Henry John Rose Hugh James Rose.

A new general biographical dictionary, Volume 1 online

. (page 87 of 100)
Online LibraryHenry John Rose Hugh James RoseA new general biographical dictionary, Volume 1 → online text (page 87 of 100)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


cent de Beauvais, Rubruauis, William de
Rangis, &c. (See the Histoire Litteraire
de ftance, torn, xviii.)

ANDRE, (St Nicholas de, 1650—
1713,) a Carmelite monk, the author of
some antiquarian essays, chiefly on sub-
jects relating to Besancon, the place of
his death, one or two of which have been
printed. (Biog. Univ.)

ANDRE, (the Abb*,) editor of the
works of the Chancellor d'Aguesseau,
passed some years of his life in the con-
gregation of the oratory. He published
several pieces without his name, among
which are some Strictures on the Works of
Rousseau ; a Letter on the Missions of
Paraguay; Extracts from the Writings of
M. Daguet, &c. (Suppl. Biog. Univ.)

ANDRE (Yves Marie, 1675—1764,)
a man of lively temper and great taste
and subtlety of intellect, the friend and
correspondent of Malebranche, was born
at Chateaulin, in Lower Brittany ; entered
the order of the Jesuits in 1693. The
moderation of his sentiments and his
admiration of St. Augustine met with
no favour from his superiors. From
1726 to 1759, he held the king's pro-
fessorship of mathematics at Caen. His
Essai sur le Beau appeared in 1741 ; it
was reprinted, with hisTraite' del'Homme,
435



in the collection of his works published
by the Abbe Guyot in 1766, five vols,
12mo. (Biog. Univ.)
ANDRE, (le Petit Pere.) See Boul-

LANOBB.

ANDRE, (d'ArbeUes, 1770^-1825,) a
political writer, who began life as secre-
tary to Count Stanislaus de Clermont
Tonnerre, with whom he emigrated in
1792, returning in 1798 ; he became at-
tached to Talleyrand, whose endeavours
in 1814 for the restoration of the Bour-
bons, he seconded with all his energies :
on the return of Napoleon, refusing to
take the oath of allegiance, he gave up
his employment After 1815, his fidelity
was rewarded by his being appointed
prefect of Mavenne, and master of re-
quests. He died prefect of Sarthe, be-
ing trampled on by a runaway horse. A
list of his numerous writings may be
seen in the Suppl. Biog. Univ. One of
his brothers, Claude, who died in 1818,
aged 75, was named Bishop of Quimper
in 1801, but being a man of strict inte-
grity and unbending temper, he was
little fitted to sympathise with the new
regime ; he consequently resigned his see
in 1802. He was afterwards named
canon of St Denis. Another of his
brothers was guillotined at Lyons in
1794. (Suppl. Biog. Univ.)

ANDRE. See Mubvillb.

ANDRE, (Johann, 1741—1799.) A
native of Offenbach, who was celebrated
in his day as a musical composer. He
was in a measure self-educated; his
mother, who was at the head of a sflk
manufactory, wishing to educate him as
a merchant. The success of his first
opera, The Potter, decided his profes-
sion ; and, in 1 775, he became the musical
director of the chief theatre at Berlin,
where he produced many of his pieces.
He afterwards returned to his native
country, and after living for some time at
Frankfort-on-the-Maine, he set up, in his
later years, a large music-shop in Offen-
bach. He was an author as well as a
composer, for he used to write or trans-
late from the French the words for his
operas and musical pieces. His songs
were highly popular as musical compo-
sitions, and Wolff speaks of some of his
writings as rather clever and epigram-
matic. A list of his works will be found
in Wolff's Encyclopaedic, who refers also
to Goethe's Nachgelassene Werken. Bd.
viii. p. 42. His works are of no interest
now. He died in his native place.

ANDRE, (Bardon.) See D' Andre.

ANDRE, (John,) a British officer, who
ff2



Digitized



by Google



AND



AND



Acted in the capacity of adjutant-general
in the army, under the command of Sir
Henry Clinton, during the war of Ame-
rican independence. The peculiar cir-
cumstances under which he terminated
his brief career have given an interest to
his name which it might have otherwise
failed to acquire ; and entitle him to a
somewhat extended place in this collec-
tion. John Andre was horn in London
sometime in the year 1 750. He was the son
of a respectable merchant in the city, and
received the rudiments of his education
in St. Paul's school, whence he passed to
Geneva, at the university of which he
spent some time. Being of an active and
inquiring mind, he appears to have ap-
plied himself diligently to his studies,
-and became in consequence one of the
most accomplished young officers of his
standing. His knowledge of mathema-
tics and of military drawing was likewise
extensive ; indeed he owed his rapid ad-
vancement in the service, (and for the
times in which he lived, his rise was
unusually rapid) mainly to the posses-
sion of the latter talent.

Mr. Andrews services, however meri-
torious, were of necessity such as to
attract very little attention, till Sir
Henry Clinton succeeded General Howe
in command of the English army in
North America. He was then brought
into situations of greater trust, and he
conducted himself in all of them with so
much zeal, diligence, and ability, as to
secure the friendship of the general
commanding, and the respect of die
whole army. At length, in the autumn of
1780, the delicate negotiation for the sur-
render of West Point on the river Hud-
son, the key of the position by which
Washington interposed himself between
New York and the Canadas began, and to
Major Andre was the task assigned of
conducting it. The circumstances of
the case were these : —

Major-General Arnold, an officer in
the service of the republicans, for rea-
sons which shall be explained, when we
come to speak of the individual himself,
became disgusted with the party to which
he was attached, and anxious to abandon
it He wished, however, in passing over to
the king's standard, to establish for him-
self a claim on the gratitude of his new
master ; and with this view he undertook
to deliver up to Sir Henry Clinton the
forts at .West Point, to the command of
which Washington had appointed him.
The business was one which required on
the part of such as should conduct it the
436



utmost circumspection, as well as cou-
rage, and as Andre was conspicuous for
the latter of these qualities, and nowise
deficient in the former, he was selected by
General Clinton as the fittest person in
the army to act as his own represen-
tative.

For a while the plot was carried on
by epistolary correspondence only ; and
the better to guard against the mk of
detection, the correspondents wrote as if
they were engaged in some great com-
mercial speculation. Arnold took the
name of Gustavus, Andre" that of Ander-
son, and a person whose house lay on
the neutral ground between the outposts
to the two armies, acted as their mes-
senger. At length the rumoured de-
parture from Europe of a strong French
corps, which was to give to Washington a
decided superiority in the ensuing cam-
paign, determined Sir Henry Clinton to
bring the negotiation in some shape oi
another to a close ; Andre* was therefore
directed to press the point more firmly,
and Arnold falling in with his views,
suggested that his correspondent should
give him the meeting, during the tem-
porary absence of Washington from the
lines, which was expected to take place
on the 15th of September.

Arnold had been somewhat premature
in his anticipations of General Washing-
ton's departure. The latter did not quit
his head-quarters in the army till the
17th; but Arnold had an opportunity of
warning his confederate of the circum-
stance, and no evil arose out of it.
Indeed the skill with which the plot was
conducted throughout had been such,
that no suspicion appears to have been
awakened on either side ; and had Ar-
nold been somewhat less headstrong in the
end, the same good fortune might have
attended it throughout : but Arnold waa
not willing to commit himself beyond
the possibility of retreat, except after
a personal interview with Sir Henry
Clinton's agent ; he would not therefore
entrust to the care of the ordinary mes-
sengers the documents which he had
prepared for the guidance of the English
in their attack. Accordingly, having
staid his progress a couple of days in or-
der that Washington might be well out
of the way, Andre took with him Colonel
Beverly Robinson, an American refugee,
who was in the secret, and embarking on
board of the Vulture sloop of war, steered
his course up the river.

There were several motives which in-
fluenced General Clinton to associate



Digitized



by Google



AND



AND



Colonel Robinson with Major Andre 1 in
this hazardous enterprise. In the first
place, it was through Colonel Robinson
that General Arnold had originally made
known his willingness to abandon the
cause of the independents. In the next
place, Robinson, being the owner of the
house which General Arnold occupied
as his head quarters, no excuse could be
far to seek in order to account for any
communications which might pass be-
tween them ; and last of all, Colonel Ro-
binson was regarded as a man singularly
prudent and circumspect, and as such
was not unlikely to keep under control
the more buoyant impetuosity of his
companion. It is just possible that to
an excess in this latter quality, the tra-
gical end of poor Andre may, in seme
measure, be attributed; but however
this may be, the two friends set out on
the 19th in the highest spirits. Next
day they reached fort Montgomery, a
redoubt five miles below West Point, on
the same side of the river : and here,
just out of reach of the enemy's guns,
they cast anchor. Unfortunately they
had not calculated the effects of the ebb-
tide, which, in a short time, left them
aground, and so exposed them to more
than common observation by the Ame-
rican officer, who commanded at Ver-
pUnka Point He tried his small guns
upon them without effect ; he next sent
to General Arnold a request for some
pieces of larger calibre, and was very much
surprised that the cannon were refused.
No communication with the shore had
as yet taken place ; but the two British
officers, convinced that Washington was
gone, determined' to make no delay in
opening it Accordingly, Colonel Ro-
binson wrote such a letter, as could not,
if it fell into improper hands, do mischief
to any body, for it related entirely to the
property which he had hastily abandoned,
and besought Arnold to grant him an
interview, for the ostensible purpose of
making arrangements concerning it As
fortune would nave it, the letter in ques-
tion fell into Arnold's hands while he
was in the act of conducting Washington
across the river ; and he, apprehensive
as the result proved unnecessarily, that
the circumstance might have caused some
suspicion, gave it to Washington to read,
and requested his advice. Washington
read the letter, and returned jt again to
Arnold, and in the hearing of those that
were by recommended that the meeting
for which Colonel Robinson had applied,
should not be granted. Nevertheless,
437



Arnold waited only till the next day, when
he knew that the eeneral-in-chief must
be far advanced on his journey, and then
sent a person called Joshua Smith to the
FuUure, with two passports— one for
Colonel Robinson, another for Major An-
dre, and desired them both, in a letter,
of which Smith was likewise the bearer,
to come and settle their business with
him on shore.

It had never entered into the contem-
plation of the young men that a demand
of this kind would be made. They ex-
pected, on the contrary, to receive a visit
from Arnold, not to pay one to him, and
Colonel Robinson positively refused, let
the consequences be what they might, to

Suit the ship. But Andre was more
aring. He would not, for the mere
purpose of escaping a personal hazard,
return to New York without completing
his business, so putting on a grey great coat
over his half uniform, he returned with
Arnold's messenger in the boat He
was met by Arnold himself on the beach,
conducted to Smith's house, and was
there put in possession not only of all
the details of the plan on which it would
be necessary to act, but with accurate
drawings of the fort, and of the several
roads by which the English troops were
to advance upon it

The return of Washington to the
frontier was not looked for before the
27th or 28th of September. The inter-
val was to be used oy Sir Henry Clinton
and Arnold in carrying their design into
execution ; and Andre" was fully instructed
both as to the signals to be used, and
the facilities which would be afforded
for the advance of his own people, by
breaking the chain that ran across the
Hudson, and planting all the American
troops, where they must either submit or
be destroyed. Tnus loaded with docu-
ments, the possession of which seemed
to obviate every possibility of failure
in the enterprise, Andre set out on the
following morning towards the shore,
which he reached only to discover that
the FuUure had changed her position
in the night, and that the ferrymen to
whom he trusted for putting him on
board could not be prevailed upon to
follow her. The truth is, that on the
previous day, the same American officer
who had applied to Arnold for heavy
cannon, ana was refused, brought one
of his four-pounders to bear upon the
FuUure ; and that Colonel Robinson,
perceiving that she received some damage,
no sooner found her afloat again, than



Digitized



by Google



AND



AND



lie canted her anchor to be raked, and
a new position taken up, several mile*
below that where Andre 1 expected to find
her. Disappointed by the obstinacy of
the boatmen, Andre 1 returned to Arnold,
and entreated that he would force a
compliance with their withes ; butArnold
feared that there might be danger in this,
and declined to interfere. It would be
better, he said, that Andre should lay
aside his uniform altogether, and return,
under me protection of a passport, by land.
The American accounts of the trans-
action to on to say, that Arnold would
have willingly reclaimed, at the same
time, die plans and written instructions
with which, under very different circum-
stances, Andre* had been entrusted ; and
that he urged a compliance with this wish,
as a measure of simple prudence. We
have the best ground for asserting, how-
ever, that the statement is altogether incor-
rect. Andre had been especially desired
by Sir Henry Clinton not to encumber
himself with any papers or plans. He had
been charged, moreover, neither to lay
aside his uniform, nor assume a base
name ; but under the sanction of a flag of
truce, to come and go openly, as became
a British officer. Unfortunately, General
Arnold's persuasions induced him in
every instance to violate these instruc-
tions ; and the results were such as it
is our melancholy duty to relate.

A great deal of unnecessary stress was
laid at the time, and has ever since been
laid by the Americans, on the met, that
Major Andr6, the better to secure himself
against interruption while returning to
New York, laid aside his military uni-
form, and put on a coat belonging to
Joshua Smith. The nature of a man's
dress makes no such distinction in these
cases as has been assumed. Whether he
had worn his own clothes, or the clothes
of Smith, Major Andre* was in either
case a spy, that is to say, he had pene-
trated within the enemy's lines, for the
purpose of negotiating with one of the
enemy's generals a piece of treason, and
unwisely endeavoured to regain his own
camp destitute of the protection of a flag.
But as there was nothing in the trans-
action which threw upon his name the
faintest shade of dishonour, so was an
adherence to the strict letter of military
law, by which, without doubt, his lite
became forfeited, a procedure for which,
in these days at least, we find it hard to
frame an excuse. It is as well known
to the generals at the head of opposing
armies, tfeat spies are continually about
438



them, as the degree of confidence reposed
in these spies respectively is known to
the parties by whom they are employed;
nor would any man now think of putting
an enemy's offioer to death, because he
trusted himself on so hazardous a service,
and wore no uniform. At the period
when Major Andre lived, however, a
different view was taken of the matter;
every man knew that he had placed his
neck in jeopardy, the moment his am-
bition, or his seal in the cause which be
served, urged him to undertake a mis-
sion of this nature.

There was a great deal of patrolling
over all the space of ground which 1st
between the advanced posts of the British
army and those of the Americans. It
would have been imprudent, therefore,
for Major Andr6 to begin his homewsrd
journey before dusk, and also to travel,
even at night, in the garb of an Enghsfc
officer. He accordingly exchanged, as hss
just been stated, his uniform coat for one
belonging to Mr. Smith ; while the plans,
and drawings, and papers, which he had
received from Arnold, he concealed is
his boots. This done, he and his host
set out ; but at Crompond, an officer of
militia, stopped them by saying, that
they could not go further with safety
till the morrow, and as they were not
willing to excite his suspicion, they
agreed to spend the night in his quarters.
Next day, being the 23d, the journey
was resumed. Tney crossed die Hudson
at King's ferry, traversed all the Ame-
rican posts by means of their passports,
reached a village on the Croton, whence
the ground occupied by the English sen-
tinels could be descried, and believed that
their dangers were surmounted. Smith,*
therefore, wishing his companion fare-
well, rode back towards his home, and
Andre*, nothing doubting of a cordial
welcome by his friends, put spurs to his
horse, and pushed forward.

He had proceeded some way, perhaps
about three or four leagues,— -had come
again in sight of the Hudson, and was
about to enter the village of TJrrytown,a
the last that interposed between him and
his own people, when a man armed with s
mm, but not dressed in any uniform, sud-
denly sprang out of a thicket, and seising
his bridle, demanded " whither he was
bound." Major Andre 1 seems to have
lost at that critical moment the presence
of mind which was habitual to him ; he

• J. H. Smith, who was accused of bettwi"*
Andre, published a defence and nemtire of An<w«
capture. Load. 1WS.



Digitized



by Google



AND



AND



neither produced his passport, nor spurred
his horse, nor made any other effort to
break away, but parlied with the man
till two others, armed like him, and like
him in the common dress of the country,
came up ; still it was not too lajte to pro-
duce the passport. Whatever the per-
sons before him might have been, no
harm could have resulted from the dis-
play ; because if they were Americans,
be would have doubtless got rid of them ;
if English, they would have merely
led him as a prisoner to the point, to-
wards which he was tending ; but these
obvious truths appear not to have oc-
curred to him, for he contented himself
by demanding in his turn, " Whence are
ye?" " We are from below," said they ;
on which Andre exclaimed, " And so
am I. I am an English officer on urgent
business, and do not wish to be longer
detained." " Oh ho," was the reply, "you
belong to our enemies, we arrest you."
The passport was now produced, but it
came too late. He offered them his purse,
his watch, any amount of ransom in gold
or diy goods, if they would permit him to
proceed ; but they were deaf to all bis
entreaties. To their immortal honour be
it recorded, a sense of duty was more
precious to their minds than any hope
of reward. They caused him to dis-
mount, examined his person, found the
papers in his boots, and carried him im-
mediately before Colonel Jameson, who
commanded the American outposts.

Major Andre's self-possession re-
turned with the assurance of accumu-
lated danger; and regardless of him-
self, he begged, with the view of saving
Arnold, that Colonel Jameson would send
to inform that officer, how John Ander-
son, travelling under the protection of
his passport, was detained. Colonel
Jameson not caring to entangle the busi-
ness too much, gave orders, at first, that
Anderson should be carried in person be-
fore Arnold ; but recollecting afterwards
that all the written statements were in
Arnold's hand, he countermanded that or-
der, and sent him to Old Salem. And it is
a curious fact, that at the very same time
he acquainted Arnold of ail that hap-
pened. With respect to Andr6, he waited
only till he conceived that there would
be time for Arnold's escape, and then
frankly declared himself to be the adju-
tant-general of the British army. He
was placed in close confinement by
General Washington's orders, and a court
of inquiry met soon afterwards to inves-
tigate the case.

439



The result of the deliberations of that
court, which was presided over by major-
general Green, is well known. Major An-
dre was pronounced a spy, and as such
sentenced to suffer death : but we have
reason to believe that there is a circum-
tanee connected with the transaction
which has not heretofore come generally to
light, and we are therefore tempted to re-
fer to it General Washington, it is well
known, was most reluctant to carry the
sentence into execution. To the remon-
strances and entreaties of theEnglish gene-
ral, he turned, it is true, a deaf ear ; but he
arranged a plan in private for the seizure of
General Arnold in New York, the success
of which would have enabled him, as he
expressed it, to restore the amiable and
unfortunate Andre to his friends. He
caused a sergeant-major of Lee's light
horse, by name Champe, to pass over as
a deserter into the English lines, and en-
trusted him with the care of this impor-
tant business. Unfortunatelyfor Andre
the plan miscarried, and Washington
could no longer refuse to be guided by
the decision of the court Andre was
condemned to be hanged, and even the
poor consolation of dying, as he termed
it, the death of a soldier, was denied him.

Andre suffered at a place called Taphan,
in the province of New York, on the 2d
of October, 1780. He walked to the
place of execution with perfect compo-
sure between two American officers, who
had charge of him, and wore his royal
uniform to the last. They buried him
beneath the gibbet ; but a few years ago
one of his countrymen caused nis bones
to be dug up, and removed them to the
land which gave him birth. They are now
deposited in Westminster abbey, not far
from a costly monument, which had been
previously erected to his memory. An-
drews poem, the Cowchase, was published
1781. Lond. 4to.

ANDRE, (Christian Karl, 1763 —
1831,) a native of Hildburghausen, who
appears to have laboured very merito-
riously in several situations connected
with the education of youth :— first at
Schnepfenthal (1785), — then at Gotha
(1790), as director of a ladies' school, —
and lastly, as director of the protestant
school at Brunn. In the latter place he
published several works, especially con-
nected with education. He left the
Austrian states in 1812, and ended
his days at Stuttgard in an official em-
ployment. He was honoured by the
court of Wirtemberg in 1821 with the
title of Hofrath. Among his works may



Digitized



by Google



AND



AND



di



be mentioned Gemeinntttzge Spazier-
gange, or, Profitable Walks, ten parts,
(in conjunction with Beckstein) 1790 —
1797; A Geographical and Statistical
Account of the Austrian Dominions. Wei-
mar, 1813. He was the editor of the
Patriotic Journal, Briinn, 1800—1806,
Hesperus, &c. ; and latterly, of the Cor-
respondence of the Wirtemberg Agricul-
tural Society, of which he was secretary,
and of the German National Kalendar.
(Wolff's Encyclopadie.)

ANDRE. See St. Ahdrb.

ANDREA, (Giovanni, died 1348.)
The mistakes, the fables, and the absur-
dities which have usually made their way
into the biographies of this eminent
canonist, render it necessary to bestow
some little space in enumerating and
correcting the most important of them.
The leading events of his life will be
stated, and if they appear to differ from
those accounts which have usually been
iven, the reader is referred to the iu-
icious and indefatigable Tiraboschi,
whose authority has been followed.

Giovanni Andrea was born at Bologna,
from parents who were natives of Mu-
gello, in the territory of Florence, and
rather in easy circumstances. At the
time of his birth, which took place about
the latter end of the thirteenth century,
his father kept a grammar school at
Bologna, opposite the church of St. Bene-



Online LibraryHenry John Rose Hugh James RoseA new general biographical dictionary, Volume 1 → online text (page 87 of 100)