Henry John Rose Hugh James Rose.

A new general biographical dictionary, Volume 1 online

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last of these two sums, it has been said,
was never paid. (Chalmers's Life of
Ruddiman.) The parliament further
recommended him to the queen, as a
person deserving her favour. For the
purpose of carrying his project into
execution, Anderson relinquished his
profession, and came up to London. In
1715, he was appointed postmaster-
general for Scotland, in which office he
was in 1717 superseded. Shortly after
this, he put forth his prospectus of his
work, Seiectus Diplomatum et Numis-
matum Scotia? Thesaurus, which, how-
ever, was not published until 1739, eleven
years after the author's death, which
happened through apoplexy, on the 3d
of April, 1728. In addition to the works
of which we have spoken, Anderson
published, in 1727-8, in 4 vols, 4to,
Collections relating to the History of
Mary, Queen of Scots. He was married,
and left several children. He was at
.several periods of his life in the greatest
pecuniary difficulties, and care and want
clouded its close.

ANDERSON, (George,) a traveller,
born at Tundern, in the duchy of Sles-
wick, whose quick observation and
retentive memory enabled him to acquire
a vast fund of knowledge. During the
period 1644-50, he travelled through
Arabia, Persia, India, China, Japan;
returning through Tartary, Mesopotamia,
Syria, and Palestine. Having entered

the service of the duke of Holatein Got-
torp, who endeavoured in vain to obtain
a written account of his travels, the
duke drew him into conversation on the
subject for an hour a day, the particulars
of which being noted down by Adam
Olearius, who was concealed behind the
tapestry, Anderson was induced to revise
the manuscript, which was published at
Sleswick, by Olearius, 1669, in German,
folio. (Biog. Univ.)

ANDERSON, (John, 1674 — 1743,)
a learned German, educated as a lawyer.
Being appointed, in 1708, syndic of his
native city, Hamburgh, he was employed
in various negotiations in the principal
courts of Europe. On his return ~
1723, he was made burgomaster -
chief of the city of Hamburgh. ■
Natural History of Greenland, publisher
after his death, with some account of thi
author, was translated into French by
Sellius, in 1754. He has left beside*, r
Glossarium Teutonicum et Alemanicvm ; -
Philological and Physical Observations
on the Bible, (in German;) Observationes
Juris Germanici, which last remains in

ANDERSON, (John, 1726—1796,)
an English physician, the author of
several useful works, and professor of
natural philosophy at Glasgow for forty-
one years. Five editions of his Insti-
tutes of Medicine were published during
his lifetime. (Biog. Univ.)

ANDERSON, (George, 1760—1796,)
an English peasant, born at Weston, in
Buckinghamshire, whose mathematical
talents attracted the notice of Bonny-
castle. He was sent by Mr. King, vicar
of Whitchurch, to Wadham college, Ox-
ford, and ordained deacon. Being, how-
ever, appointed to a situation in the
board of control for Indian affairs, he
rose to the office of accountant-general,
where his close application brought en
an illness, which in a few days termi-
nated his life. In 1790, he published a
translation, with notes, of the Arenarios
of Archimedes ; and in 1791, A General
View of the Variations in the Affairs of
the East India Company, since the con-
clusion of the war, in 1784.

ANDERSON, (James, 1739—1808,)
a Scotch farmer, born at Hermiston, near
Edinburgh, Being called at the age of
fifteen to occupy the land which his fore-
fathers had held for many generations,
it occurred to him that the knowledge of
chemistry would add to his skill as an
agriculturist. He therefore attended the
lectures of Dr. Cullen, whose friendship


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*aa of aw vi ce to him in the acquisition
f various branches of knowledge. In
763, he took a lone lease of a farm,
ailed Monkshill, in Aberdeenshire, con-
iating of 1300 acres of land, that had
ieen very imperfectly cultivated. In
.771, his first publication (Essays on
Planting) appeared in the Edinburgh
Weekly Magazine, under the signature
3f Agricola. These were collected and
republished in 1777. In 1780, several
treatises having come from his pen, he
was made doctor of laws by the uni-
versity of Aberdeen. He removed to
Edinburgh in 1783, and was employed

fifteen. While at home he appHed himself
so closely to drawing, that his father sent
him to London, and apprenticed him to a
painter ; but not being aware of the dis-
tinction between a painter and an artist,
he unfortunately placed him with a house
and Bhip painter. Though greatly disap-
pointed m his expectations, Anderson
diligently applied himself, during his
leisure hours, to painting pictures. At
that period it was the custom to ornament
the sides and sterns of ships with trophies
and figures, at which work Anderson
greatly excelled. He was thus soon
brought to the notice of several merchants,

the following year by the government in for whom he painted portraits of their ships;

*_<■_• _„ — _ * ^ * — A _* and after bemg in business as a house and

ship painter for a few years, he, by the
advice of Ibbetson, relinquished his trade,
and commenced marine painter. This
he did without having had the advantage
of previously studying under any master.
During the late war, he was introduced
to some of the first officers in the navy,
for whom he painted ; but from his natural
diffidence he preferred retirement, and
resisted the efforts of his patron to bring
him into notice. He continued in com-
parative self-seclusion to advance in pro-

♦**king a survey of the western coast of

and, with reference to the British

•ies — a subject on which he had

.wviously written. In 1791, he com-

«mced the publication of The Bee,

a 'weekly magazine, which had great

uccess. Most of the papers that are

without a signature, as well as those

marked Senex, Timothy Hairbrain, and

Alcibiades, are by Dr. Anderson. In

1 797, he fixed his residence near London,

where, in 1799, he began publishing his

Recreations in Agriculture — a periodical,

in which appeared for the first time the fessional attainments, by the exercise of
theory of the origin and progressive which alone he brought up a very large
increase of rent, commonly distinguished family, and painted to the advanced age

by the name of Mr. Ricardo. (See part
viii. p. 401, published in 1801.) Dr.
Anderson's writings are very numerous :
besides the agricultural articles contri-
buted to the Monthly Review, and some
articles in the first edition of the Ency-
clopaedia Britannica, he has printed A
Practical Treatise on Chemistry, 12mo,
1776; Essays relating to Agriculture,
1777; Observations on Slavery, 1789;
Letters to General Washington, 1800;
On an Universal Character, 1795; with
various pieces, a list of which may be
seen in Chalmers. See Gent Mag. 1808.

ANDERSON, (Walter, D.D.) fifty
years minister of Chirnside, in Scotland,
where he died in 1800. He has printed,
1. A heavy compilation, of very little
value, on the history of France, from
1559 to the peace of Minister, published
at intervals (1769-75-83) in 5 vols,
4to; 2. The Philosophy of Ancient
Greece Investigated, a tolerably learned
and accurate work. See Gent Mag.
vol. lxx.

ANDERSON,(William, April 21, 1757
— May 12, 1837,) a painter of marine
subjects, was a native of Scarborough, in
Yorkshire, and remained with his parents
at South Shields

of eighty years. He completed a pair of

fictures a few days before his decease,
[e rarely exhibited his works, and then
only at the solicitation of his friends.
Mr. Day es, in his Works edited by Mr.
Brayley, observes — " His style of colour-
ing is clear and bright, and his aerial per-
spective is well understood. The hand-
ling is clear, firm, and decisive ; but of his
works, the smaller pictures are by far the
best : some of them are of the very first
degree of eminence. Though it does not
appear that his nautical knowledge is
equal to that of some of his contempo-
raries, yet in the other excellencies of
his line he goes far beyond them."
Notwithstanding the opinion of Mr.
Dayes, in preference or this artist's
smaller works, his picture of London
Bridge and the Shipping in the River was
one which conduced very greatly to his*
high reputation. It was one of his
largest compositions.

ANDERTON, (James,) an able con-
troversial writer, born at Lostock, in
Lancashire, who published, in 1604,
under the name of John Brerely, a 4to
volume, entitled, The Apology of Pro-

w r . testants for the Roman Religion, in which

till about the age of he attempts to prove the truth of the


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Romanist doctrines out of the works of
Protestant writers. It was answered by
Morton's Appeal, published in 1606.
The second edition of Anderton's work,
with answers to his antagonists, was
printed in 1608. It was translated into
Latin by Dr. William Reynes, in 1615*
A Treatise on the Mass, 4to, and The
Religion of Saint Augustine, 8vo, were
printed in Latin at Cologne in 1620.
(Suppl. Biog. Univ.)

ANDERTON, (Lawrence,) also a
Lancashire man, and perhaps of the
same family as James, having embraced
the Romanist faith, distinguished himself
among the Jesuits as a controversialist
and a preacher. He has left A Treatise
on the Origin of Catholics and Protes-
tants, Rouen, 1632, 4to ; The Triple
Cord, St Omer, 1634, 4to. (SuppL Biog.

ANDERTON, (Henry,) an English
painter, who flourished about 1660. He
was a scholar of Streater, and afterwards
went to Italy for improvement He
painted historical subjects, but princi-
pally portrait*. By a portrait of Mrs.
Stuart, afterwards duchess of Richmond,
he acquired the patronage of Charles IL
He died about 1665. (Bryan's Diet)

ANDIER, engraver. See Desrochbs*

ANDLAU, (Peter of,) a writer on the
constitutional law of the Germanic Em-
pire, flourished in the latter half of the
fifteenth century. Of his personal his-
tory but few particulars are known. He
studied at Pa via, where he seems to have
in a great measure employed his time in
transcribing the works of the Roman
classics ; a specimen of these labours is
still to be found in the library at Stras-
burg, which contains a copy of Cicero de
Ofticiis and Terence, made by him during
his stay at Pavia. He took the degree
of doctor of canon law at Basil, where
he was subsequently professor in that
department, head of the law faculty, and
finally vice-chancellor : he likewise filled
the situations of provost of the collegiate
church of Lautenbach and canon of Col-
mar. According to Putter, he was of
high extraction, being allied to the noble
family of Von Andlau, who derived their
name and title from the town and castle
of Andlau in Alsace : it is, however, very
doubtful whether our author has any
claims to such a distinguished origin.
In his work he always speaks of himself
as "de Audio AUoiue oppido agnomen
trahem ;" on the other hand, he never
makes use of any such periphrasis when
speaking of his patron (mthi inter mor-

ta'es coUnditMtmi dom'mi) George von
Andlau, rector of the university of Basil;
nor does he anywhere claim relationship
with him. Considering the extravagant
praises bestowed by him on the German
nobility, and, amongst others, on the
house of Von Andlau, which he reckons
one of the four knightly families of the
empire, one may feel assured that if
Dr. Peter had really belonged to this
honourable race, he would not have left
the fact unnoticed. For other arguments
in support of this opinion, which the
limits of the present work do not admit
of being given, we refer the reader to an
article t>y Hugo in the Zeitschrift fur
geschichtliche Kechtswissenschaft (bd. i.
p. 346). The work of Von Andlau on
the constitution of the German empire
is entitled, De Imperio Romano Ger-
manico, lib. ii. and is dedicated to the
Emperor Frederick III. The time of its
composition is not exactly known, but
as our author in one place mentions the
capture of Constantinople by the Turks
(a.d. 1453) as having taken place only
a few years before, and in another speaks
of George von Andlau, who died a.d.
1466, as still living, Putter's conjecture
that the treatise was written about the
year 1460, probably approximates to the
truth. It was first published, many
years after the authors death, from a
manuscript in the Heidelberg library, by
Freher, who added copious notes to it
(Strasb. 1603, 4to) ; and was afterwards
reprinted in the " Representatio Rei-
publ. Germ, sive Tractatus varii de
S. R. G. I. Reffimine, (Norib. 1657, 4 to >
In the Royal Library at Paris there is a
manuscript (No. 6030) of this work,
which is said to differ in many places
from Freher 's edition. The authorities
on which Von Andlau relies, and which
he quotes very copiously, are, the Bible,
the Corpus Juris civflis et canonici, with
the glosses on them, and the golden bull
of Charles IV. A very cursory exami-
nation of the work is sufficient to show
that Von Andlau's exposition of the
imperial constitution, so far as it pretends
to be founded on history, is perfectly
erroneous. But in forming an estimate
of his merits we must keep in mind that
these historical errors, gross as they appear
to us, were for some centuries received as
undoubted truths, upon which a great
part of the constitutional law of the
middle ages was based, and that they are
errors not peculiar to him, but to be met
with in almost every writer of those
times. Considered in this light, this


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work is well worth perusing, as affording
a good specimen of the state of political
science in the fifteenth century, and of
the manner in which his contemporaries
treated the subject. It may also be ob-
served, that though we find Von Andlau
adopting implicitly the erroneous views
of historical events which were current
in his day, yet on the other hand he is
favourably distinguished by an acquaint-
ance with the ancients, and by an attempt
to imitate them, which is rarely to be
met with in the writers of that period,
particularly in Germany. (Putter, Litte-
rateur des T. Staatsrecht, vol. i. Mag.
Encycl. vols. i. and ii.)

ANDLO. See Des Mahets.

ANDOCIDES, (the sou of Leogoras,)
was born at Athens, b. c. 468, and
traced his descent up through Ulysses to
Mercury, the supposed founder of the
family of State-Heralds, according to
Hellanicus, quoted by Pseudo-Plutarch
in his Lives of the Ten Orators ; from
whom we learn that he was sent with
Glaucon to assist the Corcyreans, b. c.
432. Taylor, however, in Leek Lysiac.
c v. asserts that the biographer con-
founded the son with the grandfather,
mentioned by Thucydides, i. 51. On the
other hand, Ruhnken, in Hist. Orator.
Graec. p. 47, conceives that the orator
was the admiral alluded to by the histo-
rian, and so does Dobree in Adverser, i.
p. 201. But neither Photius in Biblioth.
cod. 261, who evidently drew from the
same source as the Pseudo- Plutarch did,
says anything on the subject, nor does
Andocides himself in his speech on the
Mysteries, ss, 47, where he alludes to the
numerous victories gained by his family
while serving as generals, fee however
this as it may, it is certain that Ando-
cides was accused of being implicated in
the mutilation of the Hermae, that took
place just previous to the sailing of the
Sicilian expedition. To the charge, how-
ever, of his escaping punishment by in-
forming against his own father, he gives
a fiat denial; although he confesses he
did lay bare the perjury of Dioclides, on
whose evidence many suffered banish-
ment or death, but who, through the
exertions of the orator, was eventually
executed for , his villany, as we learn
from ss. 66+ Previous to this period he
seems to have been a ship owner, and
probably a slave-dealer : at least he is
said to have carried to Cyprus a daughter
of Aristides, and a relation of his own ;
but being threatened with a prosecution
for the abduction, he sent her back again,

vol. i. 433

but was thrown himself into prison by
the king of Cittium, enraged at the loss
of the lady. Escaping from Cyprus, he re-
turned to Athens, where he made him-
self obnoxious to the government of the
four hundred, from the part he took in
the affairs of Samoa, as may be inferred
from the speech on his Return from
Exile, s. 77 ; while during the reign of
the thirty tyrants, he withdrew to Elis.
After their expulsion, he once more re-
turned to his country, where he held dif-
ferent public offices m succession, and all
with credit to himself. It was at this
period that he excited the resentment of
Agyrius and his party, by exposing their
knavery as farmers of the revenue, and
by whom he was indicted for a violation
of the law relating to the Mysteries, and
other matters; but as the acts with
which he was charged had been com-
mitted previous to the general amnesty-
bill passed on the expulsion of the thirty
tyrants, it is probable that Andocides was
acquitted. He did not,however, meet with
equal success, when brought to trial for
the part he took in the peace, it is sup-
nosed of Antalcidas ; in favour of which
nis speech is still extant For though
Dionysius, as we learn from the author of
the argument, considered it spurious, and
its genuineness is doubted by Harpocra-
tion, and it has been rejected by Taylor,
with whom Hemsterhuis appears to have
agreed, from the similarity of its com-
mencement with the exordium of the
speech of iEschines, Ilcpt Uaoanp, and
its deviation from historic trutn in attri-
buting the peace of Cimon to Miltiades ;
yet Valckenaer considered it genuine,
and so did Sluiter ; who was the first to
publish the manuscript notes of his illus-
trious countryman. With regard to the
result of the trial, both Pseudo-Plutarch
and Photius agree in stating that Ando-
cides went in exile, probably to Cyprus ;
where he says, in nis speech on the
Mysteries, ss. 4, he possessed some valua-
ble landed property. Of the time and
place of his death nothing is known.
To the preceding account it may be
added, ii any dependence could be
placed on the imperfect oration of Ly-
sias against Andocides, that he never
served in any expedition. But that
speech has been rejected by Ruhnken,
Sluiter, and Dobree, and is evidently not
from the pen of Lysias.*

• May it not have come from the Phssax, to whom

Taylor haa (probably without reason,) attributed

the oration of Andocides against Alcibiades t The

argument! of Taylor, although acceded to by



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Of his style, Hermogenes says that it eompanied Dom Sebastian m the disas-
is unconnected and in&tinct, and exM- trous expedition to Africa. A prisoner
biU but little polish, and still less of and laden with fetters, he refused to be
nerve; while Herodes, as we learn from ransomed. Why? that he might continue
PwloBtratus, conceived himself superior to console his fellow-prisoners ! In nri-
to one of the ten orators of Athens— an son he died (1582), after composing
opinion in which the sophist is singular a book on the Bufferings of Jesoa,— a
hfthe eyes of Sluiter, who says that book said to be exceedingly F*»etie.
Andocides excels Lysias as much in 4. Dteao, son of Franciso, .(died 1660,)
strength as he yields to him in art; that apoetand critic of considerable^eleimty.
he attacks with vehemence and defends
with dignity ; is equally powerful in
melting the heart to pity, or firing it with
indignation ; and is in argument acute,
in diction pure, and of right Attic taste.

The few fragment! of Andocides have
been all collected by Sluiter, who might O Casamento perfecto,
have referred the one quoted by Suidas 5. Jntomo, (1580 - 1634,)
in Sftuydftf, to the speech on the Peace,
and have inserted the whole passage af-
ter the word apaprcamv in ss. 32, and
here referred to Thucydides, ii. 52.

Andocides was first printed by Aldus,
Yen. 1513, from a manuscript, which he

In the" former character he wrote ten
books on the siege of ChaouL In the
latter he criticized Brito's Monarquia
Lusitana, and established some canons,
which his countrymen would do well to
follow. He also wrote a moral work— -
inento nerfecto.

missionary, whose zeal for the conversion
of the heathen led him from Goa into
Thibet and Tartary. Whether Marco
Palo had ever visited the former country,
may be doubted ; but from his time there

_ can be no doubt that it had never been

sayshVobuuned from Mounf Athos, and visited by Europeans. The marvels
returned. It is therefore in all probability which he relates of it fevour the sus-
the identical one, brought from thence picion that he uses a traveller s license.

by the travellers Cripps and Clarke, and
sold to Dr. Burney, whose library was
purchased for the British Museum. Since
the time of Aldus, Andocides has been

His relation was published at Lisbon in

6. Jacinto Frehre de, (1597—1667,) a
native of Beja, who, though he wrote in

reprinted in the different collections of fi^our of the house of Braganza, was

- - • ~- * ** ♦ * ** m patronized by the prime minister of

Greek orators by Stephens, Reiske, Bek-
ker, Dobson, and Schssfer; and sepa-
rately by Schiller, who has likewise
reprinted, Lips. 1838, the Lectiones An-
docides of Sluiter, which appeared Lugd.
Bat 1804. Schiller quotes also a work
on Andocides by A. G. Becker, and by
Osann ; but neither have been seen by
the writer of this article.

ANDOQUE, counsellor of the prse-
sidial court at Beziers, where he died in
1664. He has left A History of Langue-
doc, down to the year 1612, folio, 1648 ;
and A Catalogue of the Bishops of Be-
ziers, down to the year 1650. (Biog.

ANDOUINS, (Diana d\) SeeGuicHB.

ANDRADA. Of this name are seve-
ral Portuguese.

1. Diego Payva de, (1528—1575,) a
theologian of Coimbra, who wrote some
controversial works.

2. Francisco, brother of the preceding,

Spain, Olivares, who gave him the va-
luable abbey of Maria de los Campos.
On the accession of Joam IV. he was
invited to undertake the tuition of the
prince of Brazil, which he declined, and
with equal disregard of worldly advan-
tage, he refused the see of Viseu. He
wrote Latin verses ; a life of Dom Joam
de Castro, viceroy of the Indies; and a
book on the Trinity.

7. Gomes Freire de, nephew of the
preceding, who wrote a history of the
Marafion, which has not been printed,
but which ought to be.

8. Alfonso de, (1590 — 1672,) who,
though born at Toledo, was by descent a
Portuguese. Received in 1622 into the
order of Jesus, he lectured in moral
theology, and wrote several works, of
which the chief are, Lives of the most

illustrious Jesuits (2 vols, fbi. Madrid,

1666) ; an Historical Itineracy (2 vols,

historiographer' of Philip Ilf. king of 4to, 1657); and Meditations for every

Spain and Portugal, wrote the history of Day in the Year, (4 vols, 12mo, 1660.)

Joam III. king of Portugal. ANDRAGATHUS, general of the

3. Tomas, another brother, who ac- cavalry to Mazimus, whose interests he

Hemtterhtria, were miocestfany combated by Ruhn-
ken and Velokenaer, simultaneouily, bat on dif-
ferent grounds.


effectually served by putting Gratiaa to
death in 383. When Mazimus was
defeated and slain in 388, Andragathus,


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despairing of pardon, drowned himself.
(Gibbon, 27. Biog. Univ.)

ANDRE,(Jean,l«62— 1753,) a painter,
born at Paris. At seventeen years of
age he became a Dominican, and was
sent by his superiors to Rome, where he
studied not only divinity, but the finest
works of the great masters. On his
return to Paris, he painted many pic-
tures, principally devotional subjects,
which were placed in the churches of
that city. They are now, however, for
the most part scattered or lost. His
talents as a painter appear to have been
but moderate, yet they were held in
esteem by Lafosse and Jouvenet; and
he was offered a seat in the academy,
an honour which he modestly declined.
Brother Andre lived to ninety-one years
of age. He numbered amongst his
pupils Dumont, called Le Romam, Chasle,
and TaravaL (Biog. Univ.)

ANDRE, (de Longjumrau,) born at
a hamlet of this name, distant about five
leagues from Paris, early in the thirteenth
century, is chiefly known by his missions
to the Tartars, and to other people in the
East, during the reign of St. Louis.
He was a Dominican monk, and is
mentioned by various authors of the
thirteenth century, particularly bv Vin-

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