Henry James Lee.

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date for the Presidential chair.

At the Republican Convention held at Chicago,
May 21, 1868, he was unanimously nominated
for the Presidency, and at the autumn election
received a majority of the popular vote, and two
htmdred and fourteen out of two hundred and
ninety-four electoral votes.

The National Convention of the Republican
party, which met at Philadelphia on the 5th ot
June, 1S72, placed Gen. Grant in nomination for
a second term by a unanimous vote. The selec-
tion was emphatically indorsed by the people five
months later, two hundred and ninetj'-two elect-
oral votes being cast for him.

Soon after the close of his second term, Gen.
Grant started upon his famous trip around the
world. He visited almost every country of the
civilized world, and was everywhere received
with such ovations and demonstrations of respect
and honor, private as well as public and official,
as were never before bestowed upon any citizen
of the United States.

He was the most prominent candidate before
the Republican National Convention in 1880 for
a renomination for President. He went to New
York and embarked in the brokerage business
under the firm name of Grant & Ward. The
latter proved a villain, wrecked Grant's fortune,
and for larceny was sent to the penitentiary.
The General was attacked with cancer in the
throat, but suffi;red in his stoic-like manner, never
complaining. He was re-instated as General of
the Army, and retired by Congress. The cancer
soon finished its deadly work, and July 23, 1885,
the nation went in mourning over the death ot
the illustrious General.



RUTHERFORD B. HAYES, the nineteenth
President of the United States, was born in
Delaware, Ohio, October 4, 1822, almost
three months after the death of his father, Ruther-
ford Hayes. His ancestry on both the paternal and
maternal sides was of the most honorable char-
acter. It can be traced, it is said, as far back as
1280, when Hayes and Rutherford were two
Scottish chieftains, fighting side by side with
Baliol, William Wallace and Robert Bruce. Both
families belonged to the nobility, owned extensive
estates, and had a large following. Misfortune
overtaking the family, George Hayes left Scotland
in 1680, and settled in Windsor, Conn. His son
George was born in Windsor, and remained there
during his life. Daniel Hayes, son of the latter,
married Sarali Lee, and lived from the time of
his marriage until his death in Simsbury, Conn.
Ezekiel, son of Daniel, was born in 1724, and was
a manufacturer of scythes at Bradford, Conn.
Rutherford Hayes, son of Ezekiel and grandfather
of President Hayes, was born in New Haven, in
August, 1756. He was a farmer, blacksmith and
tavern-keeper. He emigrated to Vermont at an
unknown date, settling in Brattleboro, where he
established a hotel. Here his son, Rutherford
Hayes, the father of President Hayes, was born.
He was married, in September, 1813, to Sophia
Birchard, of Wilmington, Vt., whose ancestors
emigrated thither from Connecticut, they having
been among the wealthiest and best families of
Norwich. Her ancestry on the male side is
traced back to 1635, to John Birchard, one of the
principal founders of Norwich. Both of her grand-
fathers were soldiers in the Revolutionary War.

The father of President Hayes was an industri-
ous, frugal, yet open-hearted man. He was of a

mechanical turn of mind, and could mend a plow,
knit a stocking, or do almost anything else that
he chose to undertake. He was a member of the
church, active in all the benevolent enterprises
of the town, and conducted his business on Chris-
tian principles. After the close of the War of
181 2, for reasons inexplicable to his neighbors, he
resolved to emigrate to Ohio.

The journey from Vermont to Ohio in that day,
when there were no canals, steamers, or rail-
ways, was a very serious affair. A tour of in-
spection was first made, occupying four months.
Mr. Hayes decided to move to Delaware, where
the family arrived in 181 7. He died July 22,
1822, a victim of malarial fever, less than three
months before the birth of the son of whom we
write. Mrs. Hayes, in her sore bereavement,
found the support she so much needed in her
brother Sardis, who had been a member of the
household from the day of its departure from
Vermont, and in an orphan girl, whom she had
adopted some time before as an act of charity.

Rutherford was seven years old before he went
to school. His education, however, was not neg-
lected. He probably learned as much from his
mother and sister as he would have done at
school. His sports were almost wholly within
doors, his playmates being his sister and her asso-
ciates. These circumstances tended, no doubt, to
foster that gentleness of disposition and that del-
icate consideration for the feelings of others which
were marked traits of his character.

His uncle, Sardis Birchard, took the deepest
interest in his education; and as the boy's health
had improved, and he was making good progress
in his studies, he proposed to send him to college.
His preparation commenced with a tutor at home;



but he was afterwards sent for one year to a pro-
fessor in the Weslejan University in Middletown,
Conn. He entered Kenyon College in 1838, at
the age of sixteen, and was graduated at the head
of his class in 1842.

Immediately after his graduation he began the
study of law in the office of Thomas Sparrow,
Esq., in Columbus. Finding his opportunities
for study in Colunibus Somewhat limited, he de-
termined to enter the Law School at Cambridge,
Mass. , where he remained two years.

In 1845, after graduating at the Law School, he
was admitted to the Bar at Marietta, Ohio, and
shortly afterward went into practice as an at-
torney-at-law with Ralph P. Buckland, of Fre-
mont. Here he remained three years, acquiring
but a limited practice, and apparently unambitious
of distinction in his profession.

In 1849 he moved to Cincinnati, where his am-
bition found a new stimulus. For several years,
however, his progress was slow. Two events
occurring at this period had a powerful influence
upon his subsequent life. One of these was his
marriage with Miss Lucy Ware Webb, daughter
of Dr. James Webb, of Chillicothe; the other was
his introduction to the Cincinnati Literary Club,
a body embracing among its members such men
as Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase, Gen. John
Pope, Gov. Edward F. Noyes, and many others
hardly less distinguished in after life. The mar-
riage was a fortunate one in every respect, as
everybody knows. Not one of all the wives of
our Presidents was more universally admired,
reverenced and beloved than was Mrs. Hayes, and
no one did more than she to reflect honor upon
American womanhood. The LiteraryClub brought
Mr. Hayes into constant association with young
men of high character and noble aims, and lured
him to display the qualities so long hidden by his
bashfulness and modesty.

In 1856 he was nominated to the office of Judge
of the Court of Common Pleas, but he declined to
accept the nomination. Two years later, the of-
fice of City Solicitor becoming vacant, the City
Council elected him for the unexpired term.

In 186 1, when the Rebellion broke out, he was
at the zenith of his professional life. His rank at

the Bar was among the first. But the news of
the attack on Ft. Sumter found him eager to
take up arms for the defense of his country.

His military record was bright and illustrious.
In October, 186 1, he was made Lieutenant-Colo-
nel, and in August, 1862, promoted Colonel of
the Seventy-ninth Ohio Regiment, but he refused
to leave his old comrades and go among strangers.
Subsequently, however, he was made Colonel of
his old regiment. At the battle of South Moun-
tain he received a wound, and while faint and
bleeding displayed courage and fortitude that
won admiration from all.

Col. Hayes was detached from his regiment,
after his recovery, to act as Brigadier-General,
and placed in command of the celebrated Kanawha
division, and for gallant and meritorious services
in the battles of Winchester, Fisher's Hill and
Cedar Creek, he was promoted Brigadier-General.
He was also breveted Major- General, "for gallant
and distinguished services during the campaigns
of 1864, in West Virginia." In the course of his
arduous sei-vices, four horses were shot from un-
der him, and he was wounded four times.

In 1864, Gen. Hayes was elected to Congress
from the Second Ohio, District, which had long
been Democratic. He was not present during the
campaign, and after the election was importuned
to resign his commission in the army; but he fi-
nally declared, ' ' I shall never come to Washing-
ton until I can come by way of Richmond. ' ' He
was re-elected in 1866.

In 1867, Gen. Hayes was elected Governor of
Ohio, over Hon. Allen G. Thurman, a popular
Democrat, and in 1869 was re-elected over George
H. Pendleton. He was elected Governor for the
third'term in 1875.

In 1876 he was the standard-bearer of the Re-
publican party in the Presidential contest, and
after a hard, long contest was chosen President,
and was inaugurated Monday, March 5, 1877.
He served his full term, not, however, with satis-
faction to his party, but his administration was an
average one. The remaining years of his life
were passed quietly in his Ohio home, where he
passed away January 17, 1893.



(lAMES A. GARFIELD, twentieth President
I of the United States, was born November 19,
O 1 83 1, in the woods of Orange, Cuyahoga
County, Ohio. His parents were Abrani and
EHza (Ballon) Garfield, both of New England
ancestry, and from families well known in the
early history of that .section of our country, but
who had moved to the Western Reserve, in Ohio,
early in its settlement.

The house in which James A. was born was
not unlike the houses of poor Ohio farmers of
that day. It was about 20 x 30 feet, built of logs,
with the spaces between the logs filled with clay.
His father was a hard-working farmer, and he
soon had his fields cleared, an orchard planted,
and a log barn built. The household comprised
the father and mother and their four children,
Mehetabel, Thomas, Mary and James. In May,
1823, the father died from a cold contracted in
helping to put out a forest fire. At this time
James was about eighteen months old, and
Thomas about ten years old. No one, perhaps,
can tell how much James was indebted to his
brother's toil and self-sacrifice during the twenty
years succeeding his father's death. He now
lives in Michigan , and the two sisters live in Solon,
Ohio, near their birthplace.

The early educational advantages j'oung Gar-
field enjoyed were verj- limited, yet he made the
most of them. He labored at farm work for
others, did carpenter work, chopped wood, or did
anything that would bring in a few dollars to aid
his widowed mother in her struggles to keep the
little family together. Nor was Gen. Garfield
ever ashamed of his origin, and he never forgot
the friends of his struggling childhood, youth and
manhood; neither did they ever forget him.
When in the highest seats of honor, the humblest
friend of his boyhood was as kindly greeted as
ever. The poorest laborer was sure of the sym-
pathy of one who had known all the bitterness of

want and the of bread earned by the
sweat of the brow. He was ever the simple,
plain, modest gentleman.

The highest ambition of young Garfield until
he was about sixteen years old was to be cap-
tain of a vessel on Lake Erie. He was anxious
to go aboard a vessel, but this his mother strongly
opposed. She finally consented to his going to
Cleveland, with the understanding, however, that
he should try to obtain some other kind of em-
ployment. He walked all the way to Cleveland.
This was his first visit to the cit}'. After making
many applications for work, and trying to get
aboard a lake vessel and not meeting with suc-
cess, he engaged as a driver for his cousin, Amos
Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsylvania Canal.
He remained at this work but a short time, when
he went home, and attended the seminary at
Chester for about three years. He then entered
Hiram and the Eclectic Institute, teaching a few
terms of .school in the mean time, and doing other
work. This school was started by the Disciples
of Christ in 1850, of which body he was then a
member. He became janitor and bell-ringer in
order to help pay his wa^^ He then became both
teacher and pupil. Soon " exhausting Hiram,"
and needing a higher education, in the fall of 1854
he entered Williams College, from which he grad-
uated in 1856, taking one of the highest honors of
his class. He afterwards returned to Hiram Col-
lege as its President. As above stated, he early
united with the Christian, or Disciples, Church at
Hiram, and was ever after a devoted, zealous
member, often preaching in its pulpit and places
where he happened to be.

Mr. Garfield was united in marriage, Novem-
ber II, 1858, with Miss Lucretia Rudolph, who
proved herself worthy as the wife of one whom
all the world loved. To them were born seven
children, five of whom are still living, four boys
and one girl.


Mr. Garfield made his first political speeches in
1856, in Hiram and the neighboring villages, and
three years later he began to speak at county
mass-meetings, and became the favorite speaker
wherever he was. During this year he was
elected to the Ohio Senate. He also began to
study law at Cleveland, and in 1861 was admitted
to the Bar. The great Rebellion broke out in the
early part of this year, and Mr. Garfield at once
resolved to fight as he had talked, and enlisted to
defend the Old Flag. He received his commission
as Lieutenant- Colonel of the Forty-second Regi-
ment of Ohio Infantry August 14, 1861. He
\;i-as immediately put into active serv'ice, and be-
fore he had ever seen a gun fired in action, was
placed in command of four regiments of infantry
and eight companies of cavalrj-, charged with the
work of driving out of his native State the able
rebel ofiBcer, Humphrey Marshall, of Kentucky.
This work was bravely and speedily accomplished,
although against great odds, and President Lin-
coln commissioned him Brigadier-General, Janu-
ary ID, 1862; and "as he had been the youngest
man in the Ohio Senate two years before, so now
he was the youngest General in the army." He
was with Gen. Buell's army at Shiloh, in its
operations around Corinth and its march through
Alabama. He was then detailed as a member of
the general court martial for the trial of Gen.
Fitz-John Porter. He was next ordered to re-
port to Gen. Rosecrans, and was assigned to the
" Chief of Staff." The military history of Gen.
Garfield closed with his brilliant services at Chick-
amauga, where he won the rank of Major-General.

Without an effort on his part. Gen. Garfield
was elected to Congress in the fall of 1862, from
the Nineteenth District of Ohio. This section of
Ohio had been represented in Congress for sixty
years mainly by two men — Elisha Whittlesey and
Joshua R. Giddings. It was not without a strug-
gle that he resigned his place in the army. At
the time he entered Congress he was the youngest
member in that body. There he remained by
successive re-elections until he was elected Presi-
dent, in 1880. Of his labors in Congress, Senator
Hoar says: "Since the year 1864 you cannot
think of a question which has been debated in


Congress, or discussed before a tribunal of the
American people, in regard to which you will not
find, if you wish instruction, the argument on
one side stated, in almost every instance better
than by anybody else, in some speech made in
the House of Representatives or on the hustings
by Mr. Garfield."

Upon January 14, 1880, Gen. Garfield was elect-
ed to the United States Senate, and on the 8th of
June, of the same year, was nominated as the
candidate of his party for President at the great
Chicago Convention. He was elected in the fol-
lowing November, and on March 4, 1881, was
inaugurated. Probably no administration ever
opened its existence under brighter auspices than
that of President Garfield, and every day it grew
in favor with the people. By the ist of July
he had completed all the initiatory and prelimi-
nary work of his administration, and was prepar-
ing to leave the city to meet his friends at Will-
iams College. While on his way and at the
depot, in company with Secretary Blaine, a man
stepped behind him, drew a revolver, and fired
directly at his back. The President tottered and
fell, and as he did so the assassin fired a second
shot, the bullet cutting the left coat sleeve of his
victim, but inflicting no further injury. It has-
been very truthfully said that this was ' ' the shot
that was heard around the world." Never before
in the history of the nation had anything occur-
red which so nearly froze the blood of the people
for the moment as this awful deed. He was
smitten on the brightest, gladdest day of all his
life, at the summit of his power and hope. For
eighty days, all during the hot months of July
and August, he lingered and suffered. He, how-
ever, remained master of himself till the last, and
by his magnificent bearing taught the country
and the world one of the noblest of human les-
sons — how to live grandly in the very clutch of
death. Great in life, he was surpassingly great
in death. He passed serenely away September
19, 1883, at Elberon, N. J., on the very bank of
the ocean, where he had been taken shortly be-
fore. The world wept at his death, as it rarely
ever had done on the death of any other great
and noble man.



E HESTER A. ARTHUR, twenty-first Presi-
dent of the United States, was born in Frank-
lin County, Vt., on the 5th day of October,
1830, and was the eldest of a family of two sons
and five daughters. His father was the Rev. Dr.
William Arthur, a Baptist clergyman, who emi-
grated to this country from County Antrim, Ire-
land, in his eighteenth year, and died in 1875, in
Newtonville, near Albany, after a long and suc-
cessful ministry.

Young Arthur was educated at Union College,
Schenectady, where he excelled in all his studies.
Alter his graduation he taught school in Ver-
mont for two years, and at the expiration of that
time came to New York, with $500 in his pocket,
and entered the office of ex -Judge E. D. Culver
as a student. After being admitted to the Bar, he
formed a partnership with his intimate friend and
room-mate, Henry D. Gardiner, with the inten-
tion of practicing in the West, and for three
months they roamed about in the Western States
in search of an eligible site, but in the end re-
turned to New York, where they hung out their
shingle, and entered upon a successful career al-
most from the start. Gen. Arthur soon after mar-
ried the daughter of Lieut. Herndon, of the
United States Navy, who was lost at sea. Con-
gress voted a gold medal to his widow in recog-
nition of the braver}' he displayed on that occa-
sion. Mrs. Arthur died shortly before Mr.
Arthur's nomination to the Vice- Presidency, leav-
ing two children.

Gen. Arthur obtained considerable legal celeb-
rity in his first great case, the famous Lemmon
suit, brought to recover possession of eight slaves
who had been declared free by Judge Paine, of
the Superior Court of New York City. It was in

] 1852 that Jonathan Ivemmon, of Virginia, went to
New York with his slaves, intending to ship them
to Texas, when they were discovered and freed.
The Judge decided that they could not be held by
the owner under the Fugitive Slave Law. A howl
of rage went up from the South, and the Virginia
Legislature authorized the Attorney-General of
that State to assist in an appeal. W^illiam M.
Evarts and Chester A. Arthur were emplo3'ed to
represent the people, and they won their case,
which then went to the Supreme Court of the
United States. Charles O' Conor here espoused
the cause of the slaveholders, but he, too, was
beaten by Messrs. Evarts and Arthur, and a long
step was taken toward the emancipation of the
black race.

Another great sendee was rendered by Gen.
Arthur in the same cause in 1856. Lizzie Jen-
nings, a respectable colored woman, was put off
a Fourth Avenue car with violence after she had
paid her fare. Gen. Arthur sued on her behalf,
and secured a verdict of $500 damages. The next
day the company issued an order to admit colored
persons to ride on their cars, and the other car
companies quickly followed their example. Be-
fore that the Sixth Avenue Company ran a few
special cars for colored persons, and the other lines
refused to let them ride at all.

Gen. Arthur was a delegate to the convention
at Saratoga that founded the Republican part}-.
Previous to the war he was Judge-Advocate of
the Second Brigade of the State of New York,
and Gov. Morgan, of that State, appointed him
Erigineer-in-Chief of his stafif. In 1861, he was
made Inspector-General, and soon aftersvard be-
came Quartermaster-General. In each of these
offices he rendered great service to the Govern-


ment during the war. At the end of Gov. Mor-
gan's term he resumed the practice of law, form-
ing a partnership with Mr. Ransom, and then
Mr. Phelps, the District Attorney of New York,
was added to the finn. The legal practice of this
well-known firm was verj' large and lucrative,
as each of the gentlemen composing it was an able
lawyer, and possessed a splendid local reputa-
tion, if not, indeed, one of national extent.

Mr. Arthur always took a leading part in State
and city politics. He was appointed Collector of
the Port of New York by President Grant, No-
vember 21, 1872, to succeed Thomas Murphy,
and he held the office until July 20, 1878, when
he was succeeded by Collector Merritt.

Mr. Arthur was nominated on the Presidential
ticket, with Gen. James A. Garfield, at the
famous National Republican Convention held at
Chicago in June, 1880. This was perhaps the
greatest political convention that ever assembled
on the continent. It was composed of the lead-
ing politicians of the Republican party, all able
men, and each stood firm and fought vigorously
and with signal tenacity for his respective can-
didate that was before the convention for the
nomination. Finally Gen. Garfield received the
nomination for President, and Gen. Arthur for
Vice-President. The campaign which followed
was one of the most animated known in the his-
tory of our country. Gen. Hancock, the stand-
ard-bearer of the Democratic party, was a popular
man, and his party made a valiant fight for his

Finally the election came, and the country's
choice was Garfield and Arthur. They were in-
augurated March 4, 1S81, as President and Vice-
President. A few months only had passed ere
the newly-chosen President was the victim of the
assassin's bullet. Then came terrible weeks of
suffering — those moments of anxious suspense,
when the hearts of all civilized nations were
throbbing in unison, longing for the recovery of
the noble, the good President. The remarkable
patience that he manifested during those hours
and weeks, and even months, of the most terrible
suffering man has ever been called upon to en-
dure, was seemingly more than human. It was

certainly godlike. During all this period of
deepest anxiety Mr. Arthur's every move was
watched, and, be it said to his credit, that his every
action displayed only an earnest desire that the
suffering Garfield might recover to serve the re-
mainder of the term he had so auspiciously be-
gun. Not a selfish feeling was manifested in
deed or look of this man, even though the most
honored position in the world was at any moment
likely to fall to him.

At last God in his mercy relieved President
Garfield from further suffering, and the world, as
never before in its history over the death of any
other man, wept at his bier. Then it became the
duty of the Vice-President to assume the respon-
sibilities of the high office, and he took the oath
in New York, September 20, 1881. The position
was an embarrassing one to him, made doubly so
from the fact that all eyes were on him, anxious
to know what he would do, what policy he would
pursue, and whom he would select as advisers.
The duties of the office had been greatly neglected
during the President's long illness, and many im-
portant measures were to be immediately decided
by him ; and to still further embarass him he did

Online LibraryHenry James LeePortrait and biographical record of Guernsey County, Ohio, containing biographical sketches of prominent and representative citizens of the county, together with biographies and portraits of all the p → online text (page 7 of 83)