Henry James Lee.

Portrait and biographical record of Guernsey County, Ohio, containing biographical sketches of prominent and representative citizens of the county, together with biographies and portraits of all the p online

. (page 1 of 83)
Online LibraryHenry James LeePortrait and biographical record of Guernsey County, Ohio, containing biographical sketches of prominent and representative citizens of the county, together with biographies and portraits of all the p → online text (page 1 of 83)
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3 1833 02395 1913

Portrait and_




Guei'nsev Conntv,


Containing Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Repre-
sentative Citizens of the County,

Together with Biographies and Portraits of all the Presidents
of the United States.


C. O. OWEN & CO.


The reproduction of this book has been
made possible through the sponsorship of
the Guernsey County Chapter, Ohio
Genealogical Society, Cambridge, Ohio.

A Reproduction by Unigraphic, Inc.

1401 North Fares Avenue

Evansville, Indiana 47711

Nineteen Hundred Seventy Four

Binding by

Modern Pre.Binding Corporation

Portland, Indiana



UlE greatest of English historians, Macaulay, and one of the most brilliant -writers of
the present century, has said: "The history of a country is best told in a record of th«
lives of its people." In conformity with this idea the Portrait and Biographicai,
Kecoed of this county has heen prepared. Instead of going to musty records, and
taking therefrom dry statistical matter that can be appreciated by but few, oui
corps of writers have gone to the people, the men and women who have, by theii
enterprise and industrj^, brought the county to rank second to none among those
comprising this great and noble State, and from their lips have the story of their life
struggles. No more interesting or instructive matter could be presented to an intelli-
gent public. In this volume will be found a record of many whose lives are worthy the
imitation of coming generations. It tells how some, commencing life in poverty, by
industry and economy have accumulated wealth. It tells how others, with limited
advantages for .securing an education, have become learned men and women, with an
influence extending throughout the length and breadth of the land. It tells of men who
have risen from the lower walks of life to eminence as statesmen, and whose names have
become famous. It tells of those in every walk in life who have striven to succeed, and
records how that success has usually crowned their efforts.- It tells also of many, very
manj-, who, not seeking the applause of the world, have pursued "the even tenor of their way," content
to have it said of them as Christ said of the woman performing a deed of mercy — "they have done what
they could." It tells how that many in the pride and strength of young manhood left the plow and the
anvil, the lawyer's office and the counting-room, left every trade and profession, and at their country's
call went forth valiantly "to do or die," andhow through their efforts the Union was restored and peace
once more reigned in the land. In the life of every man and of every woman is a lesson that should not
be lost upon those who follow after.

Coming generations will appreciate this volume and preserve it as a sacred treasure, from the fact
that it contains so much that would never find its way into public records, and which would otherwise be
inaccessible. Great care has been taken in the compilation of the work and every opportunity possible
given to those represented to insure correctness in what has been written, and the publishers flatter them-
selves that they give to their readers a work with few errors of consequence. In addition to the biograph
ical sketches, portraits of a number of representative citizens are given.

The faces of some, and biographical sketches of many, will be missed in this volume. For this the
publishers are not to blame. Not having a proper conception of the work, some refused to give the
inform.ation necessary to compile a sketch, while others were indifferent. Occasionally some member of
the family would oppose the enterprise, and on account of such oppdsition the support of the interested
one would l>e withheld. In a few instances men could never be found, though repeated calls were made
at their residence or place of business.

April, 1895. C. O. Owen & Co.





^r HE Father of our Country was bom in West-
f.C nioreland County, Va. , February 22, 1732.
V2/ His parents were Augustine and Mary (Ball)
Washington. The family to which he belonged
has not been satisfactorily traced in England.
His great-grandfather, John Washington, emi-
grated to Virginia about 1657, and became a
prosperous planter. He had two sons, Lawrence
and John. The former married Mildred Warner,
and had three children, John, Augustine and
Mildred. Augustine, the father of George, first
married Jane Butler, who bore him four children,
two of whom, Lawrence and Augustine, reached
maturity. Of six children by his second mar-
riage, George was the eldest, the others being
Betty, Samuel, John Augustine, Charles and

Augustine Washington, the father of George,
died in 1743, leaving a large landed property.
To his eldest son, Lawrence, he bequeathed an
estate on the Potomac, afterwards known as Mt.
Vernon, and to George lie left the parental resi-
dence. ' George received only such education as
the neighborhood schools afforded, sa\-e for a
short time after he left school, when he received
private instruction in mathematics. His spelling
was rather defective. Remarkable .stories are
told of his great physical strength and develop-
ment at an early age. He was an acknowledged
leader among his companions, and was early
noted for that nobleness of character, fairness and
veracity which characterized his whole life.

When George was fourteen years old he had a
desire to go to .sea, and a midshipman's warrant
was secured for him, but throtigh the opposition
of his mother the idea was abaudoned. Two

years later he was appointed surveyor to the im-
mense estate of Lord Fairfax. In this business
he spent three years in a rough frontier life,
gaining experience which afterwards proved very
essential to him. In 1751, though only nineteen
years of age, he was appointed Adjutant, with the
rank of Major, in the \^irginia militia, then being
trained for active service against the French and
Indians. Soon after this he sailed to the West
Indies with his brother Lawrence, who went there
to restore his health. They soon returned, and
in the summer of 1752 Lawrence died, leaving a
large fortune to an infant daughter, wlio did not
long survive him. On. her demi.se the estate of
Mt. Vernon \vas given to George.

Upon the arrival of Robert Dinwiddie as Lieu-
tenant-Governor of Virginia, in 1752, the militia
was reorganized, and the province divided into
four military districts, of which the northern was
assigned to Washington as Adjutant-General.
Shortly after this a very perilous mission, which
others had refused, was assigned him and ac-
cepted. This was to proceed to the French post
near Lake Erie, in northwestern Pennsylvania.
The distance to be traversed was about six hun-
dred miles. Winter was at hand, and the journey
was to be made without military escort, through
a territory occupied by Indians. The trip was a
perilous one, and several times he nearly lost his
life, but he returned in safety and furnished a full
and useful report of his expedition. A regiment
of three hundred men was. raised in Virginia and
put in command of Col. Joshua Fry, and Maj.
Washington was commissioned Lieutenant-Colo-
nel. Active war was then begun against the
French and Indians, in which Washington took


a most important part. In the memorable event
of July 9, 1755, known as "Braddock's defeat,"
Washington was almost the only officer of dis-
tinction who escaped from the calamities of the
day with life and honor.

Having been for five years in the military serv-
ice, and having vainly, sought promotion in the
royal army, he took advantage of the fall of Ft. Du-
quesne and the expulsion of the French from the
valley of the Ohio to resign his connni.ssion. Soon
after he entered the Legislature, where, although
not a leader, he took an active and important
part. January 17, 1759, he married Mrs. Martha
(Dandridge) Custis, the wealthy widow of John
Parke Custis.

When the British Parliament had closed the
port of Boston, the cry went up throughout the
provinces, ' ' The cause ot Boston is the cause of
us all! " It w-as then, at the suggestion of Vir-
ginia, that a congress of all the colonies was
called to meet at Philadelphia September 5,
1774, to secure their common liberties, peaceably
if possible. To this congress Col. Washington
was sent as a delegate. On May 10, 1775, the
congress re-assembled, when the hostile inten-
tions of England were plainly apparent. The
battles of Concord and Lexington had been fought,
and among the first acts of this congress was the
election of a commander-in-chief of the Colonial
forces. This high and responsible office was con-
ferred upon Washington, who was still a member
of the congress. He accepted it on June 19, but
upon the express condition that he receive no sal-
ary. He would keep an exact account of ex-
penses, and expect congress to pay them and
nothing more. It is not the object of this sketch
to trace the military acts of Washington, to whom
the fortunes and liberties of the people of this
country were so long confided. The war was
conducted by him under every possible disadvan-
tage; and while his forces often met with reverses,
yet he overcame every obstacle, and after seven
years of heroic devotion and matchless skill he
gained liberty for the greatest nation of earth.
On December 23, 1783, Washington, in a parting
address of surpassing beauty, resigned his com-
mission as Commander-in-Chief of the army to the

Continental Congress sitting at Annapolis. He
retired immediately to Mt. Vernon and resumed
his occupation as a farmer and planter, shunning
all connection with public life.

In Februar>', 1789, Washington was unani-
mously elected President, and at the expiration
of his first term he was unanimously re-elected.
At the end of this term many were anxious that he
be re-elected, but he absolutely refused a third
nomination. On March 4, 1797, at the expiration
of his second term as President, he returned to his
home, hoping to pass there his, few remaining'
years free from the annoyances of public life.
Later in the year, however, his repose seemed
likely to be interrupted by war with France. At
the prospect of such a war he was again urged to
'take command of the army, but he chose his sub-
ordinate officers and left them the charge of mat-
ters in the field, which he superintended from his
home. In accepting the command, he made the
reservation that he was not to be in the field until
it was necessary. In the midst of these prepara-
tions his life was suddenly cut off. December 1 2
he took a severe cold from a ride in the rain,
which, settling in his throat, produced inflamma-
tion, and terminated fatally on the night of the
i4tli. On the iStli his body was borne with mili-
tary honors to its final resting-place, and interred
in the family vault at Mt. Vernon.

Of the character of Washington it is impossible
to speak but in terms of the highest respect and
admiration. The more we see of the operations
of our government, and the more deeply we feel
the difficulty of uniting all opinions in a common
interest, the more highly we must estimate the
force of his talent and character, which have been
able to challenge the reverence of all parties,
and principles, and nations, and to win a fame as
extended as the limits of the globe, and which we
cannot but believe will be as lasting as the exist-
ence of man.

In person, Washington was unusually tall, erect
and well proportioned, and his muscular strength
was great. His features were of a beausiful sym-
metry. He commanded respect without any ap-
pearance of haughtiness, and was ever serious
without being dull.



(John ADAMS, the second President and the
I first Vice-President of the United States, was
Qj born in Braintree (now Quincy) Mass., and
about ten miles from Boston, October 19, 1735.
His great-grandfather, Henrj' Adams, emigrated
from England about 1640, with a family of eight
sons, and settled at Braintree. The parents of
John were John and Susannah (Boylston)
Adams. His father, who was a farmer of limited
means, also engaged in the business of shoe-
making. He gave his eldest son, John, a classical
education at Hansard College. John graduated
in 1755, and at once took charge of the school at
Worcester, Mass. This he found but a "school
of affliction," from which he endeavored to gain
relief by devoting himself, in addition, to the
studj' of law. For this purpose he placed himself
under the tuition of the only lawyer in the town.
He had thought seriously of the clerical profes-
sion, but seems to have been turned from this by
what he termed ' ' the frightful engines of ecclesi-
astical councils, of diabolical malice, and Calvin-
istic good nature, ' ' of the operations of which he
had been a witness in his native town. He was
well fitted for the legal profession, possessing a
clear, sonorous voice, being ready and fluent of
speech, and having quick perceptive powers. He
gradually gained a practice, and in 1764 married
Abigail Smith, a daughter of a minister, and a
lady of superior intelligence. Shortly after his
marriage, in 1765, the attempt at parliamentary
taxation turned him from law to politics. He
took initial steps toward holding a town meeting,
and the resolutions he offered on the subject be-
came verj- popular throughout the province, and
were adopted word for word by over forty differ-
ent towns. He moved to Boston in 1768, and
became one of the mcst courageous and promi-
nent advocates of the popular cause, and was
chosen a member of the General Court (the Leg-
islature) in 1770.

Mr. Adams was chosen one of the first dele-

gates from Massachusetts to the first Continent-
al Congress, which met in 1774. Here he dis-
tinguished himself by his capacity for business
and for debate, and advocated the movement for
independence against the majority of the mem-
bers. In May, 1776, he moved and carried a res-
olution in Congress that the Colonies should
assume the duties of self-government. He was a
prominent member of the committee of five ap-
pointed June 1 1 to prepare a declaration of inde-
pendence. This article was drawn by Jefferson,
but on Adams devolved the task of battling it
through Congress in a three-days debate.

On the day after the Declaration of Independ-
ence was passed, while his soul was yet warm
with the gloiv of excited feeling, he wrote a letter
to his wife, which, as we read it now, seems to
have been dictated by the spirit of prophecy.
"Yesterday," he says, "the greatest question
was decided that ever was debated in America;
and greater, perhaps, never was or will be de-
cided among men. A resolution was passed'
without one dissenting colony, 'that these United
States are, and of right ought to be, free and in-
dependent states.' The day is passed. The
Fourth of July, 1776, will be a memorable epoch
in the history of America. I am apt to believe it
will be celebrated by succeeding generations as
the great anniversary festival. It ought to be
commemorated as the day of deliverance by
solemn acts of devotion to Almighty God. It
ought to be solemnized with pomp, shows, games,
sports, guns, bells, bonfires and illuminations
from one end of the continent to the other, from
this time forward forever. You will think me
transported with enthusiasm, but I am not. I
am well awar^ of the toil and blood and treas-
ure that it will cost to maintain this declaration
and support and defend these States; yet, through
all the gloom, I can see the rays of light and
glory. I can see that the end is worth more than
all the means, and that posterity will triiunph,



althougli you and I may rue, Nvhicli I hope we
shall not."

Ill November, 1777, Mr. Adams was appointed
a delegate to France, and to co-operate with Ben-
jamin Franklin and Arthur Lee, who were then
in Paris, in the endeavor to obtain assistance in
arms and money from the French government.
This was a severe trial to his patriotism, as it
separated him from his home, compelled him to
cross the ocean in winter, and exposed him to
great peril of capture by the British cruisers, who
were seeking him. He left France June 17,
1779. In September of the same year he was
again chosen to go to Paris, and there hold him-
self in readiness to negotiate a treaty of peace and
of commerce with Great Britain, as soon as the
British cabinet might be found willing to listen
to such proposals. He sailed for France in No-
vember, and from there he went-to Holland, where
he negotiated important loans and formed im-
portant commercial treaties.

Finally, a treaty of peace with England was
signed, January 21, 1783. The re-action from the
excitement, toil and anxiety through which Mr.
Adams had passed threw him into a fever. After
suffering from a continued fever and becoming
feeble and emaciated, he was advised to go to
England to drink the waters of Bath. While in
England, still drooping and desponding, he re-
ceived dispatches from his own government urg-
ing the necessity of his going to Amsterdam to
negotiate another loan. It was winter, his health
was delicate, yet he immediately set out, and
through storm, on sea, on horseback and foot, he
made the trip.

February 24, 1785, Congress appointed Mr.
Adams envoy to the Court of St. James. Here
he met face to face the King of England, who
had so long regarded him as a traitor. As Eng-
land did not condescend to appoint a minister to
the United States, and as Mr. Adams felt that he
was accomplishing but little, he sought permis-
sion to return to his own countrj-, where he ar-
rived in June, 1788.

When Washington was first chosen President,
John Adams, rendered illustrious by his signal
ser\'ices at home and abroad, was chosen Vice-

President. Again, at the second election of Wash-
ington as President, Adams was chosen Vice-
President. In 1796, Washington retired from
public life, and Mr. Adams was elected President,
though not without much opposition. Serving
in this o£&ce four years, he was succeeded by Mr.
Jefferson, his opponent in politics.

While Mr. Adams was Vice-President the
great French Revolution shook the continent of
Europe, and it was upon this point that he was
at issue with the majority of his countrymen, led
by Mr. Jefferson. Mr. Adams felt no sympathy
with the French people in their struggle, for he
had no confidence in their power of self-govern- ^
ment, and he utterly abhorred the class of atheist
philosophers who, he claimed, caused it. On the
other hand, Jefferson's sympathies were strongly
enlisted in behalf of the French people. Hence
originated the alienation between these distin-
tinguished men, and the two powerful parties were
thus soon organized, with Adams at the head of
the one whose sympathies were with England,
and Jefferson leading the other in sympathy with

The Fourth of July, 1826, which completed the
half-century since the signing of the Declaration
of Independence, arrived, and there were but
three of the signers of that immortal instrument
left upon the earth to hail it3 morning light.
And, as it is well known, on that day two of
these finished their earthly pilgrimage, a coinci-
dence so remarkable as to seem miraculous. For
a few days before Mr. Adams had been rapidly
failing, and on the morning of the Fourth he
found himself too weak to rise from his bed. On
being requested to name a toast for the cus-
tomary celebration of the day, he exclaimed
"Independence forever!" When the day was
ushered in by the ringing of bells and the firing
of cannons, he was asked by one of his attend-
ants if he knew what day it was? He replied,
' ' O yes, it is the glorious Fourth of July — God
bless it — God bless you all!" In the course of
the day he said, "It is a great and glorious
day." The last words he uttered were, "Jeffer-
son survives." But he had, at one o'clock,
resigned his spirit into the hands of his God.

K /^y

s-r^^fe - ^^^^-


^HOMAS JEFFERSON was born April 2,
.1^ i743> ^^ Shadwell, Albemarle County, Va.
Vl*/ His parents were Peter and Jane (Ran-
dolph) Jefferson, the former a native of Wales,
and the latter born in London. To them were
born six daughterG and two sons, of whom Thomas
was the elder. When fourteen years of age his
father died. He received a most liberal educa-
tion, having been kept diligently at school from
the time he was five j'ears of age. In 1760 he
entered. William and Mary College. Williams-
burg was then the seat of the Colonial court, and
it: was the abode of fashion and splendor. Young
Jefferson, who was then seventeen years old, lived
somewhat expensively, keeping fine horses, and
going much into gay society; yet he was ear-
nestly devoted to his studies, and irreproachable in
his morals. In the second year of his college
course, moved by some unexplained impulse, he
discarded his old companions and pursuits, and
often devoted fifteen hours a day to hard study.
He thus attained very high intellectual culture,
and a like excellence in philosophy and the lan-

Immediately upon leaving college he began the
study of law. For the short time he continued
in the practice of his profession he rose rapidly,
and distinguished himself by his energy and
acuteness as a lawyer. But the times called for
greater action . The policy of England had awak-
ened the spirit of resistance in the American Col-
onies, and the enlarged views which Jefferson had
ever entertained soon led him into active politi-
cal life. In 1 769 he was chosen a member of the
Virginia House of Burgesses. In 1772 he mar-

ried Mrs. Martha Skelton, a very beautiful,
wealthy, and highly accomplished young widow.

In 1775 he was sent to the Colonial Congress,
where, though a silent member, his abilities as a
writer and a reasoner soon become known, and he
was placed upon a number of important com-
mittees, and was chairman of the one appointed
for the drawing up of a declaration of independ-
ence. This committee consisted of Thomas Jef-
ferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger
Sherman and Robert R. Livingston. Jefferson,
as chairman, was appointed to draw up the paper.
Franklin and Adams suggested a few verbal
changes before it was submitted to Congress. On
June 28, a few slight changes were made in it by.
Congress, and it was passed tfnd signed July 4,

In 1779 Mr. Jefferson was elected successor to
Patrick Henry as Governor of Virginia. At one
time the British officer Tarleton sent a secret
expedition to Monticello to capture the Governor.
Scarcely five minutes elapsed after the hurried
escape of Mr. Jefferson and his family ere his
mansion was in possession of the British troops.
His wife's health, never very good, was much
injured by this excitement, and in the summer
of 1782 she died.

Mr. Jefferson was elected to Congress in 1783.
Two years later he was appointed Minister Pleni-
potentiary to France. Returning to the United
States in September, 1789, he became Secretary
of State in Washington's cabinet. This position
he resigned January i, 1794. In 1797, he was
chosen Vice-President, and four years later was
elected President over Mr. Adams, with Aaron



Burr as Vice-Presideut. In 1S04 he was re-
elected with wonderful unanimity, George Clin-
ton being elected Vice-President.

The early part of Mr. Jefferson's second ad-
ministration was disturbed by an event which
threatened the tranquillity and peace of the Union;
this was the conspiracy of Aaron Burr. Defeated
in the late election to the Vice-Presidency, and
led on by an unprincipled ambition, this extraor-
dinary man formed the plan of a military ex-
pedition into the Spanish territories on our south-
western frontier, for the purpose of forming there
a new republic. This was generally supposed
to have been a mere pretext; and although it has
not been generally known what his real plans
were, there is no doubt that they were of a far
more dangerous character.

In 1809, at the expiration of the second term
for which Mr. Jefferson had been elected, he de-
termined to retire from political life. For a period
of nearly forty years he had been continually be-
fore the public, and all that time had been em-
ployed in offices of the greatest trust and respon-

Online LibraryHenry James LeePortrait and biographical record of Guernsey County, Ohio, containing biographical sketches of prominent and representative citizens of the county, together with biographies and portraits of all the p → online text (page 1 of 83)