — The Great
Speech at Cooper Institute. — Mr. Lincoln nominated for the Presidency.
— His Election Page 78

CHAPTER IY.

PROM THE ELECTION, NOVEMBER 6, 1860, TO THE INAUGURATION, MARCH 4,

1861.

The Presidential Election. — Secession of South Carolina. — Formation of the
Rebel Confederacy. — The Objects of Secession. — Secession Movements in
Washington. — Debates in Congress. — The Crittenden Resolutions. — Con-
ciliatory Action of Congress. — The Peace Conference. — Action of Con-
gress. — The Secession Movement unchecked Page 107

CHAPTER V.

PROM SPRINGFIELD TO WASHINGTON.

Speech at Indianapolis. — Arrival and Speech at Cincinnati. — Speech at Co-
lumbus. — Speech at Pittsburg. — Arrival and Speech at Cleveland. — Arri-
val at Buffalo. — At Rochester and Syracuse. — At Albany. — Speech at



10 Contents.

Poughkeepsie. — In New York. — Reply to the Mayor of New York. — la
New Jersey. — Arrival at Philadelphia. — Speech in Philadelphia. — At
Harrisburg. — Arrival and Reception at Washington*. Page 131



CHAPTER VI.

FBOM THE INAUGURATION TO THE MEETING OF CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1861.

The Inaugural Address. — Organization of the Government. — The Bombard-
ment of Fort Sumter. — Passage of Troops through Baltimore. — Interview
with the Mayor of Baltimore. — The Blockade of Rebel Ports. — The Pres-
ident and the Virginia Commissioners. — Instruction to our Ministers
abroad. — Recognition of the Rebels as Belligerents. — Rights of Neu-
trals Page 161

CHAPTER VII.

THE EXTRA SESSION OF CONGRESS, AND THE MILITARY EVENTS OF THE SUMMER

OF 1861.

First Annual Message. — Action of Congress. — Slavery and Confiscation. — The
Defeat at Bull Run. — Treatment of the Slavery Question. — General Fre-
mont and the President.— The Trent Affair Page 106

CHAPTER VIII.

THE REGULAR SESSION OF CONGRESS, DECEMBER, 1861. — THE MESSAGE. —

DEBATES, ETC.

Meeting of Congress. — President's Message. — Disposition of Congress. —
Slavery in Territories and District of Columbia. — Proposed Aid to Eman-
cipation by Slave States. — The Debate in Congress. — The President and
General Hunter. — The Border State Representatives. — The Border State
Reply. — The Finances. — Tho Confiscation Bill. — The President's Action
and Opinions. — The President's Message. — Message in Regard to Mr.
Cameron. — The President and his Cabinet. — Close of the Session of Con-
gress. — The President's Letter to Mr. Greeley.— The President and the
Chicago Convention. — Proclamation of Emancipation Pago 212

CHAPTER IX.

THE MILITARY ADMINISTRATION OF 1862. — THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL

M'CLELLAN.

General McClellan succeeds McDowell.— The President's Order for an Ad-
vance. — The Movement to the Peninsula. — Rebel Evacuation of Manas-
sas . — Arrangements for the Peninsular Movement. — The President's
Letter to Goneral McClellan.— Tho Rebel Strength at Yorktown.— The



Contents. 11

Battle of Williamsburg. — McClellan's Fear of being Overwhelmed. — The
President to McClellan. — Jackson's Raid in the Shenandoah Valley. — The
President to McClellan. — Seven Pines and Fair Oaks. — McClellan's Com-
plaints of McDowell. — His Continued Delays. — Prepares for Defeat. —
Calls for more Men. — His Advice to the President. — Preparations to Con-
centrate the Army. — General Halleck to McClellan. — Appointment of
General Pope. — Imperative Orders to McClellan. — McClellan's Failure to
aid Pope. — His Excuses for Delay. — Proposes to Leave Pope Unaided.
— Excuses for Franklin's Delay. — His Excuses proved Groundless. — His
alleged Lack of Supplies.— Advance into Maryland. — The President's
Letter to McClellan. — He Protests against Delay. — McClellan Relieved
from Command. — Speech by the President Page 262



CHAPTER X.

GENERAL CONDUCT OF THE ADMINISTRATION IN 1862.

Successes in the Southwest. — Recognized Objects of the "War. — Relations of
the War to Slavery. — Our Foreign Relations. — Proposed Mediation of the
French Emperor. — Reply to the French Proposal. — Secretary Seward's
Dispatch. — The President's Letter to Fernando Wood. — Observance of
the Sabbath Page 326

CHAPTER XL

THE CONGRESSIONAL SESSION OF 1862-63. — MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT
AND GENERAL ACTION OF THE SESSION.

The President's Message. — Are the Rebel States Aliens ? — The Provision for
a Draft. — Message on the Finances and Currency. — Admission of West
Virginia. — Close of the Session Page 344

CHAPTER XII.

ARBITRARY ARRESTS. — THE SUSPENSION OF THE WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS.

— THE DRAFT.

Arbitrary Arrests. — First Suspension of the Habeas Corpus. — Aid and Com-
fort to the Rebels. — Executive Order about Arrests. — Appointment of a
Commissioner on Arrests. — Opposition to the Government. — The Case of
Vallandigham. — Governor Seymour on Vallandigham. — President Lin-
coln on Arrests. — President Lincoln on Military Arrests. — The Presi-
dent's Letter to Mr. Corning. — The President to the Ohio Committee. —
The President on Vallandigham's Case. — The Habeas Corpus Suspended.
— Proclamation Concerning Aliens. — The Draft -The New Tork Riots. —
Letter to Governor Seymour. — The Draft Resumed and Completed. Page .'573



12 Contents.



chapter XIII.

MILITARY EVENTS OF 1863. — THE REBEL DEFEAT AT GETTYSBURG. — FALL

OF YICKSBURG AND PORT HUDSON.

The Battles at Fredericksburg. — Rebel Raid into Pennsylvania. — Results at
Gettysburg. — Vicksburg and Port Hudson Captured. — Public Rejoicings.
— The President's Speech. — Thanksgiving for Victories. — Battle of Chat-
tanooga. — Thanksgiving Proclamation Page 407



CHAPTER XIY.

POLITICAL MOVEMENTS IN MISSOURI. — THE STATE ELECTIONS OF 1863.

General Fremont in Missouri. — The President's Letter to General Hunter. —
Emancipation in Missouri. — Appointment of General Schofield. — The
President and the Missouri Radicals. — The Presidont to the Missouri
Committee. — The President and General Schofield. — The President and
the Churches.— Letter to Illinois.— The Elections of 1863 Page 422

CHAPTER XV.

TUB CONGRESS OF 1863-64. — MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT. — ACTION OF
THE SESSION. — PROGRESS IN RAISING TROOPS.

The President's Message. — The Proclamation of Amnesty. — Explanatory
Proclamation. — Debate on Slavery. — Call for Troops. — General Blair's
Resignation. — Diplomatic Correspondence. — Our Relations with England.
— France and Mexico. — The President and the Monroe Doctrine. . . Page 445

CHAPTER XVI.

MOVEMENTS TOWARDS RECONSTRUCTION.

State Governments in Louisiana and Arkansas. — Difference of Views be-
tween the President and Congress. — The Rebellion and Labor. — The
President on Benevolent Associations. — Advancing Action concerning
the Negro Race. — Free State Constitutions Page 481

CHAPTER XVII.

MILITARY EVENTS OF TnE SPRING AND SUMMER OF 1864.

I attle of the Olustee. — Kilpatvick's Raid on Richmond. — The Red River
Expedition. — The Fort Pillow Massacre. — Rebel Atrocities. — General
Grant's Advance upon Richmond. — Battles in May Page 513



Contents. 13



CHAPTER XVIII.

THE POLITICAL CAMPAIGN OF 1864.

The Presidential Election. — The Cleveland Convention. — The Convention at
Baltimore. — Mr. Lincoln's Renomination and Acceptance. — Popular Feel-
ing During the Summer. — The Arguelles Case. — The Forged Proclama-
tion. — The Niagara Falls Conference. — The Chicago Convention. — Progress
and Result of the Campaign. — Popular Joy at the Result Page 547



CHAPTER XIX.

THE MEETING OF CONGRESS AND PROGRESS OF THE WAR.

Condition of the Country at the Meeting of Congress. — The Message. — Pro-
ceedings in Congress. — Fort Fisher. — Death of Edward Everett. — Peace
Conference in Hampton Roads. — Military Affairs Page 620

CHAPTER XX.

CLOSE OF THE REBELLION.

The Inaugural Address. — Proclamation to Deserters. — Speeches by the Pres-
ident. — Destruction of Lee's Army. — The President's Visit to Richmond.
— Return to Washington. — Close of the War Page 669

CHAPTER XXI.

THE PRESIDENT'S ASSASSINATION.

The Condition of the Country. — Assassination of the President. — Murderous
Assault upon Secretary Seward. — The Funeral Procession from Washing-
ton to Springfield, Illinois. — Fate of the Assassins. — Estimate of Mr.
Lincoln's Character. — Conclusion Page 691



/



ANECDOTES AND REMINISCENCES OF PRESIDENT

LINCOLN.

PAGE

Mr. Lincoln's Sadness 726

His Favorite Poem 728

His Religious Experience 730

His Sympathy 735

His Humor, Shrewdness, and Sentiment 743

The Emancipation Proclamation 759



14 Contents.



APPENDIX.

LETTERS ON" SUNDRY OCCASIONS.

v pag a

To Mr. Hodges, of Kentucky 767

To General Hooker 768

To General McClollan 770

To Hon. John M. Botts 771

To Governor Magoffin 771

To Count Gasparin 772

Warnings against Assassination 773

REPORTS, DISPATCHES, AND PROCLAMATIONS RELATING TO

THE ASSASSINATION.

Secretary Stanton to General Dix 777

The Death-Bed 778

The Assassins 780

Reward Offered by Secretary Stanton 780

Flight of the Assassins 781

The Conspiracy Organized in Canada 781

Booth Killed.— Harold Captured 781

Reward Offered by President Johnson 781

The Funeral 782



OFFICIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS.

Acting Secretary Hunter to Minister Adams 782

Acting Secretary Hunter to his Subordinates 783

Orders from Secretary Stanton and General Grant 783

Orders from Secretary "Welles 784

Order from Secretary McCulloch 785

Order from Postmaster-General Dennison 785

Proclamation by President Johnson of a Day of Humiliation and Mourning. 785

Secretary Stanton to Minister Adams 786

Important Letter from J. Wilkes Booth 787

Indictment of the Conspirators 789

The Finding of the Court 793




*>J



,J i*















THE LIFE,



PUBLIC SERVICES AND STATE PAPERS

OF

ABRAHAM LINCOLN.



CHAPTER I.

Early Life of Abraham Lincoln. — His Own Record. — Ilia Ancestry. —
Changes of Residence. — Death and Funeral of his Mother. — En-
trance upon Political Life. — A Member of the Legislature and
of Congress. — The Mexican War.

The compiler of the " Dictionary of Congress" states,
that while preparing that work for publication, in 1858, he
sent to Mr. Lincoln the usual request for a sketch of his
life, and receiyed the following reply :

"Born, February 12, 1809, in Hardin County, Kentucky.

u Education defective.

" Profession, a Lawyer.

" Have been a Captain of Volunteers in Black Hawk War.
• " Postmaster at a very small Office.

" Four times a Member of the Illinois Legislature, and was a

Member of the Lower House of Congress.

" Yours, &c,

"A. Lincoln."

Around the facts stated with such characteristic mod-
esty and brevity clusters the history of the early life of
our late President. The ancestors of Abraham Lincoln
were of English descent ; and although they are believed
to have originally emigrated to this country with the
followers of William Penn, it is difficult to trace them

2



18 The Life, Public Services, and

farther back than to their place of residence in Berks
County, Pennsylvania, whence a part of the family re-
moved, in 1750, to that section of Virginia now known as
Rockingham County. Thirty years later, Abraham Lin-
coln, the grandfather of our late President, finding civil-
ization crowding him too closely, and possibly enticed
by the stories which came back to the frontier settle-
ments from that , famous pioneer, Daniel Boone, but
undeterred by the dangers which he knew he must in-
evitably encounter, determined to make another bold
push westward, and settled on Floyd's Creek, in Ken-
tucky, in what is now known as Bullitt County. Hardly
had he secured a home for his little family, when he was
fatally shot by an Indian, who came upon him stealthily
while he was at work, some distance from his log cabin.
Thus deprived of her protector, his widow at once re-
moved, with her three sons and two daughters, to that
part of Kentucky now known as Washington County.
Thomas, the eldest of the sons, the father of Abraham
Lincoln, was but six years old when his mother was so
suddenly made a widow. The necessity of assisting to
provide for her probably delayed his own settlement in
life, for it was not until he was twenty-eight years old,
in 1806, that he married Nancy Hanks. His wife was a
Virginian by birth ; but no facts regarding either her an-
cestry or early life have been preserved, although it is a
tradition, possibly originating in the reputation achieved
by her son, that she was a woman of rare mental endow-,
ment. Immediately after their marriage the couple re-
moved to Hardin County, Kentucky, and there, on Feb-
ruary 12th, 1809, as has already been stated, Abraham
Lincoln was born. His early life was spent in poverty
and toil ; but his father, feeling keenly his own deficien-
cies, determined to give his son every possible advantage
in the way of gaining an education, and, when but seven
years old, he was equipped with an old cojjy of Dil-
worth's Spelling Book, which constituted one-third of
the family library, and was sent to school to a Mr. Hazel.
It is also said that one Zachariah Riney, a Roman Catholic,



State Papers of Abraham Lincoln. 19

having some connection with, the Trappists, who had
founded an institution on Pottinger' s Creek, with Urban
Guillet as superior, had the honor of instructing the
future President in the rudiments. Whether Mr. Lin-
coln favored his other children, one a girl two years
older than Abraham, and the other a "boy two years his
junior, to the same extent, is doubtful, for the routine of
school life was not only broken in upon by his frequent
demands upon his son's time, but finally it was inter-
rupted altogether by his determination to abandon Ken-
tucky and try his fortunes where his energies were not
checked and repressed by the obstacles which slavery
constantly thrust in his way. In 1817 Mr. Lincoln car-
ried this plan into execution. The old home was sold,
their small stock of valuables placed upon a raft, and the
little family took their way to a new home in the wilds
of Indiana, where free labor would have no competition
with slave labor, and the poor white man might hope
that in time his children could take an honorable posi-
tion, won by industry and careful economy. The place
of their destination was Spencer County, Indiana. For
the last few miles' they were obliged to cut their road as
they went on. " With the resolution of veteran pioneers
they toiled, sometimes being able to pick their way for
a long distance without chopping, and then coming to a
standstill in consequence of dense forests. Suffice it to
say, that they were obliged to cut a road so much of the
way that several days were employed in going eighteen
miles. It was a difficult, wearisome, trying journey, and
Mr. Lincoln often said, that he never passed through a
harder experience than he did in going from Thompson's
Ferry to Spenser County, Indiana."

Thus, before he was eight years old, Abraham Lincoln
began the serious business of life. The cabin in which
the family lived was built of logs, and even the aid of
such a mere child was of account in the wilderness where
they now found themselves, after seven days of weary
travel. Their neighbors, none of whom lived nearer
than two or three miles, welcomed the strangers, and



20 The Life, Public Services, and

lent a hand towards building the rude dwelling in which
the future President lay down, after fatiguing but health-
ful toil, to dream the dreams of childhood, undisturbed
by thoughts of the future.

But just as Abraham was becoming accustomed to his
new residence, his home was made desolate by the death
of his mother, which occurred when he was ten years old.
She died long before she could have imagined, in her
wildest dreams, the eminence and distinction which her
son was to attain ; but she was happy in the knowledge
that, chiefly under her own tuition, for she had not in-
trusted his education entirely to the schoolmaster who
chanced to settle within reach, her favorite son had
learned to read the Bible — the book which, as a Christian
woman, she prized above all others. It is impossible to
estimate the influence which this faithful mother ex-
erted in moulding the character of her child ; but it is
easy to believe that the earnestness with which she im-
pressed upon his mind and heart the holy precepts, did
much to develop those characteristics which in after
years caused him to be known as pre-eminently the
"Honest" man. There is touching evidence that Abra-
ham held the memory of his mother in sacred remem-
brance. She had instructed him in the rudiments of
writing, and Mr. Lincoln, in spite of the disparaging
remarks of his neighbors, who regarded the accomplish-
ment as entirely unnecessary, encouraged his son to per-
severe, until he was able to put his thoughts upon paper
in a style which, although rude, caused him to be regarded
as quite a prodigy among the illiterate neighbors. One
of the very first efforts of his faltering pen was writing a
letter to an old friend of his mother's, a travelling
preacher, urging him to come and deliver a sermon over
her grave. The invitation must have been couched in
impressive, if not affecting language ; for, although the
letter was not written until nine months after his mother's
remains had been deposited in their last resting-place.
Parson Elkins, the preacher to whom it was extended,
responded to the request, and three months subsequent-



State Papers of Abraham Lincoln. 21

ly, just a year after her decease, preached a sermon com-
memorative of the virtues of one whom her neighbors
still held in affectionate and respectful remembrance. In
his discourse it is said that the Parson alluded to the
manner in which he had received the invitation, and Abra-
ham' s pen thereafter found frequent employment, in
wilting letters for the same neighbors who had before
pretended to esteem lightly the accomplishment of which
they at last recognized the value.

About two years after the death of Mrs. Lincoln, Mr.
Lincoln married Mrs. Sally Johnston, a widow with three
children. She proved an excellent mother to her step-
son and daughter, and a faithful wife. During the twelve
years that the family remained in Indiana, Abraham's
father encouraged him to improve all the opportunities
offered for mental development. How scanty these privi-
leges were, may be inferred from the fact that the entire
number of days that he was able to attend school hardly .
exceeded one year. While in Indiana, one of his teachers
was a Mr. Dorsey, who, a few months ago, was living in
Schuyler County, Illinois, where he was looked up to with
much respect by his neighbors, as one of those who had
assisted in the early instruction of the then President of
the United States. He tells with great satisfaction how his
pupil, who was then remarked for the diligence and eager-
ness with which he pursued his studies, came to the
log-cabin school-house arrayed in buckskin clothes, a rac-
coon-skin cap, and provided with an old arithmetic which
had somewhere been found for him to begin his investiga-
tions into the "higher branches. " In connection with his
attendance upon Mr. Crawford's school, an incident is
told which is sure to find a place in every biography of
our late President. Books were, of course, very hard to
find in the sparsely settled district of Indiana where the
Lincoln family had their home, and every printed volume
upon which Abraham could lay his hands was carefully
guarded and eagerly devoured. Among the volumes in
Mr. Crawford's scanty library was a copy of Ramsay's
Life of Washington, which Abraham secured permission



22 The Life, Public Services, and

upon one occasion, to take home with him. During a



Online LibraryHenry J. (Henry Jarvis) RaymondThe life and public services of Abraham Lincoln. Together with his state papers, including his speeches, addresses, messages, letters, and proclamations, and the closing scenes connected with his life and death. To which are added anecdotes and personal reminiscences of President Lincoln → online text (page 1 of 84)